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      v[T] send a group of soldiers to defend or guard a place
      n[C] a group of soldiers living in or defending a town or building, or the buildings
      Attempting to maintain an empire through troops garrisoned in countries across the globe, patrolling the seas with our navies, buying the "friendship" of dictators, and saber rattling or invading countries we don't like is a folly that has brought down many empires before ours.
      Odessa, the largest Jewish community in the Ukraine, was garrisoned by a volunteer body called the Jewish Battle Company. It was uniformed, lived in barracks, and was rather well armed.
      After the garrison was withdrawn, the buildings were set on fire and the mines detonated on 5 November.
      Its garrison was a mighty one, with America's best aircraft on strongly defended fields, adequate warning systems, anti-aircraft batteries, backed up by our Pacific Fleet.
      adj living or growing in water ¶ connected with water
      Native to South America, this large aquatic rodent was brought to the U.S. and other countries for the fur market.
      This is income from catching, taking, harvesting, cultivating, or farming any kind of fish, shellfish (for example, clams and mussels), crustaceans (for example, lobsters, crabs, and shrimp), sponges, seaweeds, or other aquatic forms of animal and vegetable life.
      Aquaman is a fictional character, a superhero appearing in comic book titles by DC Comics.
      An aquarium is a clear glass or plastic container for fish and other water animals, or a building where fish and underwater animals are kept.
      n[C] fixed quantity, esp an official allowance of food, etc in times of shortage ¶ a fixed amount of food given to a soldier ¶ an amount of sth that is thought to be normal or fair
      also a verb
      Rationing is the controlled distribution of scarce resources, goods, or services, or an artificial restriction of demand.
      Rationing controls the size of the ration, which is one's allotted portion of the resources being distributed on a particular day or at a particular time.
      Rationing is often done to keep price below the equilibrium (market-clearing) price determined by the process of supply and demand in an unfettered market.
      An example of rationing in the face of rising prices took place in the various countries where there was rationing of gasoline during the 1973 energy crisis.
      Rationing using ration stamps is only one kind of non-price rationing.
      For example, scarce products can be rationed using queues.
      In the absence of road pricing, access to roads is rationed in a first come, first served queueing process, leading to congestion.
      Authorities which introduce rationing often have to deal with the rationed goods being sold illegally on the black market.
      Rationing has been instituted during wartime for civilians.
      For example, each person may be given "ration coupons" allowing him or her to purchase a certain amount of a product each month.
      Rationing often includes food and other necessities for which there is a shortage, including materials needed for the war effort such as rubber tires, leather shoes, clothing, and gasoline.
      Rationing of food and water may also become necessary during an emergency, such as a natural disaster or terror attack.
      Military sieges have often resulted in shortages of food and other essential consumables. In such circumstances, the rations allocated to an individual are often determined based on age, sex, race, or social standing.
      During the Siege of Lucknow (part of the Indian Rebellion of 1857) a woman received three quarters the food ration a man received and children received only half.
      The first modern rationing systems were brought in during the First World War.
      Rationing became common during World War II. Ration Stamps were often used. These were redeemable stamps or coupons, and every family was issued a set number of each kind of stamp based on the size of the family, ages of children, and income.
      n[CU] the legal relationship between a person and a country ¶ ethnic group forming part of a political nation
      Nationality normally confers some protection of the person by the state, and some obligations on the person towards the state.
      The most common distinguishing feature of citizenship is that citizens have the right to participate in the political life of the state, such as by voting or standing for election.
      In English, the same word is used in the sense of an ethnic group (a group of people who share a common ethnic identity, language, culture, descent, history, and so forth).
      Nationality is sometimes used simply as an alternate word for ethnicity, just as some people assume that citizenship and nationality are identical.
      Even today the Russian Federation, as an example, consists of various people whose nationality is other than Russian, but who are considered to be Russian subjects and comply with the laws of the federation.
