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      ca`ress
      kə'res
      v[T] stroke
      n[C] a gentle touch or gesture of fondness, tenderness, or love
      -
      "Now tell me you want to caress my butt!" said Joey.
      I... erotically caress your... (Rolls the dice again) nose.
      Penny's ex-boyfriend caresses her on the cheek.
      She began a gentle caress with one hand, moving it slowly down my chest.
      Compare caress, fondle, and stroke.
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      ap`par`el
      ə'pærəl
      n[U] clothes
      -
      ITAA (International Textile and Apparel Association) is a professional, educational association composed of scholars, educators, and students in the textile, apparel, and merchandising disciplines.
      American Apparel is an American clothing manufacturer, distributor, and retailer based in Los Angeles, California.
      Miller, a Philadelphia native, joined Nike as Vice President, USA Apparel in 1997, having previously served as President of Jantzen since 1992.
      IMG is ready to sign up the 25 year-old Serbian who has long term endorsements with the Japanese apparel manufacturers Uniqlo (five years) and Head rackets (three years) in place, along with Mercedes-Benz, and Teklecom Serbia.
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      sem`i`con`duc`tor
      semikən'dʌktə
      n[C] a substance used in electronics that allows some electricity to pass through it
      -
      A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor, such as copper, and an insulator, such as glass.
      Semiconductors are the foundation of modern electronics.
      Semiconducting materials exist in two types - elemental materials and compound materials.
      The modern understanding of the properties of a semiconductor relies on quantum physics to explain the movement of electrons and holes in a crystal lattice.
      The unique arrangement of the crystal lattice makes silicon and germanium (锗) the most commonly used elements in the preparation of semiconducting materials.
      An increased knowledge of semiconductor materials and fabrication processes has made possible continuing increases in the complexity and speed of microprocessors and memory devices.
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      jug`gle
      'dʒʌgəl
      v[IT] keep objects in the air at one time by alternately tossing and catching them ¶ manipulate ¶ try to fit two or more jobs, activities etc into your life
      -
      Juggling is a physical skill, performed by a juggler, involving the manipulation of objects for recreation, entertainment, art, or sport.
      The most recognizable form of juggling is toss juggling.
      Juggling can be the manipulation of one object or many objects at the same time, using one or many hands.
      Jugglers often refer to the objects they juggle as props.
      The most common props are balls, clubs, or rings.
      Some jugglers use more dramatic objects such as knives, fire torches or chainsaws.
      The term juggling can also commonly refer to other prop-based manipulation skills, such as diabolo, devil sticks, poi, cigar boxes, contact juggling, hooping, and hat manipulation.
      Poi originated with the Māori people of New Zealand, where it is still practiced today.
      Yeah, we played, we watched TV, that juggling thing is amazing.
      What juggling thing?
      With the balled-up socks? I figured you taught Marcel that.
      The range of capuchin monkeys (僧帽猴) includes Central America and South America as far south as northern Argentina.
      Night at the Museum is a 2006 American fantasy adventure-comedy film based on the 1993 children's book of the same name by Milan Trenc.
      I know, I know! I'm like playing the field. You know? Like, juggling two guys, I'm sowing my wild oats. You know? You know, this kind of like you know oat-sowing, field-playing juggler.
      Chandler starts to juggle the ball, but loses control and almost drops it and hands it to Monica.
      Well, there's a lot to think about. I mean, how is Rachel, how is she gonna handle this financially? How is she gonna juggle work?
      If you jiggle something, you move it quickly up and down or from side to side.
      Howard, I have a few questions. I found three bowling pins. Now, do you juggle these, or are you missing seven?
      However you juggle the figures, it is hard to find anything positive.
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      gloss
      glɔ:s
      n[CU] reflectivity of light on a surface
      also a verb
      -
      Gloss is an optical property which indicates how well a surface reflects light in a specular (mirror-like) direction.
      It is one of important parameters that are used to describe the visual appearance of an object.
      The factors that affect gloss are the refractive index of the material, the angle of incident light and the surface topography.
