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      fore`front
      'fɔ:frʌnt
      n[s] the most forward or important position or place
      -
      Once sexual release is in the forefront of his mind, it becomes dominant in his focus.
      I kept the children in the forefront of my teaching activities.
      If we want to remain at the forefront in science, we have to decide what it is that the federal government can do that no other sector can do, and what part of science can't be supported by the private sector.
      Adam Sandler has been at the forefront of popular comedy for nearly twenty years.
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      purge
      pə:dʒ
      v[T] get rid of sb/sth
      also a noun
      -
      If you purge something of undesirable things, you get rid of them.
      In the context of 2 Peter 3, perhaps the most important point is that Peter compares this coming judgment by fire with the historical judgment by water in Noah's flood. The earth was not obliterated during that judgment, but was purged of sin.
      In history, religion, and political science, a purge is the removal of people who are considered undesirable by those in power from a government, from another organization, from their team owners, or from society as a whole.
      The Great Purge was a campaign of political repression in the Soviet Union which occurred from 1936 to 1940.
      It involved a large-scale purge of the Communist Party and government officials, repression of peasants and the Red Army leadership, and widespread police surveillance, suspicion of "saboteurs", imprisonment, and arbitrary executions.
      Compare prune, purge, and purify.
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      scour
      skauə
      v[T] clean sth thoroughly by rubbing it hard with sth rough, scrub ¶ search a place or document thoroughly for sth ¶
      -
      "You'll have to scour out those old cooking pots before you use them," said Monica.
      Mondler was scouring out the pans.
      It took a long time to scour the flea markets, 2nd hand shops and eBay to find just the right pieces.
      We've scoured the country for the UK's best gardeners - now meet our amazing winners!
      Compare scrape, scour, and scrub.
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      bur`geon
      'bə:dʒən
      v[I] grow or develop quickly
      -
      It was in the decades following our Civil War that our industries began to burgeon.
      It expands. It burgeons. It blossoms.
      W2 has burgeoned into a number of projects including a cafe, meeting space, arts society and radio show on Co-op Radio.
      He also notes that this bourgeoning middle class can lure and reward international investors looking to tap the continent's growing economy.
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      in`tel`lect
      'intilekt
      n[UC] the ability to understand things and to think intelligently ¶ sb who is very intelligent
      -
      Intellect is a term used in studies of the human mind, and refers to the ability of the mind to come to correct conclusions about what is true or real, and about how to solve problems.
      We have put an idiot in the White House. And judging from the level of intellect shown on this blog, it is no wonder why.
      Matt, if your purpose was to prove you possess limited intellect and/or poor education, then you have achieved your goal perfectly.
      When a character in an American movie is supposed to have a superior intellect, he is going to have a European accent, usually British.
      Einstein was a great intellect.
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      ab`o`rig`i`nal
      æbə'ridʒinəl
      adj indigenous
      also a noun
      -
      By 1519, a third of the aboriginal population had died because of smallpox.
      Have a separate category for Native Hawaiians (defined as individuals who are descendants of the aboriginal people who, prior to 1778, occupied and exercised sovereignty in the area that now constitutes the State of Hawaii)
      Aboriginal Australians are legally defined as people who are members "of the Aboriginal race of Australia" (indigenous to the Australian continent - mainland Australia or to the island of Tasmania).
      The Aboriginal Tasmanians are the indigenous people of the Australian state of Tasmania, located south of the mainland.
      Aboriginal peoples in Canada, or Aboriginal Canadians, are the indigenous peoples within the boundaries of present-day Canada.
      Taiwanese aborigines (Chinese: 原住民) is the term commonly applied to the indigenous peoples of Taiwan, who constitute about two percent of the island's population, or more than 500,000 people.
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      mun`dane
      mʌn'dein
      adj boring or wordly
      -
      Why no, it's the opposite of weird. It's-it's uh, regular. It's-it's uh, it's mundane. It's actually uh, a little dull.
      She continues to lead her mundane co-ed life driving around in her old Beetle and applying for internships.
      Even the most mundane elements of your life can relate in their way to the interests of the nation.
      What one person finds mundane or even offensive, another finds art.
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      me`tab`o`lism
      mə'tæbəlizəm
      n[UC] chemical processes by which food is changed into energy in your body
      -
      Metabolism (from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of living organisms.
      The word metabolism can also refer to all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism.
      Metabolism is usually divided into two categories.
      Catabolism, that breaks down organic matter and harvests energy by way of cellular respiration, and anabolism that uses energy to construct components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids.
      The chemical reactions of metabolism are organized into metabolic pathways, in which one chemical is transformed through a series of steps into another chemical, by a sequence of enzymes.
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      dy`na`mite
      'dainəmait
      n[U] a powerful explosive used especially for breaking rock ¶ sb/sth that is likely to cause a lot of trouble ¶ sb/sth that is very exciting or impressive
      v[T] damage or destroy sth with ~
      -
      Dynamite is an explosive material based on nitroglycerin, using diatomaceous earth (AmE: kieselgur; BrE: kieselguhr), or another absorbent substance such as powdered shells, clay, sawdust, or wood shavings.