      Similarly, the term "nationalities of China" refers to cultural groups in China.
      Spain is one nation, made out by nationalities, which are not politically recognized as nations (state), but can be considered smaller nations within the Spanish nation.
      United States nationality law defines some persons born in U.S. outlying possessions as U.S. nationals but not citizens.
      Dual nationality is when a single person has a formal relationship with two separate, sovereign states.
      The Han Chinese are an ethnic group native to East Asia. They constitute approximately 92% of the population of Mainland China, 94% of the population of Hong Kong, 95% of the population of Macau, 98% of the population of Taiwan, 74% of the population of Singapore, 24.5% of the population of Malaysia, and about 19% of the entire global human population, making them the largest ethnic group in the world.
      n[C] a small horse
      Depending on context, a pony may be a horse that is under an approximate or exact height at the withers, or a small horse with a specific conformation and temperament.
      Compared to other horses, ponies often exhibit thicker manes, tails and overall coat, as well as proportionally shorter legs, wider barrels, heavier bone, thicker necks, and shorter heads with broader foreheads.
      The Highland Pony is a native Scottish pony, and is one of the largest of the mountain and moorland pony breeds of the British Isles.
      Rachel's pony was sick.
      Janice was riding the alimony pony.
      A ponytail is a hairstyle in which some, most, or all of the hair on the head is pulled away from the face, gathered and secured at the back of the head with a hair tie, clip, or other similar device, and allowed to hang freely from that point.
      adj following a style that is currently popular ¶ popular with, or used by, rich people
      A geek is a person who is not popular because they wear unfashionable clothes, do not know how to behave in social situations, or do strange things.
      Fancy hotels, restaurants, cars etc are expensive and fashionable.
      It's very, very fashionable to have a BlackBerry.
      Monica runs a very fashionable restaurant.
      Toronto is not a very fashionable address.
      Compare these words: fashionable, smart, and stylish.
      n[UC] similarity
      Rachel begins dating a guy named Russ, who bears an uncanny resemblance to Ross.
      I know what you're thinking Judy, the resemblance is uncanny!
      The resemblance is remarkable. I can practically smell the lotus blossoms woven into your ebony hair.
      The woman in the gold-framed painting bears a striking resemblance to the Mona Lisa, although her oval face is clearly younger.
      v[T] astonish
      The result is pretty astounding.
      The investigators were astounded by the results.
      Benjamin and Joseph stood side by side - they were astounded at the resemblance - they looked just like each other.
      Your logic astounds me.
      Compare these words: astonish, astound, dumfound, shock, stun, and surprise.
      adj huge
      Wow, look at this refrigerator! It's gigantic! I mean I could live in this thing!
      Chandler's aunt and uncle gave Monica and him a gigantic bowl of punch.
      Mike opens the door and there is a gigantic ice sculpture standing in the doorway.
      They insist good progress is being made - slowly but surely - towards making Afghanistan secure enough for the occupiers to be able to declare some sort of "victory". That is a lie of gigantic proportions. Recently the number of US troops killed in the country passed the 2000 figure.
      v[T] put sth through a sieve
      A sieve, or sifter, is a device for separating wanted elements from unwanted material or for characterizing the particle size distribution of a sample, typically using a woven screen such as a mesh or net.
      The word "sift" derives from 'sieve'.
      A strainer is a form of sieve used to separate solids from liquid.
      If you sift a powder such as flour or sand, you put it through a sieve in order to remove large pieces or lumps.
      If you sift through something such as evidence, you examine it thoroughly.
      To help you sift through the hype, we'll look at quality optics, battery technology, inputs and outputs, recording media, and controls.
      If you sift something out, you separate it from other things.
      As you drink and eat wastes build up in your bloodstream, and kidneys work relentlessly to sift it out.
      adj (of clothes) old and torn ¶ (of people) wearing ~ clothes ¶ having a rough uneven edge or surface ¶ not regular or together ¶ not performing well, because of not being organized
      My shirt is ragged at the cuffs.