      In paint technology, terms gloss and matte refer to visual appearance of a finish with respect to its gloss level.
      Lip gloss is a product used primarily to give lips a glossy lustre, and sometimes to add a subtle color.
      It is distributed as a liquid or a soft solid (not to be confused with lip balm, which generally has medicinal or soothing purposes).
      The product is available in ranges of opacity from translucent to solid, and can have various frosted, glittered, glossy, and metallic finishes.
      Lip gloss was invented by Max Factor in 1930.
      Like lipstick, lip gloss comes in a variety of forms and may be applied in different ways.
      A gloss (from Latin: glossa, from Greek: γλῶσσα glóssa "language") is a brief marginal notation of the meaning of a word or wording in a text.
      A collection of glosses is a glossary.
      If you put a gloss on a bad situation, you try to make it seem more attractive or acceptable by giving people a false explanation or interpretation of it.
      If you gloss over a problem, a mistake, or an embarrassing moment, you try and make it seem unimportant by ignoring it or by dealing with it very quickly.
      She glossed over the details of her divorce.
      Beneath the gloss of success was a tragic private life.
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      pla`ce`bo
      plə'si:bəu
      n[C] harmless substance given as if it were medicine to calm a patient
      -
      A placebo (Latin placēbō, "I shall please") is a simulated or otherwise medically ineffectual treatment for a disease or other medical condition intended to deceive the recipient.
      Sometimes patients given a placebo treatment will have a perceived or actual improvement in a medical condition, a phenomenon commonly called the placebo effect or placebo response.
      The placebo effect consists of several different effects woven together, and the methods of placebo administration may be as important as the administration itself.
      In medical research, placebos are given as control treatments and depend on the use of measured suggestion.
      The placebo effect can be produced by inert tablets, by sham surgery, and by false information, such as when electrical stimulation is turned "off" in those with Parkinson's disease implanted brain electrodes.
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      prune
      pru:n
      n[C] dried plum
      v[T] remove parts of a tree or plant
      -
      A prune is any of various plum cultivars, mostly Prunus domestica or European Plum, sold as fresh or dried fruit.
      The dried fruit is also referred to as a dried plum.
      Due to the popular U.S. perception of prunes being used only for relief of constipation, and being the subject of related joking, many of today's distributors have stopped using the word "prune" on packaging labels.
      Their preference is to state "dried plums".
      When you prune a tree or bush, you cut off some of the branches so that it will grow better the next year.
      He pruned the longer branches off the tree.
      If you prune something, you cut out all the parts that you do not need.
      The company is pruning staff in order to reduce costs.
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      fac`tu`al
      'fæktʃuəl
      adj based on facts or relating to facts
      -
      It's a game Shamy invented. It's called Counterfactuals.
      Well, if you like dry, factual statements interspersed with painful moments of silence, it was bananas (excellent).
      The factual information of this report has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable.
      Thanks for the corrections. Sorry for these factual errors.
      There is no factual basis for these claims.
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      e`nig`ma
      i'nigmə
      n[C] mystery
      -
      An Enigma machine was any of several electro-mechanical rotor cipher machines used in the twentieth century for enciphering and deciphering secret messages.
      Enigma was invented by the German engineer Arthur Scherbius at the end of World War I.
      German military messages enciphered on the Enigma machine were first broken by the Polish Cipher Bureau, beginning in December 1932.
      Russ was an enigma to Donna.
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      bar`ren
      'bærən
      adj infertile
      -
      A barren landscape is dry and bare, and has very few plants and no trees.
      Barren land consists of soil that is so poor that plants cannot grow in it.
      The island was barren and did not have very good access points or beaches.
      If you describe something such as an activity or a period of your life as barren, you mean that you achieve no success during it or that it has no useful results.
      If you describe a room or a place as barren, you do not like it because it has almost no furniture or other objects in it.
      A barren woman or female animal is unable to have babies.
      During the festival, a februa was wielded by priests who used it to beat women in the belief that it would make a barren woman fertile.
      A baron is a man who is a member of the lowest rank of the nobility.
