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      adj happening by chance, not planned, ≠deliberate
      This difference in life expectancy has two major causes: a higher rate of death among Aboriginal babies (twice the national average), and a higher rate of injury and accidental death among Aboriginal children, youth and young adults.
      Cyclists can and sometimes do cause road accidents and accidental damage to other road vehicles.
      It's a property insurance which covers any accidental loss or damage that is not specifically excluded under the policy.
      The third significant event was the accidental discovery by Sheldon Cooper of the California Institute of Technology, of radio noise emanating from the planet Saturn.
      n[C] turning point ¶ a ridge of high land dividing two areas that are drained by different river systems ¶ the region draining into a river etc
      It was a watershed moment in our history creating a framework that has shaped our community's continuing and fascinating story.
      The Great War (1914-1918) marked a watershed in the formation of the Canadian Army.
      This could be a watershed for twitter users.
      The watershed of British rule in India was the uprising of 1857.
      It was a watershed event in America's economic history.
      In broadcasting, watershed is the point in time after which programs with adult content may be broadcast.
      adj affecting the whole of sth
      In finance, systemic risk is the risk of collapse of an entire financial system or entire market.
      In finance and economics, systematic risk (in economics often called aggregate risk or undiversifiable risk) is vulnerability to events which affect aggregate outcomes such as broad market returns, total economy-wide resource holdings, or aggregate income. In many contexts, events like earthquakes and major weather catastrophes pose aggregate risks - they affect not only the distribution but also the total amount of resources.
      The collapse of the credit default swaps (CDS) casino is indicative of much larger systemic risk.
      The silver lining in collapse is the opportunity for systemic change.
      "Every cloud has a silver lining" means that there is always a comforting or more hopeful side to a sad or difficult situation.
      v[T] make sth such as a situation or process continue, esp one that is wrong, unfair, or dangerous
      The prevailing popular and business cultures continue to perpetuate the myth that we must work harder and longer to be more productive, and that in turn will produce a better life and better economy.
      The researchers acknowledged the study involved only a small group of students and offers nothing definitive on why obese kids perpetuate the cycle of bullying.
      This policy of war in Iraq will only perpetuate the status quo (the state of a situation as it is), which will make this world a more dangerous place, not a safer one.
      The response from authorities, such as governments, will often make the situation worse, or at least perpetuate the problem.
      adj very fashionable and elegant, stylish
      n[U] stylishness and elegance
      The result turned out to be a mix of funky and chic, worthy of an upscale store.
      The car serves the customer who is looking for a stylish, chic look.
      Window shop the chic boutiques or choose a beach and catch some sun among all the bronzed bodies!
      I can say my style is more on comfort casual chic.
      adj rich and successful, affluent, wealthy
      A future in which Turkey is a full EU member will be a more prosperous and happier and more peaceful future for Europe than one in which Turkey is not a full member.
      I see a very bright and prosperous future for all Canadians including Muslims and non-Muslims.
      Canadians have lived for over 140 years in a tranquil, prosperous society.
      America was the world's strongest and most prosperous nation back then, and it remains so today.
      The Catholics settled in Canada hoping to start a new and prosperous life after being stripped of all their rights in Ireland, by the much wealthier Protestants.
      in ~ with - according to
      Ross has headphones on, and is listening to a 'How To Speak Chinese' tape. Occasionally, he makes an outburst in Chinese in accordance with the tape.
      The article is reproduced in accordance with Section 107 of title 17 of the Copyright Law of the United States relating to fair-use and is for the purposes of criticism reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.
      In accordance with international law, Russia has violated nothing.
      The winner must claim their prize in accordance with clause 14 by no later than 12pm on 20 December 2012.
      n[C] a short trip, excursion
      That is such an inspiring and lovely school outing for the children.
      Last night should have been a fun family outing but it quickly turned into a disaster.
      Shortly after that meeting the group organized an outing to a local park, but the weather on the day was terrible.
      Coming out of the closet, or simply coming out, is a figure of speech for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people's self-disclosure of their sexual orientation and/or gender identity.
      Outing is the act of disclosing a gay, lesbian, bisexual or transgender person's sexual orientation or gender identity without that person's consent.
      The term "outing" can also be used to refer to the disclosure of other kinds of information that might be considered private.
      v[IT] start
      Ground control to Major Tom. Commencing countdown; engines on.
      The evening will commence with a performance from PSY.
      This is due to commence on the 1st of July.
      Counting will shortly commence in the United States to determine whether Barack Obama will be re-elected, or whether Mitt Romney will become the 45th President of the United States.
      adj hardwearing ¶ lasting for a long time
      In economics, a durable good or a hard good is a good that does not quickly wear out.
      Nondurable goods or soft goods (consumables) are the opposite of durable goods. They may be defined either as goods that are immediately consumed in one use or ones that have a lifespan of less than 3 years.
      A car is a durable good. The gasoline that powers it is a non-durable good, or consumable good.
      Fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) or consumer packaged goods (CPG) are products that are sold quickly and at relatively low cost.
      Examples include non-durable goods such as soft drinks, toiletries, over-the-counter drugs, toys, processed foods and many other consumables.
      We must also acknowledge that durable peace and post-conflict development depend on environmental protection and good governance of natural resources.
      It takes some pragmatics to come up with any durable solutions to this.
      n[UC] the use of force or violence to control people, oppression ¶ the act of controlling strong emotions and desires and not allowing them to be expressed
      They were fighting against repression and injustice in their country.
      The financial repression means that we have interest rates at zero, savers are being penalized.
      By autumn the situation became increasingly polarized when insurrection in Frankfurt and the threat of it in Cologne were met by state repression.
      The brutal repression forced protestors to leave the area.
      Muslim men are the beneficiaries of the sexual repression of their own culture.
      Compare "repression" and "suppression".
      v[IT] mix or combine, or be mixed or combined ¶ move around and talk to lots of different people
      The effect is stronger when the assortment is mingled together than when the varieties are separated.
      Come on, Marcel, what'd you say you and I do a little mingling?
      The funeral guests are mingling when Monica enters.
      The government officials mingled with the guests at a reception that followed the ceremony.
      A camp will be set up for the night at a beautiful spot en route with a starry night, a mouth-watering barbecue, a cozy fire and best of all, a chance to mingle with the artists, and, jam with them.
      n[U] complete lack of importance or value ¶ excessive self-regard and overblown pride
      In conventional parlance, vanity is the excessive belief in one's own abilities or attractiveness to others.
      Prior to the 14th century it did not have such narcissistic undertones, and merely meant futility.
      Vanity Fair: A Novel without a Hero is a novel by English author William Makepeace Thackeray, first published in 1847-48, satirizing society in early 19th-century Britain.
      The book's title comes from John Bunyan's allegorical story The Pilgrim's Progress, first published in 1678 and still widely read at the time of Thackeray's novel.
      In that work, "Vanity Fair" refers to a stop along the pilgrim's progress: a never-ending fair held in a town called Vanity, which is meant to represent man's sinful attachment to worldly things.
      Enormous numbers of people buy the phone for sheer vanity.
      This appealed to Ross' vanity (others would recognize his effort and think he was smart).
      Rachel's focus on vanity comes at the expense of domestic skills or common knowledge.
      Another term for a dressing table equipped with mirrors is vanity and is used to applying makeup or fashion accessories.
      n[C] a line where two pieces of cloth, metal, wood etc have been joined ¶ a layer of a mineral under the ground
      Aunt Polly was repairing Tom's pants, where the seam had come undone.
      She sewed the seam with small neat stitches.
      Hemming and seaming are two similar metalworking processes in which a sheet metal edge is rolled over onto itself.
      If something is coming apart at the seams or is falling apart at the seams, it is no longer working properly and may soon stop working completely.
      If a place is very full, you can say that it is bursting at the seams.
      In geology, a seam is a stratum of coal or mineral that is economically viable, or a bed or a distinct layer of vein of rock in other layers of rock.
      A (rich) seam of something is a thing, place, or group from which a type of thing can be obtained.
      v[IT] snuggle ¶ be surrounded by sth
      Ross hugged Rachel and she nestled against his chest.
      I peered into the box, where a fish bowl was nestled in some bubble wrap.
      The camp is lovely and green, quiet, treed and is nestled among quaint buildings.
      Nestled among the pines on a bend of river, this tranquil setting provides a time out from city life, busy highways and complicated living.
      n[C] independent state or community
      The Commonwealth of Nations, commonly known as the Commonwealth (formerly the British Commonwealth), is an intergovernmental organization of 53 member states that were mostly territories of the former British Empire.
      Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands.
      Puerto Rico, officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States, located in the northeastern Caribbean east of the Dominican Republic and west of both the United States Virgin Islands and the British Virgin Islands.
      "Commonwealth" is a nomenclature used by four of the constituent states of the United States of America in their official, full state names. These states are Kentucky, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Virginia.
      This designation, which has no legal meaning, emphasizes that they have a "government based on the common consent of the people" as opposed to one legitimized through their earlier royal colony status that was derived from the monarch of Great Britain.
      n[C] principle, belief, doctrine
      I have relied upon 3 basic tenets of photography - light, shape and texture - to inform my photographic choices.
      These images demonstrated the central tenet of Gestalt theory: that the whole has global properties different from those derived from the sum of its parts.
      What are the key tenets of the radical animal rights advocates?
      As a fundamental element of religion, the term "dogma" is assigned to those theological tenets which are considered to be well demonstrated, such that their proposed disputation or revision effectively means that a person no longer accepts the given religion as his or her own, or has entered into a period of personal doubt.
      A sitting tenant is a person who rents property in the United Kingdom and has a legal right to occupy that property for life.
      n[UC] protection that a government gives to people who have left their own country, usu because they were in danger for political reasons, sanctuary ¶ mental hospital
      An asylum seeker is a person who makes a request for refuge, usually in a foreign country.
