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      v[I] look at sb/sth with a very annoyed expression
      n[C] an angry expression
      "I can't do this, I did it, it was me, I'm sorry, I kissed your mom," said Ross, catching sight of Joey scowling at him.
      "Oh, I'm gonna give him something besides joy, just...” Phoebe scowls at the man.
      Ross lowers his newspaper and scowls at Phoebe.
      Primates, such as ourselves, have a natural instinct to ostracize ill-mannered members of the troop. Bernadette's urge to shun, scowl or fling her waste at Priya is hard-wired into her DNA.
      In front of Macy's, Phoebe has adorned her bucket with numerous signs. Like "We are not a urinal!" and "I have no Macy's info." And other stuff like that. She also has a scowl on her face as she is ringing her bell.
      Compare these words: glare, glower, and scowl.
      adj causing, tending to cause, or caused by disruption
      Teachers have been facing an uphill battle getting students to pay attention ever since mobile devices came into the classroom. Smartphones, iPads, eBooks and other handheld electronics are distracting, noisy and disruptive.
      It is a universally accepted truth that separation is highly disruptive to the life of a child.
      A disruption is a situation in which something is prevented from continuing in its usual way.
      A disruptive innovation is an innovation that helps create a new market and value network, and eventually disrupts an existing market and value network (over a few years or decades), displacing an earlier technology.
      The Internet is a highly disruptive technology, and thus the industry must respond rather than continue to use their old out-dated business model.
      In other words, big companies - like Microsoft - often struggle to innovate because they do not want to cannibalize their existing products - like Office and Windows - with disruptive innovation.
      In contrast to disruptive innovation, a sustaining innovation does not create new markets or value networks but rather only evolves existing ones with better value, allowing the firms within to compete against each other's sustaining improvements.
      Sustaining innovations may be either "discontinuous" (i.e. "transformational" or "revolutionary") or "continuous" (i.e. "evolutionary").
      The term "disruptive technology" has been widely used as a synonym of "disruptive innovation", but the latter is now preferred.
      v[T] stop sth from happening or sb from doing sth
      Oedipus was born to King Laius and Queen Jocasta. In the most well-known version of the myth, Laius wished to thwart a prophecy saying that his child would grow up to murder his father and marry his mother.
      In fact, incredibly, he is suggesting that his government has long been keen to tackle the issue, but was thwarted by the do-nothing George W. Bush administration!
      The attempts to trace the exact history of the Tulip have been thwarted by a lack of reliable documentation over the centuries although art from as early as the 12th century does give some clues.
      In 1988, gunmen were thwarted in their attempt to murder the liberation theologian priest Jean Bertrand Aristide, whose popularity was rising; 13 people were killed and 80 injured in the attack.
      If enough of us are educated, they will find their plans thwarted at every turn.
      n[C] sb who loves, supports, and defends one's country
      Patriotism is, generally speaking, cultural attachment to one's homeland or devotion to one's country, although interpretations of the term vary with context, geography and political ideology. It is a set of concepts closely related to those of nationalism.
      Patriots (also known as Rebels, Revolutionaries, Continentals, or American Whigs) were those colonists of the Thirteen Colonies who violently rebelled against British control during the American Revolution and in July 1776 declared the United States of America an independent nation.
      As a group, Patriots represented a wide array of social, economic, ethnic and racial backgrounds. They included lawyers like John Adams and Alexander Hamilton; planters like Thomas Jefferson and George Mason; merchants like Alexander McDougall and ordinary farmers like Daniel Shays and Joseph Plumb Martin.
      Patriots' Day (officially Patriots' Day in Massachusetts and Wisconsin and Patriot's Day in Maine) is a civic holiday commemorating the anniversary of the Battles of Lexington and Concord, the first battles of the American Revolutionary War on April 19, 1775.
      In the United States, Patriot Day observed as the National Day of Service and Remembrance, occurs on September 11 of each year in memory of the 2,977 killed in the 2001 September 11 attacks.
      The USA PATRIOT Act of 2001 is an Act of the U.S. Congress that was signed into law by President George W. Bush on October 26, 2001. It's a response to the terrorist attacks of September 11th.
      The MIM-104 Patriot is a surface-to-air missile (SAM) system, the primary of its kind used by the United States Army and several allied nations.
      n[CU] sth new and unusual, or the quality
      It's a novelty I ordered off the Internet.
      How is it I can conceptualize a methodology of examining dark matter in the universe but can't figure out how to fix a novelty squirt flower?
      I don't care for novelty editions of Monopoly. I prefer the classics, regular and Klingon.
      They make these great novelty cakes, in all different shapes, and if you give them a photo, they'll copy it in icing!
