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      n[C] a rapid flow of snow down a sloping surface
      Avalanches are typically triggered in a starting zone from a mechanical failure in the snowpack (slab avalanche) when the forces on the snow exceed its strength but sometimes only with gradually widening (loose snow avalanche).
      After initiation, avalanches usually accelerate rapidly and grow in mass and volume as they entrain more snow.
      If the avalanche moves fast enough some of the snow may mix with the air forming a powder snow avalanche, which is a type of gravity current.
      CBS's switchboards were prepared for an avalanche of (a very large number of things) calls.
      It was that comment that sparked an avalanche of jokes, memes, tweets, gifs, blogs and searches on social media.
      n[C] a hole or tunnel in the ground made by animals for them to live in
      v[T] dig down ¶ nestle ¶ rummage
      A burrow is a hole or tunnel excavated into the ground by an animal to create a space suitable for habitation, temporary refuge, or as a byproduct of locomotion.
      Burrows provide a form of shelter against predation and exposure to the elements (the weather, especially bad weather), so the burrowing way of life is quite popular among the animals.
      Burrows can be constructed into a wide variety of substrates, and can range in complexity from a simple tube a few centimeters long to a complex network of interconnecting tunnels and chambers hundreds at thousands of meters in total length, such as a well-developed rabbit warren.
      A black-tailed prairie dog, with young, emerged from its burrow.
      Larvae hatch and burrow into the wood, later emerging as adults through oval shape exit holes.
      She burrowed her face into the cushions and took a nap.
      Cheryl, aka 'The Beautiful Pig', burrowed through the clothes in the drawer looking for a clean change of underwear.
      Compare "burrow" and "fumble".
      n[U] soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback
      Cavalry were historically the most mobile of the combat arms.
      An individual soldier in the cavalry is known by a number of designations such as cavalryman, horseman or trooper.
      The designation of cavalry was not usually given to any military force that used other animals, such as camels or mules.
      Infantry who moved on horseback, but dismounted to fight on foot, were known in the 17th and early 18th centuries as dragoons, a class of mounted infantry which later evolved into cavalry proper while retaining their historic title.
      In the period between the World Wars, many cavalry units were converted into motorized infantry and mechanized infantry units, or reformed as tank troops.
      However, some cavalry still served during the World War II, notably in the Red Army, the Mongolian People's Army, the Royal Italian Army and the Polish Land Forces.
      Calvary, also Golgotha, was, according to the Gospels, a site immediately outside Jerusalem's walls where Jesus was crucified.
      n[C] sb who has invented sth or whose job is inventing things
      Edison is considered one of the most prolific inventors in history, holding 1,093 U.S. patents in his name.
      A renowned polymath, Franklin was a leading author, printer, political theorist, politician, postmaster, scientist, inventor, civic activist, statesman, and diplomat.
      Alexander Graham Bell was an eminent Scottish-born scientist, inventor, engineer and innovator who is credited with inventing the first practical telephone.
      The decibel is one-tenth of a bel, a unit named after the inventor Alexander Graham Bell.
      v[IT] block sth or become blocked
      n[C] a shoe that is completely made of wood
      Joey just clogged the toilet.
      Replacing a clogged air filter can improve your car's gas mileage by as much as 10 percent.
      The roads become clogged with traffic.
      Clogs are a type of footwear made in part or completely from wood.
      Clogs are used worldwide and although the form may vary by culture, within a culture the form often remained unchanged for centuries.
      Geta are a form of traditional Japanese footwear that resemble both clogs and flip-flops.
      Kim is an integral cog in the Ralph Lauren machine.
      n[U] a type of maize in which the kernels expand when heated
      Popcorn is able to pop because, like amaranth grain, sorghum, quinoa, and millet, its kernels have a hard moisture-sealed hull and a dense starchy interior.
      When heated, pressure builds within the kernel, and a small explosion (or "pop") is the end result.
      There are various techniques for popping corn.
      Along with prepackaged popcorn, which is generally intended to be prepared in a microwave oven, there are small home appliances for popping corn.
      A larger-scale, commercial popcorn machine was invented by Charles Cretors in the late 19th century.
      In popcorn jargon, a popped kernel of corn is known as a "flake".
      Popcorn is commonly eaten in movie theaters. This snack is usually served salted or sweetened.
      A larger-scale, commercial popcorn machine was invented by Charles Cretors in the late 19th century.
      Some popular brands of popcorn in the United States are Orville Redenbacher's, Act II, Jiffy Pop (all three of which are brands of the ConAgra Foods conglomerate), Pop Secret, Candy Land Gourmet, Jolly Time, Aussie Crunch, Newman's Own, Dale and Thomas and Pop Weaver.
      Air-popped popcorn is naturally high in dietary fiber and antioxidants, low in calories and fat, and free of sugar and sodium.
