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      n[CU] a cruel and violent act, esp in a war
      Another global security policy issue which has been a very live one this year with the events in Libya and elsewhere in North Africa and the Middle East, is how the international community should react to mass atrocity crimes (genocide, ethnic cleansing, and other large scale crimes against humanity or war crimes) occurring within a sovereign state, when the state in question is unable or unwilling to discharge its own responsibility to protect its people.
      Hitler's plan to exterminate Germany's Jews was inspired by the 1915 genocide of Armenians by the Turkish Ottoman Empire, an atrocity barely noticed by the international community.
      The family and friends of the young men who committed the atrocity, all British-born Muslims of Pakistani descent, insisted that their actions had nothing to do with Islam.
      This year marks the 75th anniversary of the Nanking Massacre, when the Japanese Imperial Army brutally raped, tortured, and murdered more than 300,000 Chinese people. Horrific in intensity and scale, this atrocity remains relatively obscure in public awareness, while the memories and legacies of this history are alive today and continue to have a profound impact.
      n[CU] tall plant of the grass family with hard hollow jointed stems
      Certain species of bamboo can grow 35 inches within a 24-hour period, at a rate of 0.00003 km/h (0.00002 mph).
      Bamboos are of notable economic and cultural significance in South Asia, Southeast Asia and East Asia, being used for building materials, as a food source, and as a versatile raw product.
      Bamboo species are found in diverse climates, from cold mountains to hot tropical regions.
      Bamboo was in widespread use in early China as a medium for written documents.
      The earliest surviving examples of such documents, written in ink on string-bound bundles of bamboo strips (or "slips"), date from the fifth century BC during the Warring States period.
      Bamboo's long life makes it a Chinese symbol of uprightness, while in India it is a symbol of friendship.
      In Chinese culture, the bamboo, plum blossom, orchid, and chrysanthemum (often known as 梅兰竹菊) are collectively referred to as the Four Gentlemen.
      n[UC] distance of a place north or south of the equator, measured in degrees ¶ freedom to choose what you do or say
      In geography, latitude (φ) is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north-south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
      Latitude is an angle (defined below) which ranges from 0° at the Equator to 90° (North or South) at the poles.
      Lines of constant latitude, or parallels, run east-west as circles parallel to the equator.
      Latitude is used together with longitude to specify the precise location of features on the surface of the Earth.
      The radiative effects of WV are mostly limited to lower altitudes and lower latitudes.
      Prince Leopold, himself a musician, appreciated Bach's talents, paid him well, and gave him considerable latitude in composing and performing.
      adj new, original and clever ¶ inventive
      Sounds like a truly imaginative solution.
      Russ, for example, in longitudinal studies, found that early imaginative play was associated with increased creative performance years later.
      With imaginative use of brush-strokes and color, Mir brilliantly captures the essence of common, everyday experience.
      He did bring a lot of witty, imaginative ideas out of people.
      Her knowledge of the subject and her imaginative approach to the challenge yielded rapid and remarkable results.
      n[UC] rebellion
      An insurgency is a rebellion against a constituted authority (for example, an authority recognized as such by the United Nations) when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents.
      Not all rebellions are insurgencies. There have been many cases of non-violent rebellions, using civil resistance, as in the People Power Revolution in the Philippines in the 1980s that ousted President Marcos and the Egyptian Revolution of 2011.
      When insurgency is used to describe a movement's unlawfulness by virtue of not being authorized by or in accordance with the law of the land, its use is neutral.
      Sometimes there may be one or more simultaneous insurgencies (multipolar) occurring in a country. The Iraq insurgency is one example of a recognized government versus multiple groups of insurgents.
      n[UC] a hard, shiny substance made by heating clay ¶ plates, cups etc made of ~
      Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating materials, generally including clay in the form of kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between 1,200 and 1,400 °C (2,200 and 2,600 °F).
      The toughness, strength, and translucence of porcelain arises mainly from the formation of glass and the mineral mullite within the fired body at these high temperatures.
