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      v[IT] (of plant) dry up and die
      The grass withered under a scorching sun.
      In the center of the hall the huge ugly lamp, hanging from the ceiling by rusty chains, was completely transformed by twining ivy and wild grapevines that were already withering from the heat.
      She noted how the leaves on the trees were still dark green but dry and heavily coated with red dust, and how withered and sad the untended flowers in the front yard looked.
      The withered stalks of last year's cotton had to be removed to make way for this year's seeds and the balky horse, unaccustomed to the plow, dragged unwillingly through the fields.
      She gave him a withering look.
      She withered him with a glance.
      Their love was withering away.
      The near neighbors were there in full force. Grandma Fontaine, withered, wrinkled and yellow as an old molted bird, was leaning on her cane.
      Scarlett smiled uncertainly and pecked obediently at the withered cheek presented to her.
      Compare "wither" and "writhe".
      n[UC] the tendency of a physical system to oscillate at great amplitude at certain frequencies
      Mechanical resonance is the tendency of a mechanical system to respond at greater amplitude when the frequency of its oscillations matches the system's natural frequency of vibration (its resonance frequency or resonant frequency) than it does at other frequencies.
      Many bridges and buildings have fallen down due to the effects of resonance – or to be more precise, mechanical resonance.
      Acoustic resonance is the tendency of an acoustic system to absorb more energy when it is forced or driven at a frequency that matches one of its own natural frequencies of vibration (its resonance frequency) than it does at other frequencies.
      I am guessing the porcelain and metal in a bathroom resonates with the frequencies of your voice and also provides better echo, while the cloth and fabric in a living room absorbs the sound and muffles it.
      Electrical resonance occurs in an electric circuit at a particular resonance frequency when the imaginary parts of impedances or admittances of circuit elements cancel each other.
      Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation.
      The event was finally held on August 12th. But it proved to have little resonance in Tamil Nadu, despite local support during the 1980s for Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam militants.
      The Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned the period roughly from the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe.
      n[C] a surface used to produce lift and thrust or to steer while traveling in water, air, or other fluid media
      Fish fins are the most distinctive features of a fish, composed of bony spines protruding from the body with skin covering them and joining them together, either in a webbed fashion, as seen in most bony fish, or similar to a flipper, as seen in sharks.
      Shark fin soup is a popular soup item of Chinese cuisine usually served at special occasions such as weddings and banquets, or as a luxury item in Chinese culture.
      The shark fins provide texture while the taste comes from the other soup ingredients.
      Swimfins, swim fins, fins or flippers are worn on the foot or leg and made from finlike rubber or plastic, to aid movement through the water in water sports activities.
      In naval parlance, the sail (American usage) or fin (European/Commonwealth usage) of a submarine is the tower-like structure found on the dorsal (topside) surface of submarines.
      The vertical stabilizers, or fins, of aircraft, missiles or bombs are typically found on the aft end of the fuselage or body, and are intended to reduce aerodynamic side slip and provide direction stability.
      Why was the F-22 designed with multi vertical fins?
      The tailfin era of automobile styling encompassed the 1950s and 1960s, peaking between 1957 and 1960.
      In the study of heat transfer, a fin is a surface that extends from an object to increase the rate of heat transfer to or from the environment by increasing convection.
      v[T] expel, exile, get rid of
      Ross's apartment, Ross and Phoebe have been banished to Ross's place.
      Sheldon, you're banished from the Cheesecake Factory.
      Penny, I am very, very sorry for what I have done. Here's your laundry. I rescind your strikes and you are no longer banished.
      I hope that these developments will help to banish the image of Africa as a continent of disease, hunger and despair.
      If a government deports someone, usually someone who is not a citizen of that country, it sends them out of the country because they have committed a crime or because it believes they do not have the right to be there.
      If someone is evicted from the place where they are living, they are forced to leave it, usually because they have broken a law or contract.
      If you shun someone or something, you deliberately avoid them or keep away from them.
      If someone or something vanishes, they disappear suddenly or in a way that cannot be explained.
      n[C] any of the parts into which sth is divided, or the act of creating these ¶ an area of land for building houses on
      This Act and the amendments made by this Act shall not apply to any department or agency of the United States, of a State, or of a political subdivision of a State, or to any official conduct of any officer or employee of such a department or agency.
      Division I football subdivided into Division I-A, eventually rebranded the Football Bowl Subdivision or FBS, and Division I-AA, which is now the FCS, or Football Championship Subdivision, in 1978.