      Not funny huh? Oh so, is it only offensive novelty rap? "I like big butts and I cannot lie, you other brothers can't deny, when a girl walks in with an itty-bitty waist and a round thing in your face..."
      My new phone was fun for a while, but the novelty wore off.
      n[CU] removing, taking away ¶ abstract idea ¶ absent-mindedness, preoccupation
      The delta is also under pressure from increasing human population, and water abstraction for irrigation, mining and domestic use upstream and around the delta.
      A virtual machine is a software abstraction that behaves as a complete hardware computer.
      HAL (Hardware Abstraction Layer or rather Hardware Annotation Library) was a software subsystem for UNIX-like operating systems providing hardware abstraction.
      The purpose of the hardware abstraction layer was to allow desktop applications to discover and use the hardware of the host system through a simple, portable and abstract API, regardless of the type of the underlying hardware.
      HAL is now deprecated on most GNU/Linux distributions, such as parts of Ubuntu with functionality being merged into udev as of 2008-2010.
      He looked towards the window, and was all but lost in abstraction.
      adj unable to stop taking an illegal or harmful drug, hooked ¶ liking sth so much that you do not want to stop doing it or having it
      I'm not addicted to heroin, I'm not gay, and there is no problem with my ability to consummate anything! Look, I'll consummate this marriage right here, right now!
      Amy's got a lab full of cocaine-addicted monkeys with nothing to lose.
      You can get animals addicted to a harmful substance, you can dissect their brains, but you throw their own faces back at them and suddenly you're unprofessional.
      I've never played hooky in my life. My mom said that's how girls end up addicted to reefer and jazz music.
      Sometimes people start playing these games and they find themselves, through no fault of their own, you know, kind of addicted.
      Twelve years old and addicted to pork, no one thought Monica would marry.
      v[T] learn words, music etc so that you know them perfectly
      Penny cared enough to memorize that stupid joke.
      Joey could teach you a speech that he memorized for auditions.
      I'm really impressed that you were able to memorize all this so quickly!
      I'm an actor! I can memorize anything! Last week on "Days" I had to say "Frontal temporal zygomatic craniotomy".
      He had clearly memorized all the stuff to say, and some of it didn't even make any sense.
      And if you think about it, I mean the reason he memorized all that stuff is because he thought it was important to you.
      Dennis Kim was told to learn Kim Fat's speech by heart for homework.
      v[T] make it difficult for sth to develop or succeed
      Bad weather is hindering the search for survivors.
      A calf injury increasingly hindered her mobility.
      Bulky clothes tend to hinder movement.
      High winds have hindered firefighters in their efforts to put out the blaze.
      Do you think this possibility will be helped or hindered when she discovers your Luke Skywalker no-more-tears shampoo?
      Compare these words: hamper, hinder, and impede.
      I'm not gonna let that stuff hang me up anymore. Look at me. I'm growing.
      adj made of flowers or decorated with flowers or pictures of flowers, or smelling of flowers
      The room is filled with flowers and a floral print sheet on the bed.
      Well, I'm gonna go get this floral bouquet in some water.
      Covered with dozens of glass flowers, the floral birdcage lantern casts a magical glow when illuminated.
      He died on 11 November 2010 following a short illness. There was a floral tribute (flowers sent as a sign of respect after someone has died)) to Simpson at Bramall Lane in his honor.
      Isabella is wearing a floral wreath and clutching a small crucifix in her tightly clasped hands.
      v[T] see or know sth that will happen in the future=predict
      Few analysts foresaw that gold prices would rise so steeply.
      He could never have foreseen that one day his books would sell in millions.
      Who could have foreseen such a fortune?
      v[T] risk losing or spoiling sth important
      Penny has dragged a chair in off the street whose unknown provenance jeopardizes the health and welfare of every resident in our building.
      "No, we discussed it. We decided we didn't wanna jeopardize our relationship by getting to know each other too well," said Amy.
      That's ok. Uh, anyway, well he and I both really liked you a lot, uhm, but we didn't want anything to jeopardize our friendship, so we kinda made a pact, that neither of us could ask you out.
      "I would never do anything to jeopardize my friendship with you," said Joey.
      Joey prepared for an interview with Soap Opera Digest, although he was afraid of saying something stupid that may jeopardize his career.
      Compare these words: endanger, jeopardize, imperil, and threaten.
      n[C] a loose outer garment, such as a cape
      n[U] sth that covers or hides sth else
      also a verb
      A cloak is a type of loose garment that is worn over indoor clothing and serves the same purpose as an overcoat; it protects the wearer from the cold, rain or wind for example, or it may form part of a fashionable outfit or uniform.
