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      v[T] write words in a book or them on sth
      If you inscribe something in the front of a book or on a photograph, you write it there, often before giving it to someone.
      The prize winners each receive a book with their names inscribed on the first page.
      If you inscribe something in the front of a book or on a photograph, you write it there, often before giving it to someone.
      Poetic rings became popular in France in the 17th century. These rings were inscribed with poems or other romantic verses declaring adoration and everlasting love.
      I've always been a fan of a story told by Attar of Nishapur, about a king who assembled a group of wise men to create a ring that would make him happy when he was sad. And that ring was inscribed with the phrase, this too shall pass.
      v[IT] show the teeth and make a deep angry noise in the throat
      also a noun
      If an animal such as a dog or a lion snarls, it makes an angry sound in its throat and shows its teeth.
      If someone snarl something, they say it in a fierce, angry way.
      "Shut up," he snarled.
      Traffic snarled up (tangled) on both sides of the road.
      A snarl is a disorganized mass of things.
      Monica's knitting was in a terrible snarl.
      n[C] sb who is asked to settle a disagreement ¶ sb whose job is to make sure that players in a game obey the rules ¶ sb who gives you a reference
      v[IT] be the ~ of a game
      A senior judge is acting as referee in the pay dispute between the trade union and management.
      Crystal Palace only lost the game because the referee was biased.
      The match was refereed by Mr. Han.
      The referee awarded millions of free kick to the home team.
      Her former employer agreed to act as a referee for her.
      She gave her former manager as her referee to the interviewer.
      v[IT] hear what other people are saying unintentionally and without their knowledge
      Ok. Rachel, the hottest babies in the Tri-State Area are in this room right now! I overheard one of the judges say that not one of them holds a candle to Emma!
      Mr. Zellner obviously overheard the conversation.
      By the way, I couldn't help overhearing your big finish. Bravo, Leonard.
      Hey, Sheldon, I was up in the administration office, and I happened to overhear the name of the winner of this year's Chancellor's Award for Science.
      If you eavesdrop on someone, you listen secretly to what they are saying.
      If you listen in to a private conversation, you secretly listen to it.
      "Listen up" is used to get people's attention so they can hear what you are going to say.
      If you hear someone out, you listen to them without interrupting them until they have finished saying everything that they want to say.
      "Hear! hear!" is used in a discussion or meeting to say that you agree with what the speaker is saying.
      n[s] the beginning or origin of sth
      The Book of Genesis is the first book of the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament.
      Jackson tells the story of rubber through the life story of one of the rubber industry's pivotal figures: Henry Wickham, Victorian dreamer, adventurer, and nature artist, whose 1876 theft of 70,000 Hevea Brasiliensis seeds from the Amazon jungle was the genesis of the vast British rubber plantations in Southeast Asia, creating the rubber industry as we know it today.
      Progesterone is an endogenous steroid hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species.
      I really enjoyed your paper on the connection between geographic isolation and rapid mutagenesis (formation or development of a mutation).
      The inception of an institution or activity is the start of it.
      n[UC] a stiff hair or feather
      v[I] short stiff hair ¶ react angrily
      Bristles are often used to make brushes for cleaning uses, as they are strongly abrasive; common examples include the toothbrush and toilet brush.
      The bristle brush is a common household cleaning tool, often used to remove dirt or grease from pots and pans.
      Look! I cleaned! I did the windows, I did the floors, I even used all the attachments on the vacuum, except that little round one with the bristles, I don't know what that's for.
      Bristles are found on pig breeds instead of fur on most mammals.
      The dog's fur bristled as it sensed danger.
      President Barack Obama visibly and audibly bristled at the idea that anyone would question Rice or his nomination of her.
      n[UC] drastic, wide-reaching food shortage
      A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including crop failure, population unbalance, or government policies.
      This phenomenon is usually accompanied or followed by regional malnutrition, starvation, epidemic, and increased mortality.
      Nearly every continent in the world has experienced a period of famine throughout history.