      Rick looked him up and down, taking in his ragged coat, old rugby shirt and battered jeans.
      Being a kindly soul, he offered food and shelter to a ragged old couple who came by the restaurant looking cold and hungry.
      Raggedy Ann is a fictional character created by American writer Johnny Gruelle in a series of books he wrote and illustrated for young children.
      There was a ragged hole in one corner where the dog had chewed on it. But she still used it.
      Like a lot of you, I grew up in a family on the ragged edge of the middle class.
      There's silence except for her ragged breathing.
      Unfortunately the bravura male trio gave a ragged performance on the opening night.
      n[C] a dog, esp one used in hunting
      v[T] harass
      A hound is a type of dog that assists hunters by tracking or chasing the animal being hunted. It can be contrasted with the gun dog, which assists hunters by identifying the location of prey and/or recovers shot quarry.
      Scent hounds are a type of hound that primarily hunts by scent rather than sight.
      The American Foxhound is a breed of dog that is a cousin of the English Foxhound. They are scent hounds, bred to hunt foxes by scent.
      Paparazzi (singular: paparazzo or paparazza) are photographers who take pictures of athletes, entertainers, politicians, and other celebrities, usually while they are going about normal life routines.
      New York Yankees star Alex Rodriguez has become used to being hounded by paparazzi, sports writers and autograph collectors.
      If hound someone out of/from something, you make things so unpleasant for them that they are forced to leave a place, job etc.
      In 1937, hounded out of Europe by the Stalinist GPU, Leon Trotsky arrived in Mexico City at the invitation of the artists Diego Rivera and Frida Khalo.
      n[C] soul or mind
      In psychology, the psyche is the totality of the human mind, conscious and unconscious.
      Psychology is the scientific or objective study of the psyche.
      Sigmund Freud, the father of psychoanalysis, believed that the psyche - he used the word Seele throughout his writings - was composed of three components: id, ego, and super-ego.
      Lincoln noted, "I cannot bring myself to believe that any human being lives who would do me any harm." Unfortunately, Lincoln did not understand the psyche of John Wilkes Booth.
      Rarely do wars have such a dramatic impact on a national psyche, but the First world War continues to occupy a place in the heart of the British consciousness which will take generations to reduce.
      n[s] edge at the top of a steep high place, verge
      Europe's biggest economy, Germany, has taken a significant step and guaranteed all private deposits made with state banks, after one of the country's biggest banks teetered on the brink of collapse.
      In fact the world is on the brink of a new era of serious food crisis driven by natural calamity like draught.
      Stewart Hutchison escaped on a Hercules C130 on February 27 as Libya teetered on the brink of civil war.
      According to the South China Morning Post, which cites researchers at Sun Yat-sen University, this city is now on the brink of bankruptcy.
      The speed and scale of urbanization in Canada has pushed many native species to the brink of extinction.
      It is not too late for Guildford to step back from the brink.
      So we pulled back from the brink in 2008/2009. But things remain fragile.
      n[C] a small soft creature like a snail without a shell ¶ a bullet ¶ a small amount of a strong alcoholic drink, shot
      v[IT] hit, punch
      Slugs' bodies are made up mostly of water, and without a full-sized shell, their soft tissues are prone to desiccation. They must generate protective mucus to survive.
      Slugs are intended for use in a shotgun and often used for hunting large game.
      I offer you a comfort remedy to soothe and lessen your pain: Dissolve an aspirin, 1 tablespoon of honey in a slug of brandy, and the juice of a lemon.
      Raj slugged Howard's arm playfully.
      If you slog/slug it out, you fight or compete in order to prove you are the strongest, the best, etc.
      We're about to watch the greatest of all time slug it out with the best British player for 74 years.