      Porcelain wares, such as those similar to these Yongle-era porcelain flasks, were often presented as trade goods during the 15th-century Chinese maritime expeditions.
      Because of its durability, inability to rust and nonporous nature (porcelain has an absorption rate of less than .5%), glazed porcelain has been in use for personal hygiene since at least the third quarter of the 17th century.
      Scarlet stood behind the chairs, drinking coffee from a porcelain cup.
      She had a fine collection of Meissen porcelain.
      v[T] broadcast sth on television
      The trial will not be televised and the trial will not be tweeted.
      The game will not be televised or streamed.
      Tip-off is set for 10:36 p.m. CST at Oregon's McArthur Court and will be televised by ESPN2 (Cable Ch. 36) and broadcast by WJNH (107.3-FM).
      Much of the televised discussion yesterday concerned the investigative tools available in Britain that U.S. officials credit with allowing authorities to get ahead of the plot before it proved catastrophic.
      v[T] puzzle
      n[C] a screen used to control or prevent the flow of sound, light or liquid
      You know what baffles me, Sheldon?
      This movie baffles me every time we watch it.
      Unacceptable. It baffles me why they don't simply let some of you go so there's money available for my research.
      It's what we think caused your narcissistic personality disorder. We discussed it at length during our last video chat. Although how we got onto the subject of you is baffling.
      I don't object to the concept of a deity, but I'm baffled by the notion of one that takes attendance.
      Ladies and gentlemen, honored daughters, while Mr. Kim, by virtue of his youth and naivety, has fallen prey to the inexplicable need for human contact, let me step in and assure you that my research will go on uninterrupted, and that social relationships will continue to baffle and repulse me. Thank you.
      Penny's voice was baffled by a mouthful of ice-cream.
      A sound baffle is a construction or device which reduces the strength (level) of airborne sound.
      n[C] memento
      A souvenir is something which you buy or keep to remind you of a holiday, place, or event.
      A park in London, Joey and Chandler walk up to a souvenir stand.
      "That was the underwear I was wearing that night in London. Right Monica?" "I guess I wanted to keep it as a souvenir."
      Why don't you just give us our souvenirs and get the hell out of here?
      adj rough ≠smooth ¶ ≠fine ¶ crude, vulgar
      Canvas is strong coarse cloth used for making tents, sails, etc.
      If your voice is hoarse, you speak in a low rough voice.
      Recommended for people aged 15 years or older. Contains coarse language and adult themes.
      The basic structure is a waterproof box filled with coarse sand laid over a gravel bed.
      Coarse hair is generally quite thick and a little bit unruly.
      Sprinkle them all with coarse salt and a bit of freshly squeezed lemon juice.
      v[IT] swallow quickly or greedily ¶ make a swallowing motion ¶ breathe deeply
      also a noun
      If you gulp something, you eat or drink it very quickly by swallowing large quantities of it at once.
      If you gulp down food or drink, you quickly eat or drink it all by swallowing large quantities of it at once.
      If you gulp, you swallow air, often making a noise in your throat as you do so, because you are nervous or excited.
      If you gulp air, you breathe in a large amount of air quickly through your mouth.
      A gulp of air, food, or drink, is a large amount of it that you swallow at once.
      He raised his head a bit to meet the bottle and gulped down the bitter potion.
      "No, sir," I gulped.
      The drinks arrive, and Chandler downs his espresso in one gulp.
      Sheldon drains his glass in one gulp.
      n[s] the part of a scene or picture that is nearest to and in front of the viewer
      The dark spots in foreground are ships that were placed near the blast site to test what an atom bomb would do to a fleet of warships.
      Between the high detail of the foreground and the abstract distance of the horizon, the reader is invited in.
      The piles of wire visible in the foreground are only a part of the plane's 150 miles of wiring.
      If something or someone is in the foreground, or comes to the foreground, they receive a lot of attention.