      Some countries, particularly in sub-Sahara Africa, continue to have extreme cases of famine.
      Raj, this is essentially why you have famine in India.
      adv clearly ¶ very, extremely
      "Did she really say that?" "Yes, I distinctly remember 'cause I thought it was a joke."
      No I distinctly remember you were dodging her (points at Monica) calls and trying to avoid seeing her.
      Leonard and Howard whisper indistinctly.
      We tried. His assistant said he was on sabbatical. Although we distinctly heard his office window open and shut.
      I felt distinctly uncomfortable.
      v[T] defeat or control
      If soldiers or the police subdue a group of people, they defeat them or bring them under control by using force.
      By 47 a.d., the Romans had finally subdued the rebels.
      To subdue feelings means to make them less strong.
      Julia had to subdue an urge to stroke his hair.
      Phoebe's dog was subdued ( not showing much excitement, interest, etc).
      adj illegal, unlawful
      In October, the Swiss Parliament passed the Restitution of Illicit Assets Act, which took effect on Feb. 1.
      If she tests negative on illicit drugs, then USCIS should clear her for the visa.
      Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug, with forty-two percent of American adults reporting that they have used it.
      Risky sexual behaviors and illicit use of drugs also contributed significantly to mortality.
      n[C] the top edge of a cup, bowl, glass, etc ¶ the part of a hat that sticks out from the base
      v[I] be full to the ~
      She filled the bowl to the brim.
      Rachel is wearing a giant straw hat, the brim is very wide.
      Sombrero (Spanish for "Hat") in English refers to a type of wide-brimmed hat in Mexico.
      It usually has a high pointed crown, an extra-wide brim (broad enough to cast a shadow over the head, neck and shoulders of the wearer, and slightly upturned at the edge), and a chin string to hold it in place.
      Cowboys generalized the word to mean just about any wide broad-brimmed hat.
      If your eyes brim with tears, or if tears brim from your eyes, you start to cry.
      If someone or something is brimming with a particular quality, they are full of that quality.
      If something brims with particular things, it is packed full of them.
      The rim of a container such as a cup or glass is the edge that goes all the way round the top.
      The rim of a circular object is its outside edge.
      n[C] the joints of the fingers
      also a verb
      The knuckles are the joints of the fingers which are brought into prominence when the hand is clenched and a fist is made.
      The word is cognate to similar words in other Germanic languages, such as the Dutch "Knokkel" (knuckle) or German "Knöchel" (ankle), i.e., Knöchlein, the diminutive of the German word for bone (Knochen).
      The physical mechanism behind the popping or cracking sound heard when cracking joints such as knuckles is still uncertain, although it is widely believed to be caused by synovial fluid filling the vacuum left by the joint's displacement.
      Joey's constant knuckle-cracking isn't annoying?
      Does the knuckle-cracking bother everybody?
      Yeah, but did you see the dents in his knuckles? That means he's artistic.
      Dice were originally made from the talus of hoofed animals, colloquially known as "knucklebones".
      Joey's knuckles are kinda hairy too.
      "Knuckle under (accept someone else's authority, =give in, buckle under) my ass," said Penny.
      If someone knuckles down, they begin to work or study very hard, especially after a period when they have done very little work. (=get down to, buckle down)
      n[C] a narrow bed, often fixed to a wall
      v[I] lie down to go to sleep
      A bunk bed is a type of bed in which one bed frame is stacked on top of another.
      Captain Haddock was lying on the top bunk feeling seasick.
      The twins sleep in bunk beds, the elder sleeps in the top bunk.
      The nature of bunk beds allows two or more people to sleep in the same room while maximizing available floor space for activities.
      This leads to them being used in places with limited floor space, such as on ships and in army garrisons or in places where floorspace needs to be maximized, such as dormitories, summer camp cabins, hostels, children's rooms, prison cells, or university residence halls.
      "And Chandler will be?" "Out here with me, bunking up on the hide-a-bed."