      Dynamites using organic materials such as sawdust are less stable and such use has been generally discontinued.
      Dynamite was invented by the Swedish chemist and engineer Alfred Nobel in Geesthacht, Germany, and patented in 1867.
      Its name was coined by Nobel from the Ancient Greek word δύναμις dýnamis, meaning "power".
      You know how your daddy used to say that you can only fish for so long before you got to throw a stick of dynamite in the water?
      Maybe your nickname should be Brown Dynamite.
      Really? You think I care if a man, what, "shared a pumpkin latte with a dynamite lady"?
      I'll tell you Cosmo's ten dynamite tips to enjoy your PMS.
      The Taliban dynamited the Buddhas of Bamiyan.
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      in`fer
      in'fə:
      v[T] conclude from evidence or premises
      -
      Some people use infer to mean "imply", but many people consider this use to be incorrect.
      What do you infer from her expression?
      It is difficult to infer anything from such scanty evidence.
      It is possible to infer two completely opposite conclusions from this set of facts.
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      gra`vy
      'greivi
      n[U] a sauce made from the juices that come from meat when it cooks ¶ money or profit that you get unexpectedly
      -
      Gravy is a sauce, made often from the juices that run naturally during cooking and often thickened with wheat flour or cornstarch for added texture.
      In North America the term can refer to a wider variety of sauces.
      The gravy may be further colored and flavored with gravy salt (a simple mix of salt and caramel food coloring) or gravy browning (gravy salt dissolved in water) or ready-made cubes and powders can be used as a substitute for natural meat or vegetable extracts.
      Canned gravies are also available.
      Gravy is commonly served with roasts, meatloaf, rice, and mashed potatoes.
      A gravy boat is a long narrow jug that is used to serve gravy.
      I was looking at this gravy boat. This really gorgeous Limoges gravy boat.
      If an organization or person earns a lot of money without doing much work, you can say that they are on the gravy train.
      We were disgusted when managers awarded themselves a massive pay rise.
      How can they get on the gravy train, but ask us to take a wage freeze?
      Compare bonus and gravy.
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      flu`o`res`cent
      flɔ:'resənt
      adj a ~ color is very bright and seems to reflect light ¶ a ~ substance produces light when you pass electricity through it
      -
      Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.
      Daylight is the major scourge of art, emitting damaging ultraviolet rays, but fluorescent lights also give off ultraviolet rays.
      Braun introduced a CRT with a fluorescent screen, known as the cathode ray oscilloscope.
      They are also fluorescent and glow under ultraviolet light.
      Chandler is eating dehydrated Japanese noodles under fluorescent lights.
      Fluorescent lighting in the kitchen supplied a nasty pseudo-dawn.
      I shook my head and looked into the cup where the room's fluorescent light reflected.
      The fluorescent tube continued to flicker.
      Some LCD televisions also use LED backlights instead of fluorescent lights, saving even more energy.
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      prox`y
      'prɔksi
      n[CU] agent or substitute
      -
      If you do something by proxy, you arrange for someone else to do it for you.
      If you will not be able to vote on polling day, you may vote by proxy.
      You may appoint a proxy to vote for you.
      He made his brother his proxy.
      In computer networks, a proxy server is a server (a computer system or an application) that acts as an intermediary for requests from clients seeking resources from other servers.
      A client connects to the proxy server, requesting some service, such as a file, connection, web page, or other resource available from a different server and the proxy server evaluates the request as a way to simplify and control its complexity.
      Today, most proxies are web proxies, facilitating access to content on the World Wide Web.
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      au`di`to`ry
      'ɔ:ditəri
      adj relating to the ability to hear
      -
      The fibers of the auditory nerve proceed a short distance to the brainstem.
      These nerve impulses are then relayed to the brain via the auditory nerve.
      A disorder, known as auditory processing disorder (APD), came to prominence in the 1970s.
      Auditory processing is a learned function, and if something interferes with the brain's training, the result may be a deficit in the capacity to process sound.
      Sound direction is localized by virtue of our having two ears and our ability to use different parts of the auditory system to process distinct aspects of incoming directional information.
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      maid`en
      'meidn
      n[C] unmarried girl or woman, virgin
      -
      Like chastity, the concept of virginity has traditionally involved sexual abstinence before marriage, and then to engage in sexual acts only with the marriage partner.
      The maidenhead (hymen) is a membrane that surrounds or partially covers the external vaginal opening.
      It forms part of the vulva, or external genitalia, and is similar in structure to the vagina.
      A maiden aunt is an aunt who is not married.
      A married woman's maiden name is her parents' surname, which she used before she got married and started using her husband's surname.
      In 1912, the Titanic sank on her maiden voyage.
      A politician's maiden speech is the first speech that he or she makes in parliament after becoming a member of it.
