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      n[C] a short sentence or phrase that expresses a principle or aim
      "MEG was good for me but I dumped her. You know, my motto is get out before they go down," said Monica.
      "That is so not my motto," said Joey.
      "Season's Greetings" is a greeting more commonly used as a motto on winter season greeting cards, and in commercial advertisements, than as a spoken phrase.
      Ok, listen I am not a pervert!
      That's like the pervert motto! Yeah! Yeah! They have you raise your right hand, put your left hand down your pants, and repeat that!
      For the record, I truly support the FBI in the mission which is expressed through their motto?
      Fidelity, bravery, integrity?
      Not knowing is part of the fun. Was that the motto of your community college?
      v[T] deliberately damage or destroy the property of an enemy or opponent ¶ intentionally prevent the success of a plan or action
      also a noun
      Well, I don't know. I mean, it's conceivable that you wanted to sabotage your marriage so that the sibling would feel less of a failure in the eyes of the parents.
      I think, on some level, you sabotaged your own audition so Ben would get the part.
      All right, I'm leaving! Because I'm not going to spend one more day with someone who's out to sabotage my every move. That’s you Rachel!
      I deliberately tried to sabotage Stuart's date with Penny.
      "So, your project is more important than mine?" "Well, seeing as your project is to sabotage my project, yes."
      You are prepared to give your lives? You are prepared to commit murder? To commit acts of sabotage which may cause the death of hundreds of innocent people?
      Compare jeopardize, sabotage, and undermine.
      v[T] make a written agreement official by signing it
      It takes the Senate to ratify a treaty, and they're not going to ratify anything that nullifies the 2nd amendment.
      We thought that it wouldn't happen but all of our RINO'S jumped at the chance to kiss Obama's ass and voted to ratify.
      The treaty still has to be ratified by the U.S. Senate.
      The decision will have to be ratified by the executive board.
      adj excessively desirous of acquiring or possessing
      In the currently recognized version, the sins are usually given as wrath, greed, sloth, pride, lust, envy, and gluttony.
      Oh what, you want both of them? It is a little greedy don't you think?
      Well, you promised me a fun road trip! And we've been on the road for six hours and you've been asleep for five and a half! We are switching at the next rest stop and you are going to drive all the way back! That will be your punishment, you greedy sleeper!
      Come on! You're good with kids. They're just crazy on Halloween. You know, they're all greedy and hopped up on sugar!
      "Where on earth did you get that from?" "It's in her book, Needy Baby, Greedy Baby."
      "Oh, let me try the voice recognition." "Hey, I let you peel the plastic, don't get greedy."
      Yes, Mummy was right. American girls are sexually voracious devils.
      v[I] make a rattling sound ¶ move quickly and noisily
      also a noun
      When he threw away a bit of broken tile, it clattered against a bamboo tree.
      The tile clattered against the bamboo tree and with the sudden clattering, the sudden sound, he becomes enlightened.
      Typewriters clattered. Pages turned. Pens scratched.
      Ross and Rachel clattered up the porch steps and tumbled inside.
      Phoebe put the tray down with a clatter.
      adj from or connected with eastern Asia, esp China and Japan
      also a noun
      The inn's rooms have fine 18th century reporduction furnighsing and oriental rugs.
      On 5-6 March 2011, the Palestine Society at School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) in London will hold its seventh annual conference.
      Perhaps it was one of the reasons why he later turned to oriental studies and learned oriental languages.
      Some people refer to people from eastern Asia, especially China or Japan as Orientals. This use could cause offence.
      n[U] a sticky substance found in plants and trees ¶ a stupid person who is easy to deceive or treat badly
      v[T] weaken
      Plant sap, or simply sap, is a fluid transported in xylem cells or phloem sieve tube elements of a plant.
      Maple syrup is made from reduced sugar maple sap.
      The sap often is harvested from the Sugar Maple.
