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      v[II] shake or mix a liquid quickly ¶ make sb feel anxious, upset, and nervous ¶ argue strongly in public for sth you want
      If you agitate something, you shake it so that it moves about.
      Ross (talking agitated and angry): Everyone gets a goodbye but me?
      Joey (looking a little agitated now): Looks like someone IS the ladies!
      If you get yourself into in a stew about something, you become nervous, anxious or agitated about it.
      If people agitate for something, they protest or take part in political activity in order to get it.
      His family are agitating to get him freed.
      v[T] remove sb from a position of power, esp in order to take that position
      It is one thing to kill the king and oust the ancient regime, something very different and much more difficult to put something better and lasting in its place.
      Weeks before Mubarak was ousted, 23 Coptic Christians were killed in the bombing of a church on New Year's Day 2011.
      Smith was hired to replace the ousted Bobby Petrino in April.
      When he was ousted from Apple, Jobs may have flirted with the idea of running for office but was probably discouraged by all the pandering it required.
      n[C] a small part with a particular purpose, used in a larger piece of equipment ¶ shell
      A toner cartridge, also called laser toner, is the consumable component of a laser printer.
      An ink cartridge or inkjet cartridge is a component of an inkjet printer that contains the ink that is deposited onto paper during printing.
      The HP 60 black and color cartridges that came with the Photosmart e-All-in-One produced 132 fully printed pages.
      A cartridge (also called a round or a shell) is a type of ammunition packaging a bullet or shot, a propellant substance (usually either smokeless powder or black powder) and a primer within a metallic, paper, or plastic case that is precisely made to fit within the firing chamber of a firearm.
      I make up my own pistol cartridges,because I like an absolutely consistent shot every time.
      n[U] enthusiasm, eagerness, energy and interest
      In positive psychology, zest is one of the 24 strengths possessed by humanity. As a component of the virtue of courage, zest is defined as living life with a sense of excitement, anticipation, and energy.
      Positive psychology is the branch of psychology that uses scientific understanding and effective intervention to aid in the achievement of a satisfactory life, rather than merely treating mental illness.
      Season 8, episode 18: In Massapequa / The Zesty Guy, Parker
      He called the Long Island Expressway a concrete miracle.
      Zest is a food ingredient that is prepared by scraping or cutting from the outer, colorful skin of unwaxed citrus fruits such as lemon, orange, citron, and lime.
      Zest is used to add flavor ("zest") to foods.
      They usually twist the lemon peel to release the zest (aromatic oils) and run the peel along the rim of the glass, then put it in the drink.
      in ~ - thinking now about sth in the past
      Compare these words: brood, nostalgia, and retrospect.
      The poll finds that, in retrospect, a majority of Americans view the war in Iraq as a mistake.
      In retrospect the truth is a little clearer than before.
      In retrospect, it would have been much better if we had operated under the assumption that we would never get any additional outside investment.
      adj secret or hidden
      Kennedy administration officials explained that the sanctions - and the accompanying covert warfare - were designed to alienate "internal support" in Cuba to Castro's government.
      Those sanctions will continue to be augmented by covert operations wherever and whenever possible.
      I still think Stuxnet was a Russian covert op.
      It's because of the drones used by the US in the covert war against terrorism in Yemen, Somalia, and Pakistan.
      The Suicide Squad in The DCU. A covert program of the U.S. government that keeps sending villains (and a few heroes) on suicide missions until they've earned release from prison... or they die.
      "Covert" and "overt" are antonyms.
      v[T] combine into a single group or total
      adj total
      n[CU] the total of several things or numbers
      It found that the state's aggregated personal income has grown faster than home prices in the past 12 years.
      Increases in government purchases increase aggregate demand, whether they consist of government purchases from private firms or the direct provision of government services.
      The increase in aggregate demand means that most firms will experience an increase in the demand for their products.
      The balance sheet total means the aggregate of the amounts shown as assets in the balance sheet (that is before deducting both current and long-term liabilities).
      v[IT] say,show or prove that sth is true
      I teach college, and I can attest to the fact that it is still that way.
      I can attest that there are plants that have a way of communicating or adjusting to the environment around them.