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      in`trud`er
      in'tru:də
      n[C] sb who enters a place where they are not allowed to go ¶ sb who is in a place where they are not wanted
      -
      Warning! Intruder! If you see this creep - call the cops!
      A wire net falls on Penny, while a computer voice repeats the words "Intruder Alert".
      From outside there is the sound of the net falling and computer voice saying "Intruder alert." Then Sheldon screaming. They run out to find Sheldon convulsing under the net.
      If you describe someone as an interloper, you mean that they have come into a situation or a place where they are not wanted or do not belong.
      "Back to the Future II was in the Back to the Future III case, and Back to the Future III was, get this, in the Back to the Future II case." "So?" "So, did you do that, or am I in the house with an intruder?"
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      blad`der
      'blædə
      n[C] the part of your body where urine is stored ¶ a soft bag that holds air or water, for example inside a football
      -
      The urinary bladder is the organ that collects urine excreted by the kidneys before disposal by urination.
      A hollow muscular, and distensible (or elastic) organ, the bladder sits on the pelvic floor.
      Urine enters the bladder via the ureters and exits via the urethra.
      There is no exact measurement for the volume of the human bladder, but different sources mention 500 mL (~17 oz) to 1000 mL (~34 oz).
      In vertebrates the gallbladder (also gall bladder, biliary vesicle or cholecyst), is a small organ where bile (a fluid produced by the liver) is stored and concentrated before it is released into the small intestine.
      The mean weight of the normal prostate in adult males is about 11 grams, usually ranging between 7 and 16 grams.
      It surrounds the urethra just below the urinary bladder and can be felt during a rectal exam.
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      per`son`al`ize
      'pə:sənəlaiz
      v[T] put your name or initials on sth ¶ decorate sth in your own way ¶ design or change sth so that it is suitable for a particular person ¶ cause sth to become concerned with personal matters or feelings
      -
      These are personalized action figures.
      The new Game Center app in Mountain Lion lets you set up and personalize your gaming experience.
      If you personalize an argument, discussion, idea, or issue, you consider it from the point of view of individual people and their characters or relationships, rather than considering the facts in a general or abstract way.
      By telling people about her accident, she personalizes the numbing figure of road accidents that happen every year.
      This free, personalized, web-based program is designed to help people with mobility limitations.
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      gale
      geil
      n[C] a very strong wind ¶ noisy outburst
      -
      There are conflicting definitions of how strong a wind must be to be considered a gale.
      The U.S. National Weather Service defines a gale as 34–47 knots (63–87 km/h, 17.5–24.2 m/s or 39–54 miles/hour) of sustained surface winds.
      Forecasters typically issue gale warnings when winds of this strength are expected.
      This evoked a gale of laughter.
      I looked at the floor and tried so hard to suppress gales of laughter.
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      au`thor`i`ta`tive
      ɔ:'θɔritətiv
      adj containing complete and accurate information, and therefore respected ¶ behaving or speaking in a confident, determined way that makes people respect and obey you
      -
      Here is the most recent, authoritative data available on total enrollment in college.
      This report on India from the journalists of The New York Times and a pool of talented writers in India and beyond provides unbiased, authoritative reporting on the country and its place in the world.
      A highly professional and integrated approach has given WaterAid an authoritative voice in the water sector.
      "Both of you are wrong!" He declared in an authoritative manner.
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      boun`ty
      'baunti
      n[CU] money offered as a reward, esp for catching or killing a criminal ¶ great kindness or willingness to give
      -
      A bounty (from Latin bonitās, goodness) is a payment or reward often offered by a group as an incentive for the accomplishment of a task by someone usually not associated with the group.
      Bounties are most commonly issued for the capture or retrieval of a person or object.
      By definition bounties can be retracted at any time by whomever issued them.
      Two modern examples of bounties are the bounty placed for the capture of Saddam Hussein and his sons by the United States and Microsoft's bounty for computer virus creators.
      Those who make a living by pursuing bounties are known as bounty hunters.
      Django Unchained (/'dʒæŋɡoʊ/) is a 2012 American western film written and directed by Quentin Tarantino.
