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      adj deliberate ≠accidental
      In gridiron football, intentional grounding is a violation of the rules in which "a passer...throws a forward pass without a realistic chance of completion."
      Gridiron football, or North American football, is a form of football primarily played in the United States and Canada.
      I'm an intentional virgin saving sex for marriage.
      Abortion is the intentional and direct killing of an innocent human being.
      Okami said he does not think the kick was intentional, saying Silva " simply reacted " to the moment.
      adj belonging to the middle class ¶ interested mainly in possessions and social status and supporting traditional values ¶ supporting the interests of capitalism
      The bourgeoisie is the wealthy stratum of the middle class that originated during the latter part of the Middle Ages (AD 476–1453).
      The bourgeoisie includes a historical range of socio-economic classes.
      As such, in the Western world, since the late 18th century, "the bourgeoisie" is a social class "characterized by their ownership of capital, and their related culture"; hence, the personal terms "bourgeois" (masculine) and "bourgeoise" (feminine) culturally identify the man or woman who is a member of the wealthiest social class of a given society, and their materialistic worldview (Weltanschauung).
      But white American New England bourgeois girls are not supposed to move to Bolivia at such a young age.
      Norma came from a bourgeois family, belonged to the upper class society, who were not familiar with despair, hunger and tarnished wishes.
      adj not caring about or interested in sb/sth ¶ mediocre
      It would be wrong to assume that the Japanese public is indifferent to the performance of their national or local governments.
      I was indifferent to the election.
      Ultimately, Indians are somewhat indifferent to the US elections since they know that, no matter who wins, the policies will remain the same in most areas.
      Monica Gellar is an indifferent cook.
      adj shiny and smooth
      also a noun
      A glossy magazine is a magazine which is printed on good quality shiny paper, usually with lots of color pictures.
      Sheldon, sometimes you forget, I'm a lady. And with that comes an oestrogen fuelled need to page through thick glossy magazines that make me hate my body.
      Lip gloss is a product used primarily to give lips a glossy lustre, and sometimes to add a subtle color.
      Brush some beaten egg white over pie crust before baking to yield a beautiful glossy finish.
      adj not unusual
      also a noun
      If something is commonplace, it happens often or is often found, and is therefore not surprising.
      It is now commonplace for many professors to teach only two classes per semester, with few students.
      The racism he spews is commonplace.
      A commonplace is a remark or opinion that is often expressed and is therefore not original or interesting.
      We exchanged commonplaces about the weather over cups of tea.
      n[UC] the way in which members of a family are descended from other members
      A genetic lineage is a series of mutations which connect an ancestral genetic type (allele, haplotype, or haplogroup) to derivative type.
      An evolutionary lineage is a sequence of species, that form a line of descent, each new species the direct result of speciation from an immediate ancestral species.
      Lineages are typically visualized as subsets of a phylogenetic tree.
      For example, the tree in Figure 1 shows the separation of life into three ancient lineages: bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. Thus a lineage is a single branch of the tree.
      A lineage is a unilineal descent group that can demonstrate their common descent from a known apical ancestor.
      n[U] the state of being bored
      "In the pre-Christian era, as the winter solstice approached and the plants died, pagans brought evergreen boughs in their homes as an act of sympathetic magic intended to guard the life essences of the plants until spring. This custom was later appropriated by Northern Europeans, and eventually, it becomes the so-called Christmas tree." "And that, Charlie Brown is what boredom is all about."
      My whole life is an exercise in avoiding boredom - launching a startup is a surefire way to avoid boredom!
      I feel most people eat on an airplane out of boredom than a real need to satisfy hunger.
      n[C] a deep narrow valley with steep sides ¶ throat
      v[I] eat a lot of sth
      A canyon or gorge is a deep ravine between pairs of escarpments or cliffs and is the most often carved landscape by the erosive activity of a river over geologic timescales.
      If you gorge yourself on something, you eat until you are too full to eat any more.
      If you make someone's gorge rise, you fill them with anger or disgust.
      Monica was gorging (herself) on pies
      n[UC] ancient times ¶ the state of being very old ¶ a building or object made in ancient times
      Antiquity (noun) and ancient (adjective of antiquity, or obsolete noun for an old person) may refer to any period before the Middle Ages (476–1453), but still within the period of Western civilization-based human history or prehistory.
      The term is most often used of Classical antiquity, the classical civilizations of the Mediterranean, especially Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome.
      Antiquities, the term—almost always in the plural in modern usage, referring to objects or artifacts surviving from ancient cultures.