      People seeking political sanctuary typically do so by asking a sovereign authority for asylum.
      On August 1, 2013, Russian authorities granted Edward Snowden a one-year temporary asylum.
      In 2007, Iranian refugee Shahla Valadi was granted asylum in Norway after spending seven years in church sanctuary after the initial denial of asylum.
      Many ancient peoples recognized a religious "right of asylum", protecting criminals (or those accused of crime) from legal action and from exile to some extent.
      This principle was adopted by the early Christian church, and various rules developed for what the person had to do to qualify for protection and just how much protection it was.
      v[IT] groan or rumble
      also a noun
      Russia keeps the same attitude towards many of its neighbors, grumbling about borders.
      She did, however, sniff and grumble at everything that Monica did.
      Instead of grumbling that it's Monday, employees would shout, "It's a joy to come to work!"
      Thunder grumbled in bad-temper then suddenly threw its venom at the earth, striking its target in a blinding bolt of light.
      Another smaller grumble is that when folding the pushchair, the hood doesn't fit under the handle (even pushed down to the lowest hood height setting) and I have found myself fiddling around to get the chassis locked.
      Grumpy initially disapproves of Snow White's presence in the dwarfs' home, but later warns her of the threat posed by the Queen and rushes to her aid upon realizing that she is in danger, leading the charge himself.
      n[C] a standing cupboard used for storing clothes ¶ the clothes that sb has ¶ the department of a theater etc that is responsible for the actors' costumes
      In the nineteenth century the wardrobe began to develop into its modern form, with a hanging cupboard at each side, a press in the upper part of the central portion and drawers below.
      The Wardrobe was a magical portal in Professor Kirke's House that linked Earth through to the world of Narnia, if only for a short time.
      The wardrobe was created when Digory Kirke, who later became the Professor, had his own adventure in Narnia.
      Joshua needs a whole new wardrobe.
      Let's get you into wardrobe for a fitting.
      v[IT] move around quickly, looking very busy
      also a noun
      She could hear her mum bustling around the kitchen making tea and laughing at something funny on the radio.
      A minute before I'd seen them bustling about, cheerfully cleaning rooms.
      Escape from the hustle and bustle of the 21st century to the romance and adventure of the 17th century.
      Take a break from the hustle and bustle of your daily lives, and escape to our Michigan inn and spa for the ultimate in royal treatment!
      A bustle is a type of framework used to expand the fullness or support the drapery of the back of a woman's dress, occurring predominantly in the mid-to-late 19th century.
      v[T] officially end a law, a system or an institution
      He will abolish the health care reforms.
      Slavery was abolished throughout the British colonies by an Imperial Act which became effective 1 August 1834.
      Britain then assumed most of the responsibility for abolishing the transatlantic slave trade, partly to protect its sugar colonies.
      1994 - China abolishes the official renminbi (RMB) currency exchange rate and fixes its first floating rate since 1949.
      v[IT] give off smoke or gases ¶ be very angry about sth
      Nearly two years later, she is still fuming about the circumstances that led to her brother's death.
      I am still fuming over the way a great man like him has been convicted of a crime he didn't commit.
      They are fuming at the arms sale to Taipei.
      Caught in the middle were hundreds of thousands of commuters left fuming red in streets.
      n[UC] detour ¶ a change in the direction or use of sth, or the act of changing it ¶ sth that takes your attention away from sb/sth ¶ an activity that you do for fun
      A detour or diversion route is a route around a planned area of prohibited or reduced access, such as a construction site.
      But this would be politically impossible and would mean a sudden diversion of funds out of the US economy.
      Other threats include changes in the distribution and severity of plant pests and disease, rising sea levels, flooding, storms, decline in soil quality and diversion of resources into growing energy crops for biofuels rather than food crops.
      In a minute, I'm gonna create a diversion. When I do, walk quickly to the door and don't look back.
      At a loss for words, Rachel grabs some of Monica's laundry and throws it on the floor as a diversion.
      It doesn't even have to be terribly funny; it just has to be funny enough and a pleasant diversion.
      Compare these words: decoy, distraction, diverse, diversion, and diversity.
      v[I] happen again
      You are now looking at Dr. Drake Ramory, neurosurgeon, recurring in at least four episodes!
      Ross used to have this recurring nightmare that Monica was going to eat him.
      I've been out here three months and all I've gotten is a couple of national commercials and this recurring thing on a soap opera.
      A repeating or recurring decimal is a way of representing rational numbers in base 10 arithmetic.
      In mathematics, a rational number is any number that can be expressed as the quotient or fraction p/q of two integers, with the denominator q not equal to zero.
      For example, the decimal representation of 1/3 becomes periodic just after the decimal point, repeating the single digit "3" forever, i.e. 0.333...
      Compare these words: concur, incur, occur, and recur.