      In the epoch of imperialism, the bankers became the aristocrats of the capitalist world, so in another sense, they were very much in the foreground.
      adj extremely beautiful and delicate ¶ showing excellent judgment ¶ intense
      Can I just say Monica that your driving is exquisite?
      "Tomato tart and which of the pastas would you recommend?" "Oh, they're both exquisite." "Both it is, thank you."
      "How was everything, sir?" "Excellent. The shrew in particular, was exquisite."
      Well, first of all, your lie was laughably transparent, where mine is exquisitely convoluted. While you were sleeping, I was weaving an un-unravelable web.
      Although the Neanderthal man was not yet fully human and although he had a brain volume larger than that of modern man,he made exquisite tools of stone.
      n[U] view or views of natural features, especially in open country ¶ the painted background, furniture etc used on a theater stage
      When people describe the outdoors they sometimes use landscape and scenery incorrectly.
      We use the word landscape to talk about the view or a large expanse of a particular area and how it is arranged or positioned.
      We can also use the term urban landscape to talk about the same thing but of an urban scene.
      When we want to talk about the natural features of a particular area that we can see, we use the word scenery.
      Scenery also has another meaning. It is the painted background of a stage (where a play is performed).
      We only use the word nature to talk about the general world of animals and plants in their natural form.
      I took many pictures of the landscape of the Lake District.
      Old buildings dominated the landscape.
      New Zealand has such a varied landscape.
      The scenery was absolutely beautiful.
      I love watching nature documentaries on the TV.
      adj fresh and clean, as if new ¶ primitive, ancient
      She pulled out a pristine white handkerchief, bent down, and wiped my face.
      I happened to find a signed first edition in pristine condition many years ago in London.
      The beach is pristine, and the service prompt and friendly.
      Pristine beaches, tropical islands, lush rainforests, vibrant cities and the authentic Australian outback, Queensland is the ultimate holiday destination.
      v[T] raise, lift, or pull up sth
      n[C] a device used for lifting heavy things
      Hi, Gentlemen. Uh, no doubt you heard about my little breakthrough. Now, if your plan is to hoist me on your shoulders and carry me around the cafeteria, please refrain.
      If you hoist a flag or a sail, you pull it up to its correct position by using ropes.
      Let's start by identifying the parts of our flag. This edge is the hoist (the half of a flag nearer to the flagpole).
      Every normal man must be tempted at times to spit on his hands, hoist the black flag, and begin to slit throats.
      If someone who has planned to harm someone else is hoist with their own petard or hoist by their own petard, their plan in fact results in harm to themselves.
      v[T] pay attention to
      also a noun
      If you heed someone's advice or warning, you pay attention to it and do what they suggest.
      If you take heed of what someone says or if you pay heed to them, you pay attention to them and consider carefully what they say.
      When I see someone who is clearly stupid spouting off something that is stupid, I don't pay any heed to it and I go on about my life like it didn't happen.
      He also indicated that he would not heed Western proposals to leave Syria.
      Defense contractor Lockheed Martin heeded a request from the White House today - one with political overtones - and announced it will not issue layoff notices to thousands of employees just days before the November presidential election.
      v[T] give out
      phrv ~ with - manage without, get rid of
      If someone dispenses something that they own or control, they give or provide it to a number of people.
      If you obtain a product by getting it out of a machine, you can say that the machine dispenses the product.
      When a chemist dispenses medicine, he or she prepares it, and gives or sells it to the patient or customer.
      There is a vending machine on the platform that dispenses drinks and snacks.
      The machine dispenses a range of drinks and snacks.
      Let's dispense with the formalities (speak openly and directly), shall we?
      Automation has largely dispensed with the need for manual checking.
      n[C] a tree or bush that does not lose its leaves in winter
      adj describes a plant, bush, or tree which has leaves for the whole year ¶ always seeming fresh or remaining popular
      In botany, an evergreen is a plant that has leaves throughout the year, always green.
      This contrasts with deciduous plants, which completely lose their foliage during the winter or dry season.