      Popcorn is included on the list of foods that the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends not serving to children under four, because of the risk of choking.
      n[C] a building or collection of buildings in which monks live
      Males pursuing a monastic life are generally called monks while female monastics are called nuns.
      Many monks and nuns live in monasteries to stay away from the secular world.
      Monastery denotes the building, or complex of buildings, comprising the domestic quarters and workplace(s) of monastics, whether monks or nuns, and whether living in communities or alone (hermits).
      The monastery generally includes a place reserved for prayer which may be a chapel, church or temple, and may also serve as an oratory.
      Buddhist monasteries are generally called vihara (Pali language). Viharas may be occupied by males or females, and in keeping with common English usage, a vihara populated by females may often be called a nunnery or a convent.
      n[CU] an animal with a wide flat tail and strong teeth ¶ the fur
      The beaver is a primarily nocturnal, large, semi-aquatic rodent.
      Beavers are known for building dams, canals, and lodges (homes).
      In a world where mankind is ruled by a giant intelligent beaver, what food is no longer consumed?
      In a world ruled by a giant beaver, mankind builds many dams to please the beaver overlord. The low-lying city of Copenhagen is flooded. Thousands die. Devastated, the Danes never invent their namesake pastry. How does one miss that?
      The California Institute of Technology (or Caltech) is a private research university located in Pasadena, California, United States. Caltech's mascot is the Beaver.
      If you beaver away (at something), you work very hard at it.
      n[C] very great sadness ¶ the troubles and problems that sb has
      "Something you'd like to share? A tale of woe, perhaps?" "Fifteen years old. Dennis Kim is 15 years old, and he's already correcting my work."
      Oy vey (Yiddish, a Jewish language), oy vay, or just oy - or even more elaborately oy vey ist mir - is an exclamation of dismay or exasperation like "woe is me (used to emphasize that you are unhappy or have a problem)".
      But more than half of young Spaniards (over 51%) are out of work, creating a lost generation that has been hardest hit by Spain's economic woes.
      "Woe betide someone" is a phrase that is used to warn someone that there will be trouble if they do something - especially used humorously.
      n[CU] the part of a flower that receives pollen ¶ feelings of disapproval
      Many of them will not return home because of the stigma attached to HIV/AIDS.
      Persons with AIDS may be afraid to reveal their condition because of the social stigma, fear and/or misunderstanding surrounding this illness.
      She is claiming some of the damages due to the stigma she says she now faces as an ex-employee of Ornge.
      I am faced with the stigma of being 'out of work' for 3 years, plus my age, and the competition of so many other younger childless unemployed in the current economy.
      No amount of PR spin will ever remove the stigma associated with Chernobyl.
      Compare "stigma" and "stamina".
      n[pl] the former students of a school,college etc
      Oh, and Chandler and I have this stupid college alumni thing.
      Join the new Microsoft Alumni Network and become part of this vibrant, growing community.
      Madonna was married to a Ridgemont High alum (a former student of a school, college etc).
      There're plenty of people who just see their sisters at Thanksgiving and just see their college roommates at reunions and, just see Joey at Burger King.
      n[UC] scent or perfume
      An aroma compound, also known as odorant, aroma, fragrance, or flavor, is a chemical compound that has a smell or odor.
      Flavors affect both the sense of taste and smell, whereas fragrances affect only smell. Flavors tend to be naturally occurring, and fragrances tend to be synthetic.
      Aroma compounds can be found in food, wine, spices, perfumes, fragrance oils, and essential oils.
      English lavender is commonly grown as an ornamental plant. It is popular for its colorful flowers, its fragrance and its ability to survive with low water consumption.
      The perfume itself is tinted black, a first for the fragrance industry.
      n[C] violin ¶ sth difficult to do
      v[I] play violin ¶ keep moving and touching sth
      Someone who plays the violin is called a violinist or a fiddler.
      Fiddler on the Roof is a musical with music by Jerry Bock, lyrics by Sheldon Harnick, and book by Joseph Stein, set in the Pale of Imperial Russia in 1905.
      This was a real fiddle as the wires for the HDD lights, reset button, etc are really tiny and I couldn't really see what I was doing (I had to resort to using the LED flash light on my iPhone for illumination!).
      If someone fiddles while Rome burns, they do nothing or something trivial while knowing that something disastrous is happening. (From a legend that the Roman emperor Nero played the lyre while Rome was burning.)
      Phoebe fiddled with the clasp on her bra and walked toward Chandler.
      If you are an IT Professional who likes fiddling around with (mess around with) servers, running them up, configuring them, installing drivers and so on then this is probably for you.
      If someone fiddles financial documents, they alter them dishonestly so that they get money for themselves.
      He was forced to resign after fiddling his expenses.
      Perhaps Greece needs to fiddle the books to join the Euro.
