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      adj relating to or caused by a volcano
      Obama was shocked by Gordon Brown's volcanic fury.
      A volcanic eruption probably could not have caused the disaster.
      The 2350 BC event doesn't look like a volcanic event.
      Most of these islands are of volcanic origin, the country is situated on the South Asian part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, an area of strong volcanic activities.
      adj used for emphasizing how bad, good, or important sth is ¶ used for emphasizing how much effort sth takes ¶ very large and solid
      This is a monumental disaster in the waiting.
      Today, we faced a monumental task.
      Witness the monumental lawsuits between Apple and Microsoft.
      This is a monumental situation.
      The 2012 Presidential Election was a monumental event.
      n[C] a poisonous substance that causes disease
      A toxin is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded.
      Toxins can be small molecules, peptides, or proteins that are capable of causing disease on contact with or absorption by body tissues interacting with biological macromolecules such as enzymes or cellular receptors.
      Toxins vary greatly in their severity, ranging from usually minor (such as a bee sting) to almost immediately deadly (such as botulinum toxin).
      Toxins are often distinguished from other chemical agents by their method of production—the word toxin does not specify method of delivery (compare with venom and the narrower meaning of poison—all substances that can also cause disturbances to organisms).
      n[C] sb who is very interested in a particular activity or subject
      "So, to help me with that, please welcome my friend, neighbor, and flag virgin, yeah, not a real virgin. She's had coitus many times. Sometimes within earshot of this flag enthusiast," said Sheldon.
      "And for years, everyone in my family was convinced that he was the clarinet enthusiast," said Priya.
      Paul Newman was an American actor, film director, entrepreneur, humanitarian, professional racing driver, auto racing team owner and auto racing enthusiast.
      I am a sports car enthusiast. I have always been into cars.
      adj not sincere or not real
      Joey thought Jeannie was a phony.
      He is a smooth-talking phoney.
      Oh, good, a slumber party! We'll do makeovers, initiate phony phone calls, and have spirited pillow fights in our frilly nighties!
      And that, girls, is how you make a phony phone call.
      Oh, but if I do, I'll be a phony, a sellout, a Hollywood poser.
      Yes, absolutely. Now they're doing that phony link-arm-drink thingy. I totally taught him that.
      And to think I idolized that man. And why? At the end of the day he's just another Hollywood phony.
      n[C] a very small organism that causes disease ¶ the part of a plant or animal that can develop into a new plant or animal
      If you lived in a sterile enviroment and then happened to touch a bad germ you immune system could not handle it.
      A pathogen in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease, a term which came into use in the 1880s.
      Typically the term is used to describe an infectious agent such as a virus, bacterium, prion, fungus, or parasite that causes disease in its host.
      The host may be an animal, a plant, a fungus or even another microorganism.
      Germ warfare is the use of germs in a war in order to cause disease in enemy troops, or to destroy crops that they might use as food.
      A germ cell is any biological cell that gives rise to the gametes of an organism that reproduces sexually.
      The primitive streak is a structure that forms in the blastula during the early stages of avian, reptilian and mammalian embryonic development.
      In many animals, the germ cells originate in the primitive streak and migrate via the gut of an embryo to the developing gonads.
      The germ of something such as an idea is something which developed or might develop into that thing.
      adj acceptable
      It was perfectly satisfactory.
      We all know that an entirely perfect bill, satisfactory to everybody, would have been an impossibility.
      If you don't get a satisfactory answer, see your Dean immediately.
      The theory of evolution is not a satisfactory explanation.
      If your call doesn't produce satisfactory results, write a letter to someone higher up, such as the general manager.
      "Interesting. And was it not satisfactory?" "No, it was great. He just didn't really challenge me on an intellectual level."
      n[C] a small round sweet cake ¶ a small round type of bread ¶ a hairstyle
      A bun is a small, sometimes sweet, bread or bread roll.
      Buns are usually made from flour, sugar, milk, yeast and butter.
      A hamburger (also called a beef burger, hamburger sandwich, burger or hamburg) is a sandwich consisting of one or more cooked patties of ground meat, usually beef, placed inside a sliced bun.
      "Bun" may also refer to particular types of filled dumplings, such as Chinese baozi.
      A lotus seed bun is a Chinese sweet bun found in China.
      Kung Fu Panda likes bean buns.
      He has big buns (buttocks).
      If a woman has her hair in a bun, she has fastened it tightly on top of her head or at the back of her head in the shape of a ball.