      A sofa bed or sofa-bed, (in the US often sofabed, hide-a-bed, couch bed or sleeper-sofa), typically is a sofa or couch which has underneath its seating cushions a metal frame and thin mattress that can be unfolded or opened up to make a bed.
      A futon differs from a sofabed, although sofa beds using futon mattresses are common.
      Oh, bunking up. If you smell S'mores, don't be alarmed.
      A s'more (sometimes spelled smore) is a traditional night time campfire treat popular in the United States and Canada, consisting of a roasted marshmallow and a layer of chocolate sandwiched between two pieces of graham cracker.
      Mail call, Rachel Green, bunk seven.
      You know what? It is your life. If you wanna have some stupid guitarist stay on your couch, then fine! Why don't you just rent some bunk beds and invite The Black Eyed Peas?!
      The Black Eyed Peas is an American hip hop group.
      Don't worry, Penny. You're my plus-one. You'll bunk with me. And FYI, travel makes me constipated, so I'm the ideal hotel roommate.
      He had bunked off (=skive) work all week.
      n[UC] a journey to a holy place
      A pilgrimage is a journey or search of moral or spiritual significance. Typically, it is a journey to a shrine or other location of importance to a person's beliefs and faith, although sometimes it can be a metaphorical journey into someone's own beliefs.
      A person who makes such a journey is called a pilgrim.
      Tibetans on a pilgrimage to Lhasa, doing full-body prostrations, often for the entire length of the journey.
      The pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj) is one of the five pillars of Islam and a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence.
      Elvis Presley's home has become a place of pilgrimage.
      n[C] a quality that seems to surround or come from a person,place,or situation
      Stop cleansing my aura, just leave my aura alone.
      I was cleansing her aura when it happened, and when her spirit left her body, I don't think it went very far.
      Conscious or intentional psychic vampires are manipulative people who seek to take all they can from others without ever giving in return. When pressed, they rarely give away information in any detail and refuse to build up much of a picture of their own lives but live under an aura of mystery and aloofness.
      Hawk (Tony Leung Ka-fai) had an aura of authority.
      Compare these words: air, ambiance, atmosphere, aura, and miasma.
      n[C] a long piece of writing on a particular subject that you do as part of a university degree
      A thesis (Often Bachelors/Masters) or dissertation (often Doctoral) is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings.
      In some contexts, the word "thesis" or a cognate is used for part of a bachelor's or master's course, while "dissertation" is normally applied to a doctorate, while in other contexts, the reverse is true.
      The term graduate thesis is sometimes used to refer to both master's theses and doctoral dissertations.
      My doctoral dissertation! It's here! Yeah, it's right down here! In the biggest library in the university!
      My doctoral dissertation is in the library at school, I went to see it, and there were students making babies right in the middle of the paleontology section!
      Excuse me, but you are not the only distinguished scientist in this apartment. I've been published in peer-reviewed journals, I received a Dissertation of the Year award for experimental particle physics.
      Is it any wonder Howard doesn't have a doctorate?
      The thesis committee accepted Bernadette's doctoral dissertation. She's getting her PhD.
      So, Alex, what's the topic of your dissertation?
      v[IT] move awkwardly as if you might fall ¶ speak hesitatingly ¶ be unsteady in purpose or action
      Ross steps on some garbage and falters.
      Chandler falters and Monica prompts him.
      "Well, that concludes your faltering attempt to mate," said Sheldon.
      Astrophysicists have long tried to simulate the formation of our spiral galaxy, the Milky Way. Until now, such attempts have faltered on one of two points: Either the simulated spiral galaxies displayed too many stars at the center or the overall stellar mass was several times too big.
      For three months, the U.S. economy by most measures has faltered.
      n[U] sentimental longing for things that are past
      Nostalgia is a sentimentality for the past, typically for a period or place with happy personal associations.
      The word nostalgia is a learned formation of a Greek compound, consisting of νόστος (nóstos), meaning "homecoming", a Homeric word, and ἄλγος (álgos), meaning "pain, ache", and was coined by a 17th-century medical student to describe the anxieties displayed by Swiss mercenaries fighting away from home.