      In some countries (e.g., Russia, Latvia, Estonia or Finland) harvesting the early spring sap of birch trees (so called "birch juice") for human consumption is common practice; the sap can be used fresh or fermented and contains xylitol (木糖醇).
      The moon is slowly sapping the earth's rotational energy.
      Compare sap and sucker.
      n[CU] a literary or musical work that copies a serious work in a humorous way
      also a verb
      A parody (also called spoof, send-up or lampoon), in use, is an imitative work created to imitate, make fun of, or comment on an original work, its subject, author, style, or some other target, by means of satiric or ironic imitation.
      A parody imitates the serious manner and characteristic features of a particular literary work in order to make fun of those same features.
      The humorist achieves parody by exaggerating certain traits common to the work, much as a caricaturist creates a humorous depiction of a person by magnifying and calling attention to the person's most noticeable features.
      The term parody is often used synonymously with the more general term spoof, which makes fun of the general traits of a genre rather than one particular work or author.
      Comedian Charlie Chaplin impersonating Hitler for comic effect in the satirical film The Great Dictator
      On June 11, 2009, Capone set up his parody Twitter account.
      The 39 Steps is a parody not only of the 1935 Alfred Hitchcock movie from which it takes its title and basic plot, but also a variety of other Hitchcock films.
      n[U] a type of white or gray stone containing calcium, used for building and making cement
      Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).
      Most limestone is composed of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera.
      Limestone makes up about 10% of the total volume of all sedimentary rocks.
      The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years.
      Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock.
      Limestone has numerous uses: as a building material, as aggregate for the base of roads, as white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or paints, and as a chemical feedstock.
      n[C] metal pin or bolt for fastening two pieces of metal together
      v[T] fasten ¶ fix ¶ attract
      A rivet is a permanent mechanical fastener.
      Before being installed, a rivet consists of a smooth cylindrical shaft with a head on one end.
      The end opposite the head is called the tail.
      On installation the rivet is placed in a punched or drilled hole, and the tail is upset, or bucked (i.e., deformed), so that it expands to about 1.5 times the original shaft diameter, holding the rivet in place.
      To distinguish between the two ends of the rivet, the original head is called the factory head and the deformed end is called the shop head or buck-tail.
      No, no, no now in all seriousness, it's not a lot of women would've had the guts to come back here tonight, and even fewer, who would do it with their asses hanging out! (da-doom-chesh)
      All eyes were riveted on Rachel in amusement.
      adj not enough ¶ almost
      They produce foods with scant regard for quality.
      The scandal received scant attention in the press, why?
      She pays scant attention to the needs of her husband.
      The hole was a scant 3.14 inches in diameter.
      n[C] the part of your body where feces are formed
      In human anatomy, the intestine (or bowel, hose or gut) is the segment of the gastrointestinal tract extending from the pyloric sphincter of the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine.
      In humans, the small intestine is further subdivided into the duodenum, jejunum and ileum while the large intestine is subdivided into the cecum, colon, rectum, and anal canal.
      Colonoscopy or coloscopy is the endoscopic examination of the large bowel and the distal part of the small bowel with a CCD camera or a fiber optic camera on a flexible tube passed through the anus.
      Am I okay? Leonard, I'm on a lifelong trajectory that includes a Nobel Prize and cities named after me, all four wisdom teeth fit comfortably in my mouth without need of extraction, and my bowel movements run like a German train schedule. Am I okay?
      I have spent my whole life trying to bring order to the universe by carefully planning every moment of every day. But all my efforts, our dinner schedule, my pyjama rotation, my bowel movement spreadsheet, it's clear now, I've been wasting my time.
      Sheldon, don't talk about your bowel movements over breakfast.
      adj physically weak and not very healthy ¶ fragile
      You fail to take into account that even mute, I am foreign and exotic, while you, on the other hand, are frail and pasty.
      Well, you know the old saying. Pasty and frail, never fail.
      We humans are rather frail creatures when it comes to heart issues.