      New houses are still being added to the Timberlake subdivision, which will now operate two separate groups of landowners - one group who will have to pay dues to a homeowner's association, and another group who will not.
      More than 50 surprised and angry residents of a subdivision in northeast Clayton gathered Monday night to learn more about homeowners' association they didn't even know they were members of.
      v[T] respect and admire sb/sth very much
      St. Augustine is one of the greatest of catholic saints. He is revered by Western Christians both Roman Catholic and Protestant, and especially by Calvinists and Lutherans.
      Kim Il-sung, born April 15, 1912, is revered as a godlike figure in the North.
      Reverence for someone or something is a feeling of great respect for them.
      Reverend is a title used before the name or rank of an officially appointed religious leader.
      Erica thought Monica was a reverend.
      n[C] the main bad character in a movie, play, or story ¶ a bad person or criminal
      A villain (also known in film and literature as the "antagonist," "baddie", "bad guy", "heavy" or "black hat") is an "evil" character in a story, whether a historical narrative or, especially, a work of fiction.
      The villain usually is the antagonist (though can be the protagonist), the character who tends to have a negative effect on other characters.
      A female villain is occasionally called a villainess (often to differentiate her from a male villain).
      The Wicked Witch of the West from The Wonderful Wizard of Oz is an example of a literary villain.
      Sometimes I like to turn this on and pretend I'm the super villain Magneto.
      It was very offensive to my people! Russians! It showed them as terrorists and villains!
      A protagonist is the main character in a play, movie or book.
      The hero of a book, play, movie, or story is the main male character, who usually has good qualities.
      A bully is someone who uses their strength or power to hurt or frighten other people.
      A supervillain or supervillainess is a "superhuman criminal" variant of the villainous stock character archetype, commonly found in comic books, action movies, and science fiction in various media.
      The mad scientist may be villainous or antagonistic, benign or neutral; may be insane, eccentric, or clumsy; and often works with fictional technology or fails to see potential objections to playing God.
      The villain of the piece is the person or thing that is responsible for all the trouble in a situation.
      v[IT] tell sb a secret or discuss your private feelings with them ¶ entrust
      "Every time we have a fight," a man confided to his friend, "my wife becomes historical."
      Last week we were talking and Annie confided to me that she really wanted to be in the army when she grows up because the army engineers got to build cool stuff and help people.
      If you confide in someone, you trust them enough to tell a secret to them.
      I was absolutely shattered, until over the next few days, several other mums confided in me that their daughters were getting the same treatment.
      It's politically wise to confide your money to your brother-in-law's safekeeping.
      v[T] persuade sb/sth to go somewhere or to do sth, usually by offering them sth; lure
      An enticing smell came from Amy's hair.
      Description tags and titles must be written to entice Google searchers to click on your web site.
      Advertisements are designed to entice people to spend money.
      The ad enticed the customer into buying things they don't really need.
      Compare these words: entice, seduce, and tempt.
      n[C] a narrow shelf ¶ a narrow flat piece of rock that sticks out from a cliff, which is in the shape of a narrow shelf
      I ended up graduating at the age of 40 with a Gold Medal. I still keep it in front of me on the window ledge of my studio to remind me.
      Jump straight up twice to grab the long, narrow ledge that runs along above the door.
      Two more rope lengths brought us to a small ledge with barely enough room to sit down on.
      Compare these words: ledge, reef, and ridge.
      A windowsill is a shelf fixed along the bottom of a window.
      v[T] examine sb/sth very carefully
      The initial translations produced by these teams were carefully scrutinized and revised by intermediate editorial committees of five biblical scholars to check them against the source texts and assess them for comprehensibility.
      Every single frame of the video has been scrutinized.
      A stern-looking guard scrutinizes my Canadian passport as though it might be a fake before handing me my pass.
      She craned over my shoulder for a look. After a few minutes intently scrutinizing it she finally spoke.
      v[I] give in ¶ become very sick or die from a disease
      Do not succumb to pressure.
      I don't normally succumb to mainstream popularity.
      "I have a hard time feeling anything but total sympathy for a man, just a man, who succumbs to lower order temptations," Ambinder wrote.
      Although Betty feels a strong physical attraction for George, she pushes him away, but finally succumbs to her desire.
      Steinberg launched the initiative following the death of his good friend Sheldon Bainwohl, a Toronto, Ont., husband and father to three daughters, who succumbed to cancer in May 2011 at age 47.
      v[IT] poke ¶ remind/persuade sb to do it
      also a noun
      The interrogating KGB officer pushes me against a filing cabinet. "Where are you from?" England, I say, cowering. He prods me in the chest, hard. "English spy!"