      If someone is on the fiddle, they get money in a way that is not honest or not legal.
      If someone is fit as a fiddle, they are in very good health.
      Compare these words: fiddle, fumble, and meddle.
      v[T] pay back or reward
      If you repay a loan or a debt, you pay back the money that you owe to the person who you borrowed or took it from.
      Your mortgage will be repaid over 30 years.
      If numbers are insufficient, and this necessitates the cancellation of the tour, your entire deposit will be repaid in full.
      If you repay a favor that someone did for you, you do something for them in return.
      I'd like to buy them something to repay all their kindness.
      Amy, I can't believe this. All I wanted to do was help you try to figure out what to do with your life and this is how you repay me?
      Ramona, you helped me work out the masses of the fermions and you pumiced my hammertoe. How can I ever repay you?
      If something repays your time, effort etc, it is worth the time or effort you have spent.
      Travel Town is an outdoor museum featuring 43 railroad engines, cars and other rolling stock from the 1880s to the 1930s. I think you'll find it repays a visit, Priya.
      n[C] a baby or young animal before it is born
      A fetus, also spelled foetus, is a developing mammal or other viviparous vertebrate after the embryonic stage and before birth.
      It is also defined as the unborn young of a vertebrate, after developing to its basic form.
      In humans, the fetal stage of prenatal development may be defined as beginning at the eleventh week in gestational age, which is the ninth week after fertilization.
      The use of the term "fetus" generally implies that a mammalian embryo has developed to the point of being recognizable as belonging to its own species, and this is usually taken to be the 9th week after fertilization.
      A fetus is also characterized by the presence of all the major body organs, though they will not yet be fully developed and functional, and may not all be situated in their final anatomical location.
      v[I] shine and look wet or oily
      The cream-colored walls glowed with light and the depths of the mahogany furniture gleamed deep red like wine, while the floor glistened as if it were glass, except where the rag rugs covered it and they were spots of gay color.
      Upon the wooded hills above the river, the dogwood blossoms lay glistening and white, as if snow still lingered among the greenery.
      The floors were glistening and bare except for a few bright rag rugs, and the white walls unornamented save for one corner which Melanie had fitted up as a shrine.
      His long holster and belt glistened and his silver spurs and scabbard gleamed, from the industrious polishing Uncle Peter had given them.
      The sun picked out with faint glistening the apples and the furred pink peaches half hidden in the green leaves.
      Melanie looked tired and there were tears glistening on her lashes but her face was serene again.
      Compare these words: glimmer, glint, glisten, and glitter.
      v[I] talk in an excited and uncontrolled way ¶ enthuse
      n[C] a report that praises sb/sth in a very enthusiastic way ¶ a large party or festival featuring performances by disc jockeys
      After ranting and raving at him, Hitler had talked about self-determination and asked the Prime Minister whether he accepted the principle.
      I could keep raving on here for hours about how impressed I am about the quality of the meat, but you can try it for yourself.
      I gave it to one of our fourth grade teachers to preview. She devoured it, raved about the book and immediately began reading it aloud to her class.
      They only serve the freshest fish available. It gets raves from locals and tourists alike.
      A rave is a large party or festival featuring performances by disc jockeys (colloquially called DJs) and occasionally live performers playing electronic music, particularly electronic dance music (EDM).
      Rave culture originated mostly from acid music parties in the mid-to-late 1980s in the Chicago area in the United States.
      n[C] a woman who is admired for doing sth very brave or good ¶ female protagonist
      Joan of Arc, nicknamed "The Maid of Orléans", is considered a heroine of France and a Roman Catholic saint.
      Courage Under Fire is a 1996 film. Lieutenant Colonel Nathaniel Serling is assigned to determine if Army Captain Karen Emma Walden should be the first woman to receive (posthumously) the Medal of Honor for valor in combat.
      And Anastasia, the heroine of the book, whom Grey trains as his submissive partner, shares the enthusiasm.
      Jane Eyre is the eponymous heroine of the novel by Charlotte Bronte.
      American Idol is an American singing competition series.
      The United Nations estimated in 2005 that there were over 50 million people worldwide who regularly used cocaine, heroin, and synthetic drugs.
      Morphine has a high potential for addiction; tolerance and psychological dependence develop rapidly, although physiological dependence may take several months to develop.
      In humans, caffeine acts as a central nervous system stimulant, temporarily warding off drowsiness and restoring alertness.
      In lesser doses (an average cigarette yields about 1 mg of absorbed nicotine), the substance acts as a stimulant in mammals, while high amounts (50–100 mg) can be harmful.
      v[I] move towards a place from different directions and meet
      Parallel lines converge at infinity.
      If people or vehicles converge on a place, they move towards it from different directions.
