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      cou`pon
      'ku:pɔn
      n[C] voucher ¶ a printed form, used when you order sth, enter a competition etc
      -
      In marketing, a coupon is a ticket or document that can be exchanged for a financial discount or rebate when purchasing a product.
      Customarily, coupons are issued by manufacturers of consumer packaged goods or by retailers, to be used in retail stores as a part of sales promotions.
      They are often widely distributed through mail, coupon envelopes, magazines, newspapers, the Internet (social media, email newsletter), directly from the retailer, and mobile devices such as cell phones.
      Since only price conscious consumers are likely to spend the time to claim the savings, coupons function as a form of price discrimination, enabling retailers to offer a lower price only to those consumers who would otherwise go elsewhere.
      In addition, coupons can also be targeted selectively to regional markets in which price competition is great.
      In government, a coupon is a paper certificate used to administer a benefit or permission.
      In finance, with respect to bonds, a coupon rate is the interest rate that the issuer pays to the bond holders.
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      com`bus`tion
      kəm'bʌstʃən
      n[U] the process of burning ¶ chemical activity which uses oxygen to produce light and heat
      -
      Combustion or burning is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.
      Combustion in a fire produces a flame, and the heat produced can make combustion self-sustaining.
      Combustion is often a complicated sequence of elementary radical reactions.
      Combustion is often hot enough that light in the form of either glowing or a flame is produced.
      A simple example can be seen in the combustion of hydrogen and oxygen into water vapor, a reaction commonly used to fuel rocket engines.
      An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit.
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      ro`dent
      'rəudənt
      n[C] a type of small animal that has long sharp front teeth
      -
      Rodents (Latin rodere, to gnaw) are mammals of the order Rodentia, characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws.
      About forty percent of all mammal species are rodents, and they are found in vast numbers on all continents except Antarctica.
      Well known rodents include mice, rats, squirrels, prairie dogs, porcupines, beavers, guinea pigs, and hamsters.
      Other animals such as rabbits, hares and pikas, which could be confused with rodents, were once included with them, but are now considered to be in a separate order, Lagomorpha.
      Most rodents are small animals with robust bodies, short limbs and long tails, but there are exceptions to this.
      The capybara, the largest living rodent, can weigh up to 91 kg.
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      en`gulf
      in'gʌlf
      v[T] surround and cover sb/sth completely
      -
      An 8.2 magnitude earthquake devastates Pasadena, reducing mighty edifices to dust, engulfing the city in flames.
      He wants to engulf her in his arms, breath her scent, kiss her, take her to his bed, wake up tangled in her.
      A tidal wave engulfs the Himalayas. A tsunami scoops up a warship and dumps it on the White House.
      Things rapidly spin out of control until the entire town is engulfed in chaos.
      The song ends, and the president jogs onto the stage, engulfing Mr. Springsteen in a huge bear hug.
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      fu`tile
      'fju:tl
      adj pointless
      -
      "To put lipstick on a pig" is used to convey the message that making superficial or cosmetic changes is a futile attempt to disguise the true nature of a product.
      Mrs Davis, I, uh, I must confess, I came here tonight in a futile attempt to pick up some lonely postdoc, but instead I got to connect with you at a human level.
      I would advise the three of you that resistance is futile. I have endless patience. I once spent two-and-a-half hours on hold with Hewlett-Packard customer service just to complain about their customer service.
      It just seems so futile, you know ? All these women, and nothing.
      Phoebe grabs her huge purse and starts rummaging through it and taking out various items in a futile search for the gum.
      Joey enters from his room desperately trying to look like a 19-year-old. He's got the wool cap, he's got the cut-off Knicks jersey over the faded T-shirt, and he's got the whole pants-around-the-knees-showing-off-the-boxers thing that rich, white, suburban kids have adopted in a desperate and extremely futile attempt to try to look like they're from the inner city.
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      in`cense
      'insens
      n[U] a substance which has a pleasant smell when you burn it
      v[T] make sb very angry
      -
      I was so incensed by what he was saying I had to walk out.
      Incense is aromatic biotic material which releases fragrant smoke when burned.
      The term refers to the material itself, rather than to the aroma that it produces.
      Incense is used for a variety of purposes, including the ceremonies of all the main religions, to overcome bad smells, repel insects, spirituality, aromatherapy, meditation, and for simple pleasure.
      Incense is composed of aromatic plant materials, often combined with essential oils.
      The church was filled with the smell of incense.
      I was enraged. Livid and incensed, I was filled with indignation and appalled that this could happen.
      Compare fury, infuriate, incense, and rage.
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      clam`or
      'klæmə
      n[U] a loud outcry
      v[I] demand sth loudly
      -
      She made so much noise and clamor that it can not be described.
      Kids clamored at our ankles as Mahmoud gave us a hurried tour of his village.