      Cloaks generally fasten at the neck or over the shoulder, vary in length, from hip all the way down to the ankle, mid-calf being the normal length.
      They may have an attached hood, and may cover and fasten down the front, in which case they have holes or slits for the hands to pass through. However, cloaks are almost always sleeveless.
      A cape is any sleeveless outer garment, such as a poncho, but usually it is a long piece of clothing that covers only the back half of the wearer, fastening around the neck.
      In fashion, the word cape usually refers to a shorter garment and cloak to a full-length version of the different types of garment, though the two terms are sometimes used synonymously for full-length coverings.
      They enter the apartment to find Sheldon is weaving a poncho at a loom.
      The restaurant was just a cloak for drug-smuggling activities.
      Most of Shanghai was under a cloak of thick mist.
      The guerrillas were wearing cloaks under which there were thousands of aspirin and penicillin pills.
      If I remember correctly, Captain Kirk will steal a cloaking device from the Romulans.
      "I can't shoot now. I'm cloaking!" "Now, Raj! Kill Sheldon!" "I can't see him!" "That's why they call it cloaking, dead man!"
      n[C] the final section of the digestive system ¶ the punctuation mark ":"
      "I'm your bran muffin. Probably fat-free and good for your colon," said Leonard.
      You know I'm doing a bowel cleanse for my colonoscopy (examination of the large bowel)! I'm like an upside-down volcano here.
      Unless you wanna watch the video of her colonoscopy. Spoiler alert, 20 minutes in they find a prune pit.
      "Do you know how long it's been since I got through airport security without being given a colonoscopy?" Raj asked.
      Lipid residue. An anal autograph. A colon calling card, if you will.
      Colorectal surgery is a field in medicine, dealing with disorders of the rectum, anus, and colon. The field is also known as proctology, but the latter term is now used infrequently within medicine, and is most often employed to identify practices relating to the anus and rectum in particular.
      A semi-colon is the punctuation mark; which is used in writing to separate different parts of a sentence or list or to indicate a pause.
      adj seeming to be everywhere
      I grew up in Texas. Football is ubiquitous in Texas: pro football, college football, high school football, Pee Wee football. In fact, every form of football except the original, European football. Which most Texans believe to be a commie plot.
      In Sweden and Denmark it has become almost ubiquitous in the past 10,000 years.
      Social networks are ubiquitous in the real world and no less so in Mountain Lion. As well as being able to Tweet straight from the Notification Center, you'll be able to post to Twitter, Flickr, Vimeo and (in a few months) Facebook directly from many apps such as Safari, Photo Booth, Notes, iPhoto and others.
      The cellphone, that most ubiquitous of consumer-electronic appliances, is about to enter a new age.
      Despite the ubiquitous use of email, fax messages remain an important means of business communication - particularly for legal documents.
      n[C] a follower and student of a mentor, teacher etc
      There is also no separation of the terms "apostles" and "disciples" in the Gospel of John.
      According to the account in the Gospel of John, Judas carried the disciples' money bag.
      The seventy disciples or seventy-two disciples (known in the Eastern Christian tradition as the Seventy Apostles) were early students of Jesus mentioned in the Gospel of Luke 10:1–24.
      Yan Hui, also known as Yen Tzu or Yanzi (Master Yan), and by his courtesy name Ziyuan (Chinese: 子淵) and Yan Yuan, was the favorite disciple of Confucius.
      Apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of practitioners of a trade or profession with on-the-job training and often some accompanying study (classroom work and reading).
      adj coming or following one after another
      The act of knocking down all ten pins with two successive rolls of a bowling ball is called a spare.
      I have back-to-back (consecutive, successive, in tow) classes.
      A subscription is a payment or promise of payment for successive issues of a magazine etc over a specified period of time.
      Hey! Ross, wouldn't it be great if we could go like two straight hours without dropping the ball?
      On the one hand, successive Governments have been zealous in increasing the rate of Air Passenger Duty (APD) on flights to the point that we now levy the highest air passenger tax in the world.
      Furthermore, successive generations of young women are graduating with university degrees in 'non-traditional' fields of study.
      n[s] the start of sth
      The FBI warning is given to a suspect at the very outset of the interview, as shown in the Westover case, cited above.
      At the outset of the hearing, Thomas told the judge in a barely audible voice that he wasn't sure what was right and what was wrong.
      The Celtics expected this type of production from the outset of the season but developing a rhythm has been difficult.
      Measured by this standard, the US-led war in Afghanistan has been illegal from the outset.
      n[U] a silvery white metallic element, symbol Ni
      n[C] a US or Canadian coin that is worth five cents
      Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
      Nickel belongs to the transition metals and is hard and ductile.