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      clear`ance
      'kliərəns
      n[UC] the removal of things that are not wanted ¶ the amount of space or distance that is needed between two objects ¶ authorization or permission
      -
      Bermondsey is a borough which has something like 2,000 overcrowded houses, and will have, in a few years, to carry out no fewer than 44 slum clearance schemes.
      A clearance of at least 30mm shall be provided between each handrail and the wall to which it is fastened and handrails shall be so constructed that there is no obstruction on or above the handrails to break a handhold.
      A security clearance is a special status granted to individuals allowing them access to classified information (state or organizational secrets) or to restricted areas, after completion of a thorough background check.
      A closeout or clearance is the final sale of an item or items to zero inventory.
      Cheque clearing (or check clearing in American English) is the process of moving a cheque from the bank in which it was deposited to the bank on which it was drawn, and the movement of the money in the opposite direction.
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      fret
      fret
      v[I] worry about sth continuously
      -
      Catherine is a young mother fretting about not being able to produce enough milk for her newborn.
      I'm actively placing my worries onto paper so I can go to bed not fretting about what needs to be done.
      Here we are, fretting over our Netflix queues while halfway around the world people are being blown to bits.
      In the early 20th century, a class of artists and humanists fretted over the effect urban culture would have on small towns.
      A fret is a raised element on the neck of a stringed instrument.
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      go`ril`la
      gə'rilə
      n[C] a very large ape
      -
      Gorillas are ground-dwelling, predominantly herbivorous apes that inhabit the forests of central Africa.
      They are the largest living primates by physical size.
      The DNA of gorillas is highly similar to that of humans, from 95–99% depending on what is counted, and they are the next closest living relatives to humans after the chimpanzees and bonobos.
      Gorillas' natural habitats cover tropical or subtropical forests in Africa.
      King Kong is a fictional character, a giant movie monster resembling a colossal gorilla, that has appeared in several movies since 1933.
      Compare gibbon, gorilla, guerrilla, and orang-utan.
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      ec`sta`sy
      'ekstəsi
      n[UC] a feeling of extreme happiness
      -
      The American Heritage Dictionary defines ecstasy as "intense joy or delight."
      In everyday language, the word 'ecstasy' denotes an intense, euphoric experience.
      MDMA is a psychoactive drug; it has become widely known as "ecstasy" (shortened to "E", "X", or "XTC").
      Ecstasy gained national attention when it was the drug of choice at club parties, called "raves."
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      live`li`hood
      'laivlihud
      n[UC] the way you earn money in order to live
      -
      It's difficult to earn a livelihood as an unsuccessful artist.
      He said he would lose his livelihood if his driving licence was taken away.
      The cab was his main source of livelihood.
      The most basic of all needs is for a livelihood: that is, employment.
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      u`nan`i`mous
      ju:'næniməs
      adj sharing the same opinions or views
      -
      The jury returned a unanimous verdict of guilty after a short deliberation.
      The jury was unanimous.
      The board of ministers unanimously approved the project last week.
      Doctors are unanimous about the dangers of this drug.
      They were unanimous in this decision.
      Adams helped draft the Declaration of Independence, secured its unanimous adoption in Congress, and wrote his wife on July 3, 1776, that "the most memorable Epoch in the History of America has begun."
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      cur`tail
      kə:'teil
      v[T] reduce or limit
      -
      We must try to curtail our spending.
      We have curtailed extras such as eating out and traveling.
      We cancelled or curtailed modernization programs that were egregiously over-budget, behind schedule, or dependent on unproven technology.
      In 2001,even with his travel curtailed by 9/11, George W. Bush hit 88 cities across 39 states.
      Compare curtail and entail.
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      pleas`ing
      'pli:ziŋ
      adj giving pleasure, enjoyment, or satisfaction
      -
      "For the record, I do have genitals. They're functional and aesthetically pleasing," said Sheldon.
      It made a pleasing sound as it snapped open and shut.
      A soft, pleasing strain of music could be heard, and a gentle breeze, was blowing through the window.
      This area of France has a pleasing climate in August.
      Rachel's progress this year has been very pleasing.
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      ex`pan`sive
      ik'spænsiv
      adj covering a large area ¶ including a lot of information ¶ friendly, generous, or willing to talk
      -
      Glass-fronted rooms allow for expansive views.
      At 26, Grey had already created an expansive business empire.
      New York divorce law gives for a much more expansive definition of marital property than is identified in most other states.
      He was in an expansive mood on the night of the party.
      Compare expansive and extrovert.
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      ob`so`lete
      'ɔbsəli:t
      adj no longer useful
      -
      Most computer hardware rapidly becomes obsolete.
      The iPhone 4 will be obsolete in a matter of days.
      You can also talk about how Digital cameras and MP3 player are becoming obsolete, due to new smartphones.
      So much smartphones become obsolete almost as soon as it's made.
      Compare obsolete and out-of-date.
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