      Many of the experts I interviewed attested to the fact that many men simply drop out of the health care system entirely after outgrowing their pediatrician, only to re-emerge in their 40s.
      This is clearly attested from Chinese written sources of the Song Dynasty (i.e. about 1000 years ago).
      n[C] sb who has seen sth such as a crime happen, and is able to describe it afterwards
      Cartmell also mentions another eyewitness account of a giant shark.
      Mark carefully recorded Peter's eyewitness accounts of Jesus.
      According to eyewitness report, grenade was lobbed at Mr. Kibria as he was stepping down from the dais after finishing his address before an enthusiastic crowd who have attended an outdoor political rally.
      Some of the eyewitness testimony that we have examined is in direct conflict with that photographic record.
      v[IT] move with soft fluttering or crackling sounds
      also a noun
      A couple are seen camping in the forest, when they hear the trees rustle. the man steps out of his tent, to find Dean, covered in filth, wandering out toward them, asking where he is, and where the road is.
      The wheat whispers, the dry rustle of countless bristled heads bowing to the afternoon breeze.
      It was quiet and calm, with only an infrequent rustle of leaves to fill the void.
      If you rustle up something to eat or drink, you make or prepare it quickly, with very little planning.
      I'll rustle up some eggs and bacon for you.
      I heard the rustle of their dresses, caught the laughter from their lips, watched the lustre of their eyes, saw the moonlight dance among their waving locks, as they ran and played among the trees and flowers.
      adj caring about the quality of people's or animal's lives and trying to be kind to them
      In fact, a proper slaughterhouse is far more humane than any other way.
      A person who devoted her life to dog rescue and humane treatment, is attacked and killed by a vicious dog.
      Their jurisprudence makes lynching seem humane in comparison.
      A humane society is a group that aims to stop human or animal suffering due to cruelty or other reasons, although in many countries, it is now used mostly for societies for the prevention of cruelty to animals (SPCAs).
      In the United Kingdom, it may also be a society that provides a waterways rescue, prevention, and recovery service, or that gives awards for the saving of human life (see: Royal Humane Society).
      n[C] one of the colored parts around the center of a flower
      Petals are modified leaves that surround the reproductive parts of flowers.
      Although petals are usually the most conspicuous parts of animal-pollinated flowers, wind-pollinated species, such as the grasses, either have very small petals or lack them entirely.
      What are these blue-petalled flowers called?
      Many orchids have an oversized petal, or lip, that offers a landing pad for flying insects.
      A pedal (from the Latin pes, pedis, meaning 'foot') is a lever activated by one's foot, sometimes called a "foot pedal" (but all pedals are used by a foot).
      v[T] persuade sb to have sex with you
      You go back out there and you seduce her till she cracks!
      Rachel put on a cheerleading outfit to seduce Joshua.
      Look, he said he's not ready to date, so I had to invite him to a party if I wanted to see him outside of work, and now I have the perfect opportunity to seduce him!
      Can you not look at me when I say this? I thought that if I could get you here, I could seduce you.
      Oh well it's not me, it's my character, Chandy. Yeah the rogue processor who seduces his co-worker's wives for sport and then laughs about it the next day at the water cooler. In fact, I have her panties right there in my drawer.
      If something seduces you, it is so attractive that it makes you do something that you would not otherwise do.
      I let myself be seduced into buying a new phone.
      v[T] be greater or more important than sth else
      The advantages of the scheme far outweigh the disadvantages.
      The possible benefits outweigh the risks involved.
      This outweighs all other considerations.
      The results outweigh that tiny bit of discomfort.
      n[UC] a large yellow-brown tropical fruit or its sweet juicy yellow flesh
      Pineapples may be cultivated from a crown cutting of the fruit, possibly flowering in 20–24 months and fruiting in the following six months.
      Pineapple does not ripen significantly post-harvest.
      Pineapples can be consumed fresh, cooked, juiced, and preserved, and are found in a wide array of cuisines.
      The word "pineapple" in English was first recorded in 1398, when it was originally used to describe the reproductive organs of conifer trees (now termed pine cones).
      In many tropical countries, pineapple is prepared, and sold on roadsides as a snack.
      n[C] a large, soft bird's feather
      A plume is a special type of bird feather, possessed by egrets, ostriches, birds of paradise, quetzals, pheasants and peacocks.