      If a woman has a bun in the oven, she is pregnant.
      v[I] be fortunate or successful, esp in terms of sb's finances, thrive
      A lot of cellphone manufacturing companies prospered at that time.
      Keep up the good works and may Nokia continue to prosper in all economy phones it's making.
      They prosper in niches where the prosperous prize prestige over quality.
      Science, technology, engineering and medicine will prosper at the expense of other subjects.
      The nation cannot prosper long when it favors only the prosperous.
      We grew up together and watched our families grow and prosper together.
      n[U] a family relationship ¶ a strong connection between people
      Kinship is a relationship between any entities that share a genealogical origin, through either biological, cultural, or historical descent.
      I have always felt a special kinship with Brenda.
      Hank is a man of integrity who has a strong sense of kinship.
      If you do this, you will sever your ties of kinship.
      v[T] treat people who are less powerful in an unfair and cruel way ¶ make sb feel unhappy, worried, or uncomfortable
      They will use it to oppress everyone else if they ever get it under their own control.
      You need to control and oppress the Palestinians in order to continue to steal more and more of their land.
      If something oppresses you, it makes you feel depressed, anxious, and uncomfortable.
      The heat in the tropics oppressed me.
      It was not just the weather which oppressed her.
      n[C] a meeting where experts discuss a particular subject ¶ a group of articles on a particular subject collected together in a book
      In ancient Greece, the symposium was a drinking party.
      Literary works that describe or take place at a symposium include two Socratic dialogues, Plato's Symposium and Xenophon's Symposium, as well as a number of Greek poems such as the elegies of Theognis of Megara.
      Symposia are depicted in Greek and Etruscan art that shows similar scenes.
      An academic conference or symposium is a conference for researchers (not necessarily academics) to present and discuss their work.
      Together with academic or scientific journals, conferences provide an important channel for exchange of information between researchers.
      She contributed to a symposium on environmental issues.
      v[T] defeat sb completely
      n[U] a complete defeat
      He resigned after his party was routed in the election.
      His touchdown completed the rout in the fourth quarter.
      Beckham completed the rout with a low shot from the edge of the penalty area.
      The Federal retreat rapidly deteriorated into a rout.
      Compare these words: riot, rot, rout, and route.
      n[U] contempt, scorn
      v[T] regard sb with ~
      Oh pish (an interjection used to express disdain) on your issues.
      I would snort in derision/disdain and throw my arms in the air, exhausted by your constant tomfoolery.
      He always treated other's ideas with disdain.
      I was finding that my complete disdain for most people was spiraling out of control.
      adj likely ¶ legally responsible ¶ prone
      When something is liable to happen, it is very likely to happen.
      The car is liable to overheat on long trips.
      If you are liable for something such as a debt, you are legally responsible for it.
      Is a wife liable for her husband's debts?
      Anyone found trespassing is liable to a maximum fine of $100.
      If people or things are liable to something unpleasant, they are likely to experience it or do it.
      You're more liable to injury when you don't get regular exercise.
      n[C] a certificate or deed issued by an educational institution
      A diploma (from Greek δίπλωµα. díplōma, meaning "folded paper") is a certificate or deed issued by an educational institution, such as a college or university, that testifies that the recipient has successfully completed a particular course of study or confers an academic degree.
      In countries such as the United Kingdom and Australia, the word diploma refers to a level of academic award.
      The words diplomat and diplomacy have the same origin, from the official "folded papers" of accreditation delivered by ambassadors or delegates.
      n some countries, such as the UK and Australia, such a document can be called a testimonium or testamur, Latin for "we testify" or "certify" (testari), and so called from the word with which the certificate begins.
      Alternatively, the document is simply referred to as a degree certificate in these jurisdictions.
      In Ireland, it is generally called a parchment.
      The certificate that a Nobel laureate receives is also called a diploma.
      The term diploma is also used in some historical contexts, to refer to documents signed by a King affirming a grant or tenure of specified land and its conditions (see Anglo-Saxon Charters and Diplomatics).
      n[C] an insect related to the butterfly
      There are thought to be approximately 160,000 species of moth.
      Most species of moth are nocturnal, but there are also crepuscular and diurnal species.
      While the butterflies form a monophyletic group, the moths, which comprise the rest of the Lepidoptera, do not
      The modern English word "moth" comes from Old English "moððe" (cf. Northumbrian "mohðe") from Common Germanic (compare Old Norse "motti", Dutch "mot", and German "motte" all meaning "moth").