      The nurses who bathed her did not pause to consider the intimacy or delicacy of their task. They jostled and prodded her as if she were inanimate.
      This past Monday, I went to the dentist for a regular teeth cleaning. It was standard: the hygienist prodded at me with that sharp metal tool they have, my gums gushed massive amounts of blood, she asked me questions knowing full well that it was impossible for me to answer while my mouth was stretched open.
      She did not enter into comedy until she was nearly 40, after her first husband, Sherwood Diller, prodded her for 2 years to stop her advertising career.
      A tweet from a close friend kinda prodded me into writing this post.
      Using my knife as a ruler and my fork as a prod, I marshaled the peas so that they formed meticulous rows and columns across my plate.
      The country often needs a prod to remember it.
      adj provisional or hesitant
      Tentative agreements, plans, or arrangements are not definite or certain, but have been made as a first step.
      If someone is tentative, they are cautious and not very confident because they are uncertain or afraid.
      Their spoken English remains a bit halting and tentative.
      The workers, who had rejected an earlier tentative agreement more than a month ago, received improvements to working conditions, compromise around workloads, as well as what Carrie called "some monetary improvements" over the previous agreement.
      I've also recently taken the first tentative steps to seek out a counselor for my mental health problems.
      The country is now making tentative steps towards recovery, and recently held its first elections in 21 years.
      There's a pause, we both know what's happening. I lean in, we kiss. It's a little tentative at first, but then I realize she's kissing me back. She's biting my lower lip! You know, she wants me! This thing is going the distance! We're gonna have sex! Oh, god, oh, my god!
      Good news, gentlemen. I have tentatively accepted the invitation to join the Arctic expedition.
      n[C] substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without itself changing ¶ sb/sth that causes a change
      Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalyst.
      With a catalyst, reactions occur faster and with less energy.
      Because catalysts are not consumed, they are recycled.
      An economic catalyst is an entrepreneur or company that precipitates a fundamental change in business or technology.
      A stock catalyst is an event that causes the price of a security to move, sometimes significantly.
      AMD Catalyst (formerly named ATI Catalyst) is a device driver and utility software package for Advanced Micro Devices's graphics cards and APUs.
      v[IT] become crushed into folds, or make sth do this ¶ collapse
      Please do not fold or crumple your form.
      His face crumples a bit.
      Instead of paying for their lunches with crumpled dollar bills and loose change, students in Carroll County schools are having their palms scanned in a new check-out system.
      I feel myself crumpling at the moment.
      Compare these words: crumb, crumble, and crumple.
      n[U] all the plants that grow in a particular place or country
      Flora is the plant life occurring in a particular region or time, generally the naturally occurring or indigenous-native plant life.
      The corresponding term for animal life is fauna.
      Flora, fauna and other forms of life such as fungi are collectively referred to as biota.
      Sometimes bacteria and fungi are also referred to as flora, as in the terms gut flora or skin flora.
      "Flora" comes from the Latin name of Flora, the goddess of plants, flowers, and fertility in Roman mythology.
      The natural resources of the earth, including the air, water, land, flora and fauna and especially representative samples of natural ecosystems, must be safeguarded for the benefit of present and future generations through careful planning or management, as appropriate.
      How about doing deliveries for a florist?
      Barry is rescued by a female florist human named Vanessa Bloome (Bee Movie).
      Compare these words: aurora, flora, Pandora, Señora, and signora.
      the ~ of sth - the coming of an important event, person, invention etc
      Advent is a season observed in many Western Christian churches as a time of expectant waiting and preparation for the celebration of the Nativity of Jesus at Christmas.
      The Nativity of Jesus, also The Nativity, refers to the accounts of the birth of Jesus, primarily based on the two accounts in the gospels of Luke and Matthew, and secondarily on some apocryphal texts.
      With the advent of the internet, twitter, and other alternate sources (for example overseas based media) media is moderated to a certain extent.
      However, these days, with the advent of social media technology such as Facebook and Twitter, it is now much easier (and cheaper) to market charity events to a wider range of people.
      Before the advent of Islam, the pagan Arab women generally enjoyed a respectable status in society.
      The advent of the Industrial Age made most jobs as menial and unskilled as possible.
      v[T] laugh at
      n[U] unkind laughter or comments
      "Ross, you don't think they'll judge and ridicule me?" asked Julie.
      As a heavy child, Monica felt she was being ridiculed by the students. She used to wear a gray sweatsuit and Rachel called her the Hindenburg.