      In baseball statistics, slugging percentage (abbreviated SLG) is a popular measure of the power of a hitter.
      n[plU] chickens, ducks, geese etc that are kept for their eggs and meat ¶ meat from ~
      Poultry are domesticated birds kept by humans for the eggs they produce, their meat, their feathers, or sometimes as pets.
      The domestication of poultry took place several thousand years ago. This may have originally been as a result of people hatching and rearing young birds from eggs collected from the wild, but later involved keeping the birds permanently in captivity.
      Turkeys are large birds, their nearest relatives being the pheasant and the guineafowl.
      The quail is a small to medium-sized, cryptically colored bird.
      Worldwide, more chickens are kept than any other type of poultry, with over 50 billion birds being raised each year as a source of meat and eggs.
      In free-range husbandry, the birds can roam freely outdoors for at least part of the day.
      Poultry meat and eggs provide nutritionally beneficial food containing protein of high quality.
      Newcastle disease is a secretion borne virus that only affects chickens and other poultry.
      Chandler doesn't eat Thanksgiving food, and Rachel's having her aversion to poultry.
      Compare these words: poetry, poultry, foul, and fowl.
      v[IT] breathe air, smoke etc out
      Inhale through your nose for a count of three, then exhale through your mouth for three.
      Draw in the air through the right nostril, retain it as long as you can; and then exhale through the left nostril.
      Then exhale slowly through both nostrils.
      Exhale as you lower your head and legs back to the floor.
      n[C] Hindu spiritual leader ¶ expert
      Guru is a Sanskrit term for "teacher" or "master", particularly in Indian religions.
      At the beginning of the Upadesasahasri Samkara provides a list of criteria by which the guru assesses prospective disciples.
      In the Tibetan tradition, the guru is seen as the Buddha, the very root of spiritual realization and the basis of the path.
      Okay, Sheldon. I'm going to be leading you through a series of meditation exercises. These methods come from the ancient gurus of India and have helped me overcome my own fears.
      Guru Saj removed Ross' thing with his watch.
      Prior to becoming a grammar guru, Mignon was a magazine and technical writer, and an entrepreneur.
      n[C] an organ in an animal's body that synthesizes a substance
      As growth proceeds, the column of cells may divide or give off offshoots, in which case a compound gland is formed.
      In many glands the number of branches is limited, in others (salivary, pancreas) a very large structure is finally formed by repeated growth and sub-division.
      Perspiration (sweating, transpiration, or diaphoresis) is the production of fluids secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals.
      Hormones secreted from the pituitary gland help control the following body processes: growth, blood pressure, some aspects of pregnancy and childbirth, breast milk production, sex organ functions, thyroid gland function, the conversion of food into energy, water and osmolarity regulation in the body, water balance via the control of reabsorption of water by the kidneys, temperature regulation, and pain relief.
      Scent glands are exocrine glands found in most mammals. They produce semi-viscous secretions which contain pheromones and other semiochemical compounds.
      We're glad to have glands.
      Palatine tonsils, occasionally called the faucial tonsils, are the tonsils on the left and right sides at the back of the throat which can often be seen as white lumps.
      n[C] a level on a scale ¶ a cut in an edge or a surface, sometimes used to keep a record of sth
      also a verb
      A rabbet is a notch in a piece of timber made to receive the ends or sides of planks which are to be secured to it.
      If you move up or down a notch, you move up or down to the next level.
      I'm saying maybe you and I crank it up a notch.
      Still no reaction. Okay. Let's kick things up a notch. Image number three: crocodile with a mouthful of monkeys.
      Joey's grandma's tiramisu is top-notch (first-rate, excellent).
      If you notch something up, you achieve it.
      The Spice Girls notched up nine No.1 singles and two No. 1 albums, selling over 53 million copies, and collected four Brit awards before calling it quits in 1998.
      v[IT] get a free ride in sb's car ¶ pull up a piece of your clothing ¶ fasten sth to sth with a loop, hook etc
      n[C] a type of knot ¶ a small problem
      Hitchhiking (also known as thumbing or hitching) is a means of transportation that is gained by asking people, usually strangers, for a ride in their automobile or other road vehicle.