      They often have a decorative or ornamental purpose, commonly used among marching bands and the military, worn on the hat or helmet of the wearer.
      When used on military headdresses, the clipped feather plume is referred to the hackle.
      A plume of smoke, dust, fire, or water is a large quantity of it that rises into the air in a column.
      A black plume of smoke rose above the city.
      An author's nom de plume is a name that he or she uses instead of their real name. (=pen name, pseudonym)
      n[U] a way of looking and behaving
      Do you like Demi Moore's demeanor?
      Well, it was a number of things. First, the late hour. Then your >demeanor seems very low-energy, plus your irritability.
      Crimes and Misdemeanors is a 1989 existential drama written, directed by and co-starring Woody Allen, alongside Martin Landau, Mia Farrow, Anjelica Huston, Jerry Orbach, Alan Alda, Sam Waterston and Joanna Gleason.
      Some U.S. States have legislation that make providing to and possession of alcohol by persons under 21 a gross misdemeanor with a potential of $5,000 and a year in jail (or more).
      n[CU] the seed of an Asian plant, used for making food and oil ¶ the plant
      The soybean (US) or soya bean (UK) is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean which has numerous uses.
      The plant is classed as an oilseed rather than a pulse by the UN Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO).
      Soybean is sometimes referred to as greater bean.
      Raw soybeans, including the immature green form, are toxic to humans.
      Soybeans are considered by many agencies to be a source of complete protein.
      Soy milk (also called soya milk, soymilk, soybean milk, or soy juice and sometimes referred to as soy drink/beverage) is a beverage made from soybeans.
      v[IT] place under water ¶ cover with water ¶ go under or as if under water
      Colton had the brilliant idea to mount his GO Pro Hero 2 waterproof camera on a stick and then submerge it into the water to catch glimpses of jelly fish or dolphins or whales or anything else that looked interesting.
      Do not submerge the device in liquid, even partially.
      They were constructed by workers half submerged in the murky waters.
      With deep-fat frying, foods are submerged in hot oil.
      If you submerge yourself in an activity, you give all your attention to it and do not think about anything else.
      If you submerge feelings, ideas, or opinions, you hide them and make yourself stop thinking about them (=suppress)
      adj ≠involved
      I kept a sort of detached view on everything.
      I can't look at it in a detached way.
      Most of us go about our daily business and deal with the tiring and mundane in a detached manner, waiting for something exciting to happen.
      A detached house or garage is not joined to another building.
      v[I] lose strength, determination or purpose, esp temporarily
      Cynthia was wavering between visiting her parents and going to Mexico.
      'What are you having?' 'I'm wavering between the fish soup and the mushroom tart.'
      The candle flame wavered, throwing shadows on the wall.
      We were determined not to waver from our goals.
      Joey met Ross's eyes without wavering.
      adj =roomy ≠cramped
      The living room is spacious and sunny.
      They have a marble bathroom with a complicated shower, a spacious bathtub, skylights, and heated towel racks.
      Both the overall U.S. population and the poor in America live, in general, in very spacious housing.
      Well, at least when we do make love, Sheldon won't be thinking about his mother. And yes, that is a cleverly veiled reference to Howard's lifelong obsession to crawl back into her spacious womb.
      v[T] be ill, or to cause to be ill
      With their mother in Israel helping their ailing aunt, Roxanne and her sister, Gayle, are pretty much left to their own devices while their father works all evening as a taxi driver.
      If something ails a group or area of activity, it is a problem or source of trouble for that group or for people involved in that activity.
      What ails you?
      Anybody want to buy an ailing government agency?
      n[C] a strong, abrupt rush of wind
      also a verb
      And with a gust of wind that shut the door, Tenzin was gone.
      Gusts of laughter came from the nextdoor room.
      If you feel a gust of emotion, you feel the emotion suddenly and intensely.
      When the wind gusts, it blows with short, strong, sudden rushes.
      v[T] confuse and greatly surprise sb
      If someone or something confounds you, they make you feel surprised or confused, often by showing you that your opinions or expectations of them were wrong.
      His amazing recovery confounded the medical specialists.
      Your question completely confounded me.
      The choice of the position confounded us all.