      But Archimedes, the greatest mathematician of antiquity, realized the power of the infinite.
      n[sU] a soft wet mass
      v[T] make sth into a ~
      Pulp is a lignocellulosic fibrous material prepared by chemically or mechanically separating cellulose fibres from wood, fibre crops or waste paper.
      The wood fiber sources required for pulping are, "45% sawmill residue, 21% logs and chips, and 34% recycled paper" (Canada, 2014).
      Pulp is one of the most abundant raw materials world wide.
      In fruit or vegetables, the pulp is the soft part inside the skin.
      "Oh! I'll squeeze you fresh orange juice every morning!" "With extra pulp?"
      I thought we talked about this. I don't like pulp. No pulp. Pulp isn't juice. All juice, ok?
      If someone is beaten to a pulp or beaten to pulp, they are hit repeatedly until they are very badly injured.
      People refer to stories or novels as pulp fiction when they consider them to be of poor quality and intentionally shocking or sensational.
      If paper, vegetables, or fruit are pulped, they are crushed into a smooth, wet paste.
      If money or documents are pulped, they are destroyed. This is done to stop the money being used or to stop the documents being seen by the public.
      v[T] construct or design in a form that offers the least resistance to fluid flow ¶ make sth such as a business, organization etc work more simply and effectively
      Dolphins are perfectly streamlined for movement in the water.
      We're making efforts to streamline the production process.
      Don, we're trying something new here, a really streamlined process.
      The right system can make operations more streamlined, efficient and agile.
      n[C] artificial hair that you wear on your head
      A wig is a head covering made from human hair, animal hair, or synthetic fiber that is worn for fashion or other reasons, including cultural tradition and religious observance.
      The word wig is short for periwig and first appeared in the English language around 1675.
      Some people wear wigs to disguise baldness; a wig may be used as a less intrusive and less expensive alternative to medical therapies for restoring hair.
      Wigs may also be used as an article of apparel, or to fulfill a religious obligation.
      Actors often wear costume wigs in order to portray characters.
      In Britain, judges wear white wigs in court.
      She disguised herself with a blonde wig and dark glasses.
      n[C] soft, wet earth, or an area of this ¶ a toilet
      A bog is a mire that accumulates peat, a deposit of dead plant material—often mosses, and in a majority of cases, sphagnum moss.
      If a plan or process bogs down or if something bogs it down, it is delayed and no progress is made.
      I still see people getting bogged down in rather meaningless arguments as to whether or not firewalls will be virtualized.
      To achieve your dreams you should listen to your heart and not get bogged down by others who are constantly expressing their doubts.
      Compare these words: bog, marsh, swamp, and wetland.
      v[T] decrease the fullness of, use up, empty out
      Chemicals which deplete the ozone layer are also measured.
      Once the money on the card is depleted, and your card has a zero balance, the card will be automatically deactivated.
      After the first tank of fuel is depleted, the engine should be allowed to cool for a few minutes.
      Best documented have been the consequences for Iraq, where depleted uranium weapons fitted in American tanks shells and bombs were used in the 1991 Gulf war, and also in the occupation war started in 2003.
      n[C] sb who works for an employer for a fixed period of time in order to learn a particular skill or job
      also a verb
      Apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of practitioners of a trade or profession with on-the-job training and often some accompanying study (classroom work and reading).
      Apprentices or protégés build their careers from apprenticeships.
      If a young person is apprenticed to someone, they go to work for them in order to learn their skill.
      I was apprenticed to a shoemaker when I was fourteen.
      I started as an apprentice plumber in 2003.
      n[C] a very great number
      A multitude of things or people is a very large number of them.
      I had never seen such a multitude of stars before.
      This case has raised a multitude of questions.
      You can refer to a very large number of people as a multitude.
      He stepped out onto the balcony to address the multitude below.
      You can refer to the great majority of people in a particular country or situation as the multitude or the multitudes.
      Political power has been placed in the hands of the multitude.
      If you say that something covers or hides a multitude of sins, you mean that it hides something unattractive or does not reveal the true nature of something.
      Monica was dressed in loose comfortable clothes that hid a multitude of sins.
      n[C] an adult female horse or donkey
      A mare is an adult female horse or other equine.
      Equestrian means connected with the activity of riding horses.
      In most cases, a mare is a female horse over the age of three, and a filly is a female horse age three and younger.
      However, in Thoroughbred horse racing, a mare is defined as a female horse more than four years old.