      A sweatsuit is a loose, warm, stretchy suit consisting of long pants and a top which people wear to relax and do exercise. (=tracksuit)
      Track and field is a sport which combines various athletic contests based on the skills of running, jumping, and throwing.
      Dr. Green always ridiculed his wife's pottery class.
      Neener-neener is an exclamation typically used to taunt, ridicule, or boast.
      We're all pathetic and creepy and can't get girls. That's why we fight robots. If you're not there, you'll be exposed to ridicule.
      "Pantsuits suck." "And that opens her up to justifiable ridicule for wearing them."
      She had become an object of ridicule among her colleagues.
      She was treated with scorn and ridicule by her co-workers.
      She met with such ridicule that she almost quitted her job.
      The past tense and past participle of "quit" is "quit" or "quitted."
      adj connected with the side of sth or with movement to the side
      The wall is weak and requires lateral support.
      Most up-armored HMMWVs hold up well against lateral attacks, but offer little protection from a mine blast below the truck.
      The G1 slide board is designed to develop and improve lateral movement, balance, agility and coordination on the ice (for skating and stickhandling).
      Lateral thinking is a method of solving problems by using your imagination to help you think of solutions that are not obvious at first.
      Employees can expect lateral moves to different departments, to gain experience.
      A quadrilateral is a flat shape with four straight sides.
      adj attractive, exciting,and related to wealth and success
      This is so exciting! It's so glamorous! People taking our picture. How do I look?
      Being on TV isn't as glamorous and exciting as you think.
      You know, it's not exactly glamorous up there. The water that the astronauts drink is made from each other's recycled urine.
      Now, imagine this, you and I entering Stuart's party and all eyes turn to see America's most beloved and glamorous couple: R2-D2 and C-3PO.
      v[T] prevent sth or make sth impossible
      This does not preclude the bill from being set for another hearing.
      My inability to visualize such a beast does not preclude a logically valid mathematical model that will give us good predictions.
      The distance from the beach probably precludes taking small children, but the small pool is pretty good.
      Our mere presence in Iraq could have precluded Iran - or, what we see today, an Iraq under Iran's influence - from trying to protect Assad.
      There is no precluding the possibility of such a thing.
      n[C] a book with a cover made of thick paper
      A paperback (also known as softback or softcover) is a type of book characterized by a thick paper or paperboard cover, and often held together with glue rather than stitches or staples.
      In contrast, hardcover or hardback books are bound with cardboard covered with cloth; although more expensive, hardbacks are more durable.
      Paperback editions of books are issued when a publisher decides to release a book in a low-cost format.
      I would buy the book when it comes out in paperback.
      n[UC] severe mental or physical suffering ¶ sb/sth that causes this
      v[T] make sb suffer a lot
      Waiting for the result of the medical tests was sheer torment.
      Nothing can describe the torments we went through while we were waiting for the result.
      The tax forms were an annual torment to me.
      It tormented me all day - did I remember to lock the door when I left the house?
      "Yeah,Look Joey, that's enough. All right? The joke's over. I'm sick of it." "You mean this isn't the sweet torment you've been waiting all your life for?"
      Okay, stop tormenting me! This is mink! Okay, they're mean! And they hate squirrels!
      Leonard is clearly not the only person who is tormented by insecurity and has an ego in need of constant validation.
      Jimmy Speckerman used to torment Leonard in high school.
      Compare these words: agony, anguish, torment, and torture.
      v[I] sit on eggs to hatch them ¶ keep thinking about sth that you are annoyed, anxious or upset about
      n[C] family of birds, animals, or children
      Especially in domestic fowl, the act of sitting on eggs to incubate them is called brooding.
      The action or behavioral tendency to sit on a clutch of eggs is also called broodiness, and most egg-laying breeds of poultry have had this behavior selectively bred out of them to increase production.
      In biology, offspring is the product of reproduction of a new organism produced by one or more parents. Collective offspring may be known as a brood or progeny in a more general way.
      Once, Thomas Edison asked his mother why geese sit on their eggs. She explained that it was so they would hatch, and when he went missing that day, she found him sitting patiently on a batch of geese eggs in a neighbor's barn.
      "You break the ice with some kind of jokes so that they know you're the funny one and then I swoop in with some interesting conversation, so they'll see that I'm the brilliant, brooding (looking thoughtful and sad; mysterious and threatening), sexy one," said Ross.
      Mother Duck was brooding over her affair with a swan.
      "Stew in one's own juice" means "be left alone to suffer one's anger or disappointment."
      After Leonard stewed in his own juice for a while, he decided to come back and apologize to Penny.