      The industry is critical to Pakistan's frail economy -- according to central bank data, it provided 7.4% of Pakistan's GDP in 2011 and employed 38% of the manufacturing sector workforce.
      n[C] a large ship, truck, or plane that carries gas or oil
      An oil tanker, also known as a petroleum tanker, is a merchant ship designed for the bulk transport of oil.
      There are two basic types of oil tankers: the crude tanker and the product tanker.
      Crude tankers move large quantities of unrefined crude oil from its point of extraction to refineries.
      Product tankers, generally much smaller, are designed to move refined products from refineries to points near consuming markets.
      Oil tankers are often classified by their size as well as their occupation.
      The size classes range from inland or coastal tankers of a few thousand metric tons of deadweight (DWT) to the mammoth ultra large crude carriers (ULCCs) of 550,000 DWT.
      Deadweight tonnage (also known as deadweight; abbreviated to DWT, D.W.T., d.w.t., or dwt) is a measure of how much weight a ship is carrying or can safely carry.
      Tankers move approximately 2,000,000,000 metric tons of oil every year.
      n[U] the scientific study of sight and light
      Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.
      Optics usually describes the behaviour of visible, ultraviolet, and infrared light.
      Because light is an electromagnetic wave, other forms of electromagnetic radiation such as X-rays, microwaves, and radio waves exhibit similar properties.
      Practical applications of optics are found in a variety of technologies and everyday objects, including mirrors, lenses, telescopes, microscopes, lasers, and fibre optics.
      An optical fiber (or optical fibre) is a flexible, transparent fiber made of extruded glass (silica) or plastic, slightly thicker than a human hair.
      n[U] the diameter of the inside of a round cylinder ¶ the width of a bullet ¶ the level of quality or ability that sb/sth has achieved
      In guns, particularly firearms, caliber or calibre is the approximate internal diameter of the barrel, or the diameter of the projectile it fires, usually shown in millimeters, or in hundredths or thousandths of an inch.
      When expressed in inches in writing or print, it is shown in terms of a decimal fraction: .45 caliber, for example.
      When the barrel diameter is given in inches, the abbreviation "cal" can be used. For example, a small-bore rifle with a diameter of 0.22 inches can be called a .22 or a .22 cal; however, the decimal point is generally dropped when spoken, making it a "twenty-two caliber" or a "two-two caliber" rifle.
      However, when caliber is expressed in millimeters, this is noted, as in, "9mm pistol."
      In a rifled barrel, the distance is measured between opposing lands or grooves; groove measurements are common in cartridge designations originating in the United States, while land measurements are more common elsewhere.
      This is the largest university in the country, it is arguably the best university in the country, it has a very high calibre of faculty members, very high calibre of students, a record of research successes across a very broad range of disciplines.
      We need to hold onto players of his calibre.
      n[CU] a bright green precious stone ¶ a bright green color
      Emerald is a gemstone and a variety of the mineral beryl (绿宝石) colored green by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium (钒).
      Emeralds, like all colored gemstones, are graded using four basic parameters–the four Cs of Connoisseurship: Color, Cut, Clarity and Carat weight.
      Colombia is by far the world's largest producer of emeralds, constituting 50–95% of the world production, with the number depending on the year, source and grade.
      Emerald is regarded as the traditional birthstone for May, as well as the traditional gemstone for the astrological signs of Taurus, Gemini and sometimes Cancer.
      The Chalk Emerald is a 37.82 carats (7.564 g) Colombian emerald.
      Compare these words: amethyst, emerald, sapphire, and ruby.
      adj clearly separate
      The energy spectrum is discrete, ie that not all energies are permitted.
      It still carries a discrete graphics card, but only switches it on when absolutely necessary.
      Time is measured in discrete units of 1 day.
      A discrete cosine transform (DCT) expresses a finite sequence of data points in terms of a sum of cosine functions oscillating at different frequencies.
      adj quick, active, energetic ¶ giving a healthy feeling, refreshing
      Weather that is brisk is cold and clear.