      There are many different kinds of evergreen plants, both trees and shrubs.
      Evergreen forest dropped from nearly 30% from 3100 BC to 15-20% in 2800 BC.
      Sure, there may be perfectly good textbooks whose content doesn't age, evergreen subjects where the life cycle of the book is determined more by the condition of the cover than the content.
      v[I] have or cause an uncomfortable feeling on the skin which makes you want to rub it with your nails
      n[C] the feeling ¶ a strong desire
      The label on this shirt itches me.
      Scratch yourself if you itch.
      This sweater itches.
      Please scratch my back - I have an itch.
      My scalp were itching terribly because of dandruff.
      Are your mosquito bites still itching?
      The heat made me itch all over.
      He was itching for a chance to show how good he was.
      She cannot resist her itch to elope.
      His fingers positively itched with the desire to slap her face.
      n[C] sb whose job is to ride horses in races
      v[I] compete strongly to get into the best position or situation, or to get the most power
      A disc jockey or DJ is someone who plays and introduces CDs on the radio or at a disco.
      If you say that someone is jockeying for something, you mean that they are using whatever methods they can to get it or do it before their competitors can get it or do it.
      If someone is jockeying for position, they are using whatever methods they can in order to get into a better position than their rivals.
      After World War I, the Great Powers of Europe jockeyed for influence in the Middle East's oil fields and trade routes.
      This possibility has spurred political jockeying between the Obama administration and Gulf Coast politicians who want to maximize the amount of money the states receive to help local communities affected by the spill.
      adj having clear ideas of what the world should be like in the future ¶ existing only in sb's mind
      n[C] sb who is ~ ¶ seer
      Take time to review your goals in life and your fantasies of what could be, giving yourself the freedom to be visionary.
      As cranky as Larry Kramer is, I have to respect him as a visionary activist and thinker.
      There is a fine line between wrong and visionary. Unfortunately you have to be a visionary to see it.
      Steve Wozniak is Sheldon Cooper's fifteenth favorite technological visionary.
      I am passionate about conspiring with visionary individuals and organizations to change the world through web and media.
      n[C] a book or set of books giving information about a lot of different subjects or one particular subject
      An encyclopedia is a type of reference work or compendium holding a comprehensive summary of information from either all branches of knowledge or a particular branch of knowledge.
      Encyclopedias are divided into articles or entries, which are usually accessed alphabetically by article name.
      Encyclopedia entries are longer and more detailed than those in most dictionaries.
      Generally speaking, unlike dictionary entries, which focus on linguistic information about words, encyclopedia articles focus on factual information to cover the thing or concept for which the article name stands.
      In the United States, the 1950s and 1960s saw the introduction of several large popular encyclopedias, often sold on installment plans. The best known of these were World Book and Funk and Wagnalls.
      In 2001, Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger launched Wikipedia, a collaboratively edited, multilingual, open-source, free Internet encyclopedia supported by the non-profit Wikimedia Foundation.
      n[C] one of several layers or levels
      The audience sat in tiers of seats in a semi-circle.
      Monica dreamed about the perfect wedding, and the perfect place, with the perfect four-tiered wedding cake.
      Middle tier players can come up with a great tournament but just can not do it again and again. This is what separates the top tier from the middle tier.
      The first tier is comprised of Jimmy Graham, Rob Gronkowski, Aaron Hernandez and Vernon Davis.
      v[T] harm sb's reputation ¶ make people think that sth is not true
      n[U] the loss of other people's respect or trust
      The last two papers Ross had written were widely discredited.
      Abu Mūsā Jābir ibn Hayyān made a greater contribution to the discredited field of alchemy than Halbert Vanderplatt made to neurobiology.
      I plan on having you publish a scientific paper expounding the discredited Velikovsky hypothesis.
      Members shall avoid conduct or practices likely to bring discredit upon themselves, the Institute, their employers or clients.
      To his discredit, he did nothing about it - if anything, making the problem a little worse.