      The film follows Django (Foxx), an African-American slave, and Dr. King Schultz (Waltz), an English-speaking German bounty hunter posing as a traveling dentist.
      HMS Bounty, also known as HM Armed Vessel Bounty, was a small merchant vessel purchased by the Royal Navy for a botanical mission.
      The ship, under the command of William Bligh, was sent to the Pacific Ocean to acquire breadfruit plants and transport them to British possessions in the West Indies.
      That mission was never completed, due to a mutiny led by the acting Master, Fletcher Christian. This was the famous Mutiny on the Bounty.
      Her or His Majesty's Ship (HMS) is the ship prefix used for ships of the navy in some monarchies, either formally or informally.
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      in`fer`ence
      'infərəns
      n[CU] the act or process of deriving logical conclusions from premises known or assumed to be true
      -
      Inference is the act or process of deriving logical conclusions from premises known or assumed to be true.
      The conclusion drawn is also called an idiomatic.
      The laws of valid inference are studied in the field of logic.
      Alternatively, inference may be defined as the non-logical, but rational means, through observation of patterns of facts, to indirectly see new meanings and contexts for understanding.
      Of particular use to this application of inference are anomalies and symbols.
      Inference, in this sense, does not draw conclusions but opens new paths for inquiry.
      In this definition of inference, there are two types of inference: inductive inference and deductive inference.
      Example for definition #2
      Evidence: It is the early 1950s and you are an American stationed in the Soviet Union. You read in the Moscow newspaper that a soccer team from a small city in Siberia starts winning game after game. The team even defeats the Moscow team.
      Inference: The small city in Siberia is not a small city anymore. The Soviets are working on their own nuclear or high-value secret weapons program.
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      car`ton
      'ka:tn
      n[C] a container for liquids that is made of stiff thick paper ¶ a large container with smaller containers of goods inside it
      -
      A carton is a box or container usually made of paperboard and sometimes of corrugated fiberboard.
      Many types of cartons are used in packaging.
      Sometimes a carton is also called a box.
      A carton is a type of packaging suitable for food, pharmaceuticals, hardware, and many other types of products.
      Folding cartons are usually combined into a tube at the manufacturer and shipped flat (knocked down) to the packager.
      Egg cartons or trays are designed to protect whole eggs while in transit.
      Gable top cartons are often used for liquid products such as milk, juice, etc.
      A crate is a large shipping container, often made of wood, typically used to transport large, heavy or awkward items.
      Smaller plastic crates are used for delivery of bottles and other fragile items.
      A cartoon is a form of two-dimensional illustrated visual art.
      Modern single-panel gag cartoons, found in magazines, generally consist of a single drawing with a typeset caption positioned beneath or (much less often) a speech balloon.
      Because of the stylistic similarities between comic strips and early animated movies, "cartoon" came to refer to animation, and the word "cartoon" is currently used to refer to both animated cartoons and gag cartoons.
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      clock`wise
      'klɔkwaiz
      adj in the same direction as the rotating hands of a clock
      -
      Screw the lid on clockwise.
      Unscrew the lid off anticlockwise.
      Two clockwise tornadoes from another anticyclonic storm struck south-central Oklahoma on 10 May 2010.
      Remember, "cyclonic" tornadoes spin counter-clockwise in the northern hemisphere, and clockwise in the southern.
      The Curious Case of Benjamin Button is a 2008 American romantic fantasy drama film directed by David Fincher.
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      ban`quet
      'bæŋkwit
      n[C] a formal dinner for many people on an important occasion
      -
      A banquet is a large meal or feast, complete with main courses and desserts.
      It usually serves a purpose such as a charitable gathering, a ceremony, or a celebration, and is often preceded or followed by speeches in honor of someone.
      Today, banquets serve many purposes from training sessions, to formal business dinners.
      Business banquets are a popular way to strengthen bonds between businessmen and their partners.
      It is common that a banquet is organized at the end of an academic conference.
      Compare banquet, buffet, feast, gala, and luau.