      A nickel, in American usage, is a five-cent coin struck by the United States Mint. Composed of 75% copper and 25% nickel, the piece has been issued since 1866.
      The nickel's design since 1938 has featured a profile of President Thomas Jefferson on the obverse.
      How do I and Joey know each other? Wow, if I had a nickel for every time somebody has asked me that.
      Your Grandfather wanted her to travel around Europe, like he did. Of course, he got to do it on Uncle Sam's nickel, because he was also strafing German troop trains at the time.
      In American football, a nickel defense is a defensive alignment that uses five defensive backs, of whom the fifth is known as a nickelback.
      Compare these words: cent, penny, nickel, dime, and quarter.
      adj like a pivot, critical
      Jefferson obviously was a very great man who played a pivotal role in the founding of our nation.
      D&D is more than just a set of rules for fantasy gaming. It launched an entire gaming genre and played a pivotal role in creating the entirety of the gaming industry, both analog and digital.
      This was a pivotal moment in my life.
      We are at a pivotal point in this time of Australia's history.
      Ontario Hospitals and Long Term Care is a newly created role that is pivotal to the future and continued success of the organization.
      Ohio may once again be pivotal in the race for the presidency.
      n[UC] a spirit produced by distilling wine
      Brandy generally contains 35–60% alcohol by volume (70–120 US proof) and is typically taken as an after-dinner drink.
      Some brandies are aged in wooden casks, some are colored with caramel coloring to imitate the effect of aging, and some brandies are produced using a combination of both aging and coloring.
      Varieties of wine brandy can be found across the winemaking world.
      Among the most renowned are Cognac and Armagnac from Southwestern France.
      In western countries, brandy is traditionally drunk at room temperature (neat) from a snifter, a wine glass or a tulip glass.
      In parts of Asia, it is usually drunk over ice cubes ("on the rocks").
      Brandy is a common deglazing liquid used in making pan sauces for steak and other meat.
      adj individual, unique, remarkable, or peculiar ¶ ≠plural
      also a noun
      It is clear that innovative economic policy rather than a singular focus on improved subsidies, welfare and services must be at the heart of policy on Central Australia.
      He constantly reviles me with his singular lack of vision.
      "I love my mother. My feelings for my spot are much greater. It is the singular location in space around which revolves my entire universe," said Sheldon.
      We use the singular form of the verb when the subject is: (a) singular (b) uncountable (c) a clause.
      Data are or data is? Is it singular or plural?
      'Datum' is the singular of 'data'.
      No, no, not the Mets, the MET, singular!
      Your thoughts? Plural?
      v[IT] draw to or gather about a center ¶ bring or come under central control
      In a centralized system of decision making, when the reality is not fully known at the center there can be no rectification of errors.
      It was centralized in the sense that it tried to find a solution for the whole of Somalia, and top down in the sense that it focused on the leaders of the different fractions, the warlords, paying less attention to the clan leaders and civil society.
      Like price controls, tariffs have long been a tool of centralized government.
      1984 was the first Paralympic Games to benefit from the centralized control of a single international body.
      n[CU] a synthetic material used for writing and art ¶ a form of limestone
      v[IT] write, mark, or draw something with ~
      The best way to achieve a goal is to devote 100% of your time and energy to it. When I decided I was going to be a physicist, I didn't take some other job in case it didn't work out. Which wasn't easy because there was a lot of pressure from Ms. Pearson for me to be chalk monitor that year.
      "One time, I swear I pooped out a stick of chalk," said Howard.
      Ross was writing in chalk on the blackboard. He turned around and dragged the chalk down the board.
      Cretaceous is the period from about 144 to 65 million years ago when rock containing chalk was formed.
      A chalk outline is a temporary outline drawn on the ground outlining evidence at a crime scene.
      Phoebe's name is written out there in chalk.
      Wait, does he eat chalk?
      Phoebe and Ursula are as different as chalk and cheese.
      Seattle chalked up another win last night over Denver.
      Chalk the drinks up to my account.
      n[C] a finger or toe ¶ one of the written numbers from 0 to 9
      The number 16888 contains five digits.
      8888 is a four-digit number.
      Interstates are numbered as follows. Even-numbered routes run east and west, odd-numbered routes run north and south. Three-digit route numbers indicate bypasses or spurs.
      Somebody just hit 100 Twitter followers. Triple digits, I'm not gonna lie, feels pretty good.
      Webbed toes is the common name for syndactyly affecting the feet. It is characterized by the fusion of two or more digits of the feet.
      Syndactyly is the condition of having two or more fused digits, as occurs normally in certain mammals and birds.