      Joey opens his eyes and sees a hitchhiker.
      As a youth, I hitched across the country more than once. Now you never see a hitchhiker, why? Fear.
      She hitched her skirt higher, up above her suspender belt.
      Watch our How to Safely Hitch a Boat Trailer video, and see how it's done first-hand.
      If someone gets hitched, they get married.
      A hitch is a type of knot used for binding rope to an object.
      The "barrel hitch" and "barrel sling," named for their use in hoisting cargo aboard ships, are a simple yet effective way to suspend an object.
      The next day they went on the TV and said they had suffered a technical hitch but would honor all orders.
      We had one slight hitch in the whole process.
      n[C] an outer protective garment that covers primarily the front of the body
      The apron is commonly part of the uniform of several work categories, including waitresses, nurses, and domestic workers.
      Rubber aprons are commonly used by persons working with dangerous chemicals, and lead aprons are commonly worn by persons such as X-ray technicians who work near radiation.
      Look at Rachel in the apron. She looks like she's in a play.
      Ursula's apron is really cute.
      Oh, you're losing your apron here, let me get it.
      "Tied to someone's apron strings" means "dependent on or dominated by the other person".
      A jumper (in American English), pinafore dress or pinafore (British English) is a sleeveless, collarless dress intended to be worn over a blouse, shirt or sweater.
      An overall, over all, bib-and-brace overalls, or dungarees, is a type of garment which is usually used as protective clothing when working.
      A boilersuit, or coverall (US English), is a one-piece garment with full-length sleeves and legs like a jumpsuit, but usually less tight-fitting.
      The term apron also refers to an item of clerical clothing, now largely obsolete, worn by Anglican bishops and archdeacons.
      The term apron also refers any part of the stage that extends past the proscenium arch and into the audience or seating area.
      adj having or expressing a great love of your country
      They have always taught and trained you to believe it to be your patriotic duty to go to war and to have yourselves slaughtered at their command.
      Ugandan-based Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), led by Tutsi exiles, was "the only well-organized killing force within Rwanda in 1994".
      As the procession marched along Gill Street, the band played "Soldiers of the Queen", "Hero of Trafalgar" and other patriotic songs.
      Patriotic people of our province will help the armed forces to counter and destroy the evil designs of India.
      adj possessing or producing the energy which comes from the breaking up of atoms
      Radioactive decay, also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity, is the process by which a nucleus of an unstable atom loses energy by emitting ionizing radiation.
      A material that spontaneously emits this kind of radiation - which includes the emission of alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma rays - is considered radioactive.
      Yes, there are small amounts of long-lived radioactive waste products left over from reprocessing, but the world has the technology to transmute those elements safely and quickly and cost-effectively.
      Some 200 tonnes of highly radioactive material remains deep within it, and this poses an environmental hazard until it is better contained.
      Radium, plutonium, and uranium are radioactive elements.
      The dog is so big because the house was built on radioactive waste.
      "They were injecting rats with radioactive isotopes and one of the techs got bit." "Did he get superpowers?"
      adj cold and without any pleasant or comfortable features ¶ not hopeful or encouraging, gloomy
      A bleak place seems cold and unfriendly and has no pleasant features.
      Bleak weather is very cold and gray.
      Christmas has been pretty bleak the last few years.
      If someone looks or sounds bleak, they look or sound depressed, as if they have no hope or energy.
      Understandable. Your entire life seems to be crumbling around you, and your future appears bleak at best.
      The prospects for the Arab Spring, now nearing a year old, have always been pretty bleak.
      The economic outlook in Europe remains pretty bleak with a recent poll suggesting that the Eurozone isn't likely to grow in any meaningful way until 2013.