      The Banquet, released on DVD in the United States as Legend of the Black Scorpion, is a 2006 Chinese wuxia drama film.
      The film was directed by Feng Xiaogang and stars Zhang Ziyi, Ge You, Daniel Wu and Zhou Xun.
      It is a loose adaption of William Shakespeare's tragedy Hamlet and Henrik Ibsen's play Ghosts, featuring themes of revenge and fate.
      It is set in the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period in 10th century China.
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      dev`as`ta`tion
      d'evəst'eiʃən
      n[U] damage or destruction affecting a large area or a lot of people
      -
      Her students are grateful that she brings the world to them, teaching them about poverty in Kenya and the devastation caused by the Khmer rouge in Cambodia.
      It argues that more millions of people face devastation from climate induced famine, drought, conflict and flood as in the cases of the recent Tsunami and Hurricanes in different parts of the world.
      It would be inhuman not to cry after the horrors of 9/11, the devastation and trauma of Hurricanes Katrina and Sandy.
      Compare catastrophe and devastation.
      Interstellar is a 2014 epic science fiction film directed by Christopher Nolan, starring Matthew McConaughey, Anne Hathaway, Jessica Chastain and Michael Caine.
      Cooper's departure devastates Murph, and they part.
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      or`chid
      'ɔ:kid
      n[C] a plant with unusually shaped and beautifully colored flowers
      -
      The term "orchid" was introduced in 1845 by John Lindley in School Botany, as a shortened form of Orchidaceae.
      The leaves of some orchids are considered ornamental.
      How to Parent Sensitive (Orchid) Children
      Last week, I fervently recommended this groundbreaking Atlantic magazine article, in which author David Dobbs explains a bold new theory of genetics - that "most of us have genes that make us as hardy as dandelions: able to take root and survive almost anywhere. A few of us, however, are more like the orchid: fragile and fickle, but capable of blooming spectacularly if given greenhouse care."
      Many introverted children appear to have orchid genes.
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      pig`ment
      'pigmənt
      n[UC] a substance that gives sth a particular color
      -
      A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.
      This physical process differs from fluorescence, phosphorescence, and other forms of luminescence, in which a material emits light.
      Many materials selectively absorb certain wavelengths of light.
      Materials that humans have chosen and developed for use as pigments usually have special properties that make them ideal for coloring other materials.
      A pigment must have a high tinting strength relative to the materials it colors.
      It must be stable in solid form at ambient temperatures.
      Pigments are used for coloring paint, ink, plastic, fabric, cosmetics, food and other materials.
      Most pigments used in manufacturing and the visual arts are dry colorants, usually ground into a fine powder.
      This powder is added to a binder (or vehicle), a relatively neutral or colorless material that suspends the pigment and gives the paint its adhesion.
      Compare dye and pigment.
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      pneu`mo`ni`a
      nju:'məuniə
      n[U] an inflammatory condition of the lung
      -
      Vaccines to prevent certain types of pneumonia are available.
      Pneumonia presumed to be bacterial is treated with antibiotics.
      If the pneumonia is severe, the affected person is generally hospitalized.
      Pneumonia affects approximately 450 million people globally per year, seven percent of population, and results in about 4 million deaths, mostly in developing countries.
      Although pneumonia was regarded by William Osler in the 19th century as "the captain of the men of death," the advent of antibiotic therapy and vaccines in the 20th century has seen improvements in survival.
      Phoebe, you'll catch pneumonia.
      Compare hernia, insomnia, kleptomania, mania, megalomania, neurasthenia, nymphomania, pneumonia, and schizophrenia.
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      lux`u`ri`ous
      lʌg'ʒuəriəs
      adj very comfortable and expensive
      -
      And for a real luxurious treat, have breakfast served on you terrace.
      More than one million square feet of luxurious accommodations await you, including 338 impeccable guest rooms.
      Enjoy a deep, luxurious bathtub in the bathroom, as well as a hair-dryer and excellent amenities.
      She continues to feel the luxurious fabric and asks the shop girl for a pair in her size.
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