      The word can also be used for other female equine animals, particularly mules and zebras, though a female donkey is usually called a "jenny."
      A broodmare is a mare used for breeding.
      A horse's female parent is known as its dam.
      An adult male horse is called a stallion, or, if castrated, a gelding.
      Occasionally the term "horse" is used in a restrictive sense to designate only a male horse.
      Compare these words: colt, filly, foal, mare, mule, and stallion.
      n[C] a group of four musicians or singers ¶ four people or things of the same type
      Quartet: (singing) Congratulations on your first week at your brand new job! It won't be long before you are the boss.
      Quartet: And you know who will be there to support... you? Your one and only boyfriend...
      Quartet: Your loyal loving boyfriend Ross... Ross!
      Can't a guy send a barbershop quartet to his girlfriend's office anymore?
      At the fourth annual Maker Faire Africa in Lagos, Nigeria, a quartet of teenage girls ages 14 through 15 have created a urine-powered generator.
      A quad bike is a kind of motorbike with four large wheels that people ride for fun or in races.
      n[U] a chemical used to make things pale or white,or to kill germs
      also a verb
      Bleach refers to a number of chemicals which remove colour, whiten or disinfect, often by oxidation.
      The bleaching process has been known for millennia,but the chemicals currently used for bleaching resulted from the work of several 18th century scientists.
      Now unless someone convinces her to let me bleach it, Jean-Claude Van Damme is gonna be making out with Gabe Kaplan.
      Hydrogen peroxide is a strong oxidizer and is used as a bleaching agent and disinfectant.
      She bleached her hair blond.
      The wood had been bleached by the sun.
      v[T] make thinner or less concentrated by adding a liquid such as water
      also an adjective
      If a liquid is diluted or dilutes, it is added to or mixes with water or another liquid, and becomes weaker.
      Gasoline, if diluted with water, will cause an automobile engine to malfunction.
      Dilute the paint with a little oil.
      Dilute the orange juice before you drink it.
      These measures are designed to dilute public fears about the product's safety.
      A dilute liquid is very thin and weak, usually because it has had water added to it.
      Is it possible to use a dilute solution of water and chlorine bleach to water-pik my teeth?
      This is a Waterpik oral irrigator.
      An oral irrigator (also called a dental water jet) is a home care device that uses a stream of pulsating water to remove plaque and food debris between teeth and below the gumline and improve gingival health.
      n[C] a king or queen
      A monarch is the sovereign head of state, officially outranking all other individuals in the realm.
      Monarch, as such, bear a variety of titles — king or queen, prince or princess (e.g., Sovereign Prince of Monaco), emperor or empress (e.g., Emperor of Ethiopia, Emperor of Japan, Emperor of India), archduke, duke or grand duke (e.g., Grand Duke of Luxembourg), or sultan (e.g., Great Sultan, Sultan of Sultans).
      Prince is sometimes used as a generic term to refer to any monarch regardless of title, especially in older texts.
      Queen Victoria was the only other monarch in British history to celebrate a diamond jubilee, sixty years on the throne.
      n[C] sb who murders an important person
      She saw the shooting and memorised the number of the assassin's car.
      Kennedy's assassin is assumed to have been Lee Harvey Oswald.
      John Lennon's assassin was Mark Chapman
      She hired an assassin to eliminate her rival.
      adj making you think that sth bad will happen
      His daughter Bibi Pari (Lady Fairy) died here in 1684 and this led him to consider the fort to be ominous.
      And if history is any pointer, the signs are ominous for the brand and the possibility of rising again is very slim.
      An ominous sign of things to come are reports of steady arms purchases on the Somali black market by Kenyan militias both Luo and Kikuyu.
      In the afternoon, the sky turned dark, showing an ominous sign of a storm.
      adj amazed
      You can say "Shut your ass!" to express astonished disbelief.
      I was really astonished at the range of his interests.
      The people applaud; they are astonished at the beauty and facility of the plan.
      I was astonished to see such a hostile and large group of protestors blocking the doors.
      v[IT] put into or introduce as if by pouring
      If you infuse tea or herbs, or if they infuse, you leave them in very hot water while their taste passes into the water.
      Allow the tea to infuse for five minutes.
      Don't drink the tea until it has finished infusing.
      To infuse a quality into someone or something, or to infuse them with a quality, means to fill them with it.
      Who is in favor of abandoning our game and confronting Penny's steroid-infused ex-boyfriend in a suicidal mission to extract money from him?
      What if we infused the bottom layer with silicone RTV to provide a better mounting surface?