      Described as a medical condition—a form of melancholy—in the Early Modern period, it became an important trope in Romanticism.
      In common, less clinical usage nostalgia can refer to a general interest in the past, their personalities and events, especially the "good old days" from one's earlier life.
      You didn't have anywhere near the kind of stuff that today's kids have and yet you look back on your childhood with a sense of nostalgia and pride.
      v[T] separate groups of people or things ≠integrate
      Museum cafeteria. Once again, the scientists and tour guides are segregated. Joey is eating with the other tour guides. Ross enters and slowly walks towards his usual scientist table.
      We are going to segregate the Wilshire Bl traffic from the I-405 traffic.
      I came across a US auto magazine that segregates cars according to their owner's status and the BMW 3 Series and Mercedes C class fell under a category labeled " Entry-level Executive".
      Racial segregation in the United States, as a general term, included the segregation or "hypersegregation" of facilities, services, and opportunities such as housing, medical care, education, employment, and transportation along racial lines.
      adj attractive in a fashionable way
      If we can't get it out then we can cut around the stain, add a little lace, you make a stylish throw.
      Boy, what I wouldn't give to get her out of those pants and into something a little more stylish.
      There are many stylish and modern women love small animals very much.
      I have always loved new IKEA catalogue time. How exciting is it? It doesn't matter if you need something new for your home or not, it's always a great display of smart, innovative, stylish design at affordable prices.
      Compare these words: classy, dashing, sharp, and stylish.
      adj completing
      Complementary things are different from each other but make a good combination.
      Complementary colors of light are very different and combine to make white.
      Two angles that are complementary add up to 90 degrees.
      Complementary medicine refers to ways of treating patients which are different from the ones used by most Western doctors, for example acupuncture and homoeopathy.
      v[T] cut words or pictures into a hard surface
      Their names are engraved on a gravestone.
      The jeweller skillfully engraved the initials 'RG' (Rachel Green or Ross Gellar) on the ring.
      Memories of that terrible day are forever engraved on my mind.
      "Oh, one gravy boat." "That's from Sheldon. He told me he had it engraved."
      Compare "engrave" and "inscribe".
      n[C] a line of rulers from the same family
      A dynasty is a line of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system but sometimes also appearing in elective republics.
      The dynastic family or lineage is known as a house.
      The names of the dynasty and the house are not always identical: the Han dynasty of Chinese history, for example, was ruled by the Liu family.
      the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe the events, trends, and artifacts of that period ("a Ming-dynasty vase").
      The word "dynasty" itself is often dropped from such adjectival references ("a Ming vase").
      The Habsburg dynasty ruled in Austria from 1278 to 1918.
      The Rothschild banking dynasty has been in London for 200 years.
      The new dynasty was symbolised by the "Tudor Rose",a fusion of the White Rose symbol of the House of York,and the Red Rose of the House of Lancaster.
      adj extreme and sudden, radical
      I'm sorry I'd to take such drastic measures to make my point,
      I don't think we need to make any drastic changes until we really do understand how we are affecting things.
      Before you take drastic action, such as disabling a service on every PC in your organization, make sure that the service you're disabling is not actually in use.
      It's a drastic reduction in the quality of service for patients, it's terrible.
      n[C] a book which gives a list of names, addresses or other facts ¶ a file containing a group of other files or programs in a computer
      A telephone directory, also known as a telephone book, telephone address book, phone book, or the white/yellow pages, is a listing of telephone subscribers in a geographical area or subscribers to services provided by the organization that publishes the directory.
      A Business directory or business directory is a website or printed listing of information which lists all businesses within some category.
      A web directory or link directory is a directory on the World Wide Web.
      Yahoo is the oldest and best-known Web directory service.
      A directory service is a software system that stores, organizes, and provides access to information in a computer operating system's directory.
      In computing, a directory is a file system cataloging structure which contains references to other computer files, and possibly other directories.
      On many computers directories are known as folders, catalogs, or drawers to provide some relevancy to a workbench or the traditional office file cabinet.