      Oh, brisk tonight.
      Whew! That was a brisk ride!
      Go for a brisk walk, play a hard game of tennis with a friend, work in the garden, or clean the house.
      And the story moved along at a brisk pace.
      v[T] tear up by the roots, eliminate
      To eradicate something means to get rid of it completely.
      Will the Internet eradicate all music, game, dvd and book stores within the next 10 years?
      We have a window of opportunity of historic proportions to eradicate polio (小儿麻痹症).
      But, can terrorism be contained and eradicated through war, destruction and the killing of hundreds of thousands of innocents?
      We know that a habit can not be eradicated.
      n[C] pointed stake set into the ground, eg as part of a fence
      also a verb
      Picket fences are a type of fence often used decoratively for domestic boundaries, distinguished by their evenly spaced vertical boards, the pickets, attached to horizontal rails.
      Until the introduction of advertising on fences in the 1980s, cricket fields were usually surrounded by picket fences, giving rise to the expression rattling the pickets for a ball hit firmly into the fence.
      A screw picket is a metal device which is used to secure objects to the ground.
      Today, screw pickets are used widely to temporarily "picket" dogs.
      The original picket was a stake hammered into the ground to secure a horse by tying it to the stake.
      Picketing is a form of protest in which people (called picketers)[1] congregate outside a place of work or location where an event is taking place.
      Often, this is done in an attempt to dissuade others from going in ("crossing the picket line"), but it can also be done to draw public attention to a cause.
      Picketing is a common tactic used by trade unions during strikes, who will try to prevent dissident members of the union, members of other unions and non-unionised workers from working.
      Those who cross the picket line and work despite the strike are known pejoratively as scabs.
      Compare picket and boycott.
      n[C] the man who is married to sb's mother but who is not their real father
      I mean, well, 'cause when I was growing up, you know my dad left, and my mother died, and my stepfather went to jail, so I barely had enough pieces of parents to make one whole one.
      This guy could be Ross' baby's stepfather!
      What if they get married? Then he'd be the stepfather of my child.
      He offers marriage in name only so he can be close to her stepfather and find a way to destroy him.
      adj no longer existing or living
      An extinct volcano does not erupt any more (≠active).
      The homo habili is an extinct species of humans considered to be an ancestor of modern humans.
      Most mammal species had become extinct.
      Work to keep pandas from becoming extinct crosses oceans and international boundaries.
      That is, the hardware that breaks down, the formats that go extinct, and the online stuff that vanishes one way or another.
      n[C] a member of a violent group of criminals
      Alphonse Capone was an American gangster who led a Prohibition-era crime syndicate.
      You see that house over there? My parents told me a big gangster lives over there.
      The two gansters wearing bulletproof vests opened fire with automatic weapons.
      American Gangster is a 2007 American biographical crime film.
      adj slightly fat ¶ strong and thick, sturdy ¶ brave and determined
      n[U] strong dark beer
      Monica was accompanied by a plain stout man, obviously not an appropriate escort.
      Compare these words: chubby, obese, plump, and stout.
      Monica bought a stout pair of shoes.
      Johnson put up a stout defence of his criticised captain Steve Borthwick.
      Cromwell having refreshed his men at Dublin, marches to besiege Drogheda, and made himself master of it in a little time, after a stout resistance from the garrison, putting most of the officers, and every tenth soldier, to the sword to terrify others from making opposition against his victorious arms: Sir Arthur Aston, and several other principal officers and gentlemen, with near 3000 soldiers, being slain.
      Stout is a dark beer made using roasted malt or roasted barley, hops, water and yeast.
      Boddingtons Brewery was a regional brewery in Manchester, England which owned pubs throughout the North West.
      Boddingtons was best known for Boddingtons Bitter (Boddies), a straw-golden, hoppy bitter which was one of the first beers to be packaged in cans containing a widget, giving it a creamy draught-style head.