      Motorcycle enthusiasts and fans also converge on the city in mid October for another popular event called Biketoberfest that features events similar to those that occur during Bike Week.
      If roads or lines converge, they meet or join at a particular place.
      If different ideas or aims converge, they become the same.
      Converge and diverge are antonyms.
      n[CU] a lot of red spots on sb's skin, caused by an illness ¶ a large number of unpleasant events or undesirable things
      adj acting or done quickly and without thinking carefully about the results, impetuous, impulsive
      A rash is a change of the skin which affects its color, appearance, or texture.
      A rash may be localized in one part of the body, or affect all the skin. Rashes may cause the skin to change color, itch, become warm, bumpy, chapped, dry, cracked or blistered, swell, and may be painful.
      The rash usually appears between 2–3 days after the onset of illness.
      Miliaria (also called "sweat rash" or "prickly heat") is a skin disease marked by small and itchy rashes.
      Irritant diaper dermatitis, also known as "diaper dermatitis" and "napkin dermatitis" and commonly known as diaper rash or nappy rash, is a generic term applied to skin rashes in the diaper area that are caused by various skin disorders and/or irritants.
      No company, however, has received more attention than Foxconn. A few years ago, a rash of suicides were reported at its factories.
      That would be rather rash and certainly is not what I want to see happen.
      Compare "rash" and "rush".
      v[I] flow slowly and in small quantities through sth or into sth ¶ move or spread gradually
      Ashley's bare chest heaved up slowly and sank quickly and the red stream seeped from between Melanie’s small frantic fingers.
      Lost in most arguments about drilling in Southern California is the fact that up to hundreds of barrels of crude seep into the ocean constantly there, most of it right by UCSB.
      But even with this under-cover gossip seeping about, he could have retained his popularity had he considered it worth retaining.
      I could feel the stress seeping away as I sipped a cold beer in one of the most stylish, relaxed environments I had been in since entering Morocco.
      n[C] a difficult or unpleasant experience
      Despite witnesses claiming to have watched her do cocaine, she was totally sober during the whole ordeal.
      Mr. Vegas seemed to have broken down when asked about how he's dealing with this baby mother's cheating drama, the comments posted on Facebook and how he finds the strength to promote an album after such an ordeal.
      Work for Dr. Cooper? I couldn't imagine how I'd get through the ordeal.
      An 82-year-old woman spent 24 hours stuck in a bog, her dog helping keep her warm during the ordeal.
      n[C] a large basket
      v[T] hinder
      A hamper refers to a set of related basket-like items. In primarily British usage, it refers to a wicker basket, usually large, that is used for the transport of items, often food.
      In North America, the term generally refers to a household receptacle, often a basket, for clean (out of the dryer or off the line) or dirty clothing, regardless of its composition, i.e. "a laundry hamper".
      Typically a laundry hamper is used for storage and will be sturdier, taller and have a lid while a laundry basket is open and used mainly for transport. However, some parts of North America make no distinction between laundry hamper and basket.
      Production is currently being hampered by limited access to export pipelines.
      v[T] decorate
      In front of Macy's, Phoebe has adorned her bucket with numerous signs.
      Greek sculpture was carved in marble when it was meant to adorn part of a structure like the Parthenon.
      A new, 500-seat football stadium adorns the campus.
      They must not perfume themselves. They must not wear adorning clothes. They must not wear thin clothes. They must not wear narrow and tight clothes. They must cover their entire bodies. Their clothes must not resemble men's clothes.
      Muslim women's clothes must not resemble non-Muslim women's clothes. Their foot ornaments must not produce sound. They must not wear sound-producing garments. They must not walk in the middle of streets.
      adj relating to war and fighting
      Martial arts are codified systems and traditions of combat practices, which are practiced for a variety of reasons: self-defense, competition, physical health and fitness, entertainment, as well as mental, physical, and spiritual development.
      Jackie Chan (born Chan Kong-sang, 陳港生; 7 April 1954) is a Hong Kong actor, action choreographer, comedian, director, producer, martial artist, screenwriter, entrepreneur, singer, and stunt performer.
      Guest stars in the episode (The One After the Superbowl) are Brooke Shields, Chris Isaak, Julia Roberts, Jean-Claude Van Damme, Fred Willard, and Dan Castellaneta.
      Jean-Claude Van Damme is a Belgian martial artist, actor, and director, best known for his martial arts action films such as Universal Soldier, Street Fighter, and Timecop.
      Everybody was kung-fu fighting, those cats were fast as lightning, in fact it was a little bit frightening, but they fought with expert timing.
      A court-martial (plural courts-martial) is a military court.
      You can't quit. That's a court-martial offence.
      Martial law is usually imposed temporarily when the government or civilian authorities fail to function effectively (e.g., maintain order and security, or provide essential services).
      Compare these words: marital, marshal, and martial.