      The study of butterflies and moths is known as "lepidoptery", and biologists who specialize in either are called "lepidopterists".
      As a pastime, watching butterflies and moths is known as "butterflying" and "mothing".
      adj about to happen, imminent
      You can always spot someone who's never seen one of his plays before. Notice, no fear, no sense of impending doom...
      Monica, Chandler, and Phoebe's, Joey is telling everyone about his impending termination at Mac and C.H.E.E.S.E.
      The talk turned to Dan's impending death.
      I don't think that we have an impending disaster.
      v[IT] criticize or complain repeatedly in an annoying way
      n[C] sb who keeps complaining or asking sb to do sth, in an annoying way
      Oh my God! You cleaned! Look at these floors! You did the windows! Oh, I have been begging you for months and you did! You cleaned! And nagging works!
      "I don't care what the other guys are doing. If the other guys jumped in the Bay of Bengal and tried to swim to Sri Lanka, would you follow them?" "If you were standing behind me nagging, I might."
      Behind every great man is a nagging woman who won't let him have any fun, am I right, Leonard?
      Wow. Well, is that the kind of nagging I can expect now that you're my girlfriend? Good thing I drew this up.
      If you draw something up, you prepare a written document, such as a list or contract.
      If something such as a doubt or worry nags at you, or nags you, it keeps worrying you.
      I hate to nag. I hate being a nag, and I hate hearing myself nagging others.
      A nag is a horse, especially one that is old or in bad condition.
      v[I] become lower ¶ die down
      If a level of water, especially flood water, subsides, it goes down.
      When the floods subsided, the streets were littered with bodies.
      If the ground or a building is subsiding, it is very slowly sinking to a lower level.
      After the heavy rains, part of the road subsided.
      If a condition subsides, it becomes less strong or extreme.
      Ross waited nervously for Rachel's anger to subside.
      If a feeling or noise subsides, it becomes less strong or loud.
      The pains in his head had subsided, but he still felt dizzy and sick.
      n[CU] a slope, or the angle of a slope ¶ a feeling that you want to do sth ¶ a tendency to behave in a particular way or have a particular interest
      A propensity is innate inclination.
      A bent is a tendency, disposition, or inclination.
      The king's own inclination was always towards a pro-French policy.
      I have neither the time nor the inclination to play stupid games!
      He did not show the slightest inclination to leave.
      My natural inclination is to find a compromise.
      She has an inclination to stoutness.
      n[C] a religious group within one of the main religions ¶ the value of a particular coin or piece of paper money
      A religious denomination is a subgroup within a religion that operates under a common name, tradition, and identity.
      The term describes various Christian denominations (for example, Eastern Orthodox, Anglicanism, and the many varieties of Protestantism).
      The term also describes the four branches of Judaism (Orthodox, Conservative, Reform and Reconstructionist), and describes the two main branches of Islam (Sunni and Shia).
      Denomination is a proper description of a currency amount, usually for coins or banknotes.
      Denominations may also be used with other means of payment like gift cards.
      For example, five euros is the denomination of a five euro note.
      Banknotes of 5000 denomination in different currencies including Franc, Yen, Lire, and Dollar
      v[T] confuse
      Compare these words: bewilder, flummox, perplex, and puzzle.
      They want to confuse, bewilder and stupefy the listener.
      Cricket, more than most sports, is full of expressions and terms designed to bewilder the newcomer (and often even the more seasoned follower).
      The uncanny chain of events still bewilders me some times.
      At first we didn't know what the hell to do; we were bewildered and confused.
      That continuing development explains the often bewildering - and in some cases criminal - behavior exhibited by teenagers.
      n[U] instinct ¶ an idea about what is true in a particular situation based on a feeling rather than facts
      A hunch is an idea based on intuition or instinct and not on evidence.
      If you're a parent, have you ever had a time when your intuition told you that the " experts " were wrong about your child?
      Did you follow your intuition or take their advice?
      Or perhaps women, with their edge in intuition and empathy, simply make better sales people.
      Artists, working from intuition much of the time, are especially prone to this belief.
      v[IT] distinguish or discriminate
      If you differentiate between things or if you differentiate one thing from another, you recognize or show the difference between them.
      A quality or feature that differentiates one thing from another makes the two things different.
      It's important to differentiate between fact and opinion.
      It's sometimes hard to differentiate one sample from another.
      Its unusual nesting habits differentiate this bird from others.
      It is wrong to differentiate between people according to their family background.
      We do not differentiate between our workers on the basis of their background or ethnic origin.