      Some clamoured and rushed to find a lifeboat out of the situation.
      For years the owners of time shares at Disney hotels have been clamouring for a Hawaiian option.
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      in`let
      'inlet
      n[C] a narrow strip of water which goes from a sea or lake into the land ¶ the part of a machine through which liquid or gas flows in
      -
      An inlet is an indentation of a shoreline, usually long and narrow, such as a small bay or arm, that often leads to an enclosed body of water, such as a sound, bay, lagoon, or marsh.
      In sea coasts, an inlet usually refers to the actual connection between a bay and the ocean and is often called an "entrance" or a recession in the shore of a sea, lake, or river.
      In 2011, Hurricane Irene opened a new inlet on Hatteras Island in North Carolina.
      A malfunction carburetor is unable to blend the correct amount of air and fuel for the engine. Check the fuel inlet, idle jet, throttle lever, choke lever, throttle valve and see if they are working properly.
      Compare exhaust, inlet, and outlet.
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      re`lin`quish
      ri'liŋkwiʃ
      v[T] give up
      -
      Monica didn't like to relinquish control.
      Oh, relinquish is just a fancy word for lose!
      Anyone who relinquishes a single inch of Jerusalem is neither an Arab nor a Muslim.
      If you pass the torch, you relinquish responsibilities, a tradition, practice, or knowledge to another.
      I have relinquished control here.
      "I rest my case" is used by a lawyer when they have finished trying to prove something in a court of law.
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      sly
      slai
      adj cunning
      -
      If you describe someone as sly, you disapprove of them because they keep their feelings or intentions hidden and are clever at deceiving people.
      A sly look, expression, or remark shows that you know something that other people do not know or that was meant to be a secret.
      If you do something on the sly, you do it secretly because you should not be doing it.
      Some of the gags are quite sly and easy to miss, like sunglasses that reflect the film crew and boom mikes.
      Chandler repeated with a sly smile.
      The chief priests and the teachers of the law were looking for some sly way to arrest Jesus and kill him.
      It a sly way of getting some PR.
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      um`pire
      'ʌmpaiə
      n[C] sb appointed to rule on plays, esp in baseball
      also a verb
      -
      A referee is the person of authority in a variety of sports who is responsible for presiding over the game from a neutral point of view and making on-the-fly decisions that enforce the rules of the sport, including sportsmanship decisions such as ejection.
      The official tasked with this job may be known, in addition to referee, by a variety of other titles as well (often depending on the sport), including umpire, judge, arbiter, arbitrator, linesman, commissaire, timekeeper, touch judge or Technical Official (by the International Olympic Committee).
      The term referee originated in association football. Originally the team captains would consult with each other in order to resolve any dispute on the pitch. Eventually this role was delegated to an umpire.
      In baseball and softball, there is commonly a head umpire (also known as a plate umpire) who is in charge of calling balls and strikes from behind the plate, who is assisted by one, two, three, or five field umpires who make calls on their specific bases (or with five umpires the bases and the outfield).
      In international basketball and in college basketball, the referee is the lead official in a game, and is assisted by either one or two umpires.
      I have now umpired close to 200 games, ranging from Under 15's through to First Class cricket.
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      ruth`less
      'ru:θləs
      adj having no compassion or pity, merciless
      -
      In 1930, Harry Cohn, one of the most ruthless and unsavory characters controlling a studio bailed Walt Disney.
      Lawyers can be human bulldogs, fearless and often ruthless in the pursuit of getting what's right for their clients.
      Sri Lanka has finally achieved peace by defeating a ruthless terrorist organization as the LTTE, which had rejected all peace bids made by the government.
      Cameron has been as ruthless as a middle eastern dictator to ensure that these protests are suppressed.
      They have their political opinions and are ruthless with those who belong to opposite views.
      The S.S. ran the place with ruthless efficiency.
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      pro`fess
      prə'fes
      v[T] affirm openly, declare or claim
      -
      I don't profess to be an expert about the subject.
      I never professed to be any sort of authority on the subject.
      It is beyond me how any organization professes to be concerned with human compassion allows people to die without basic medical care.
      The proportion of females professing the Christian faith (73.5%) is higher than males (68.2%) in the region.
      Compare confess and profess.
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      per`ish
      'periʃ
      v[I] die, esp in a terrible or sudden way ¶ be lost or destroyed
      -
      Fire ravaged the city. One quarter of Lisbon's population perished.
      In my family's city in Poland, Piotrkow, 99 per cent of the Jews perished.
      If material such as rubber or leather perishes, it decays and starts to break into pieces.
      The tyres are slowly perishing.
      "Perish the thought" is used to say that you find a suggestion unacceptable or that you hope that sth will never happen.
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      de`flect
      di'flekt
      v[IT] turn aside or cause to turn aside, bend or deviate
      -
      If you deflect something that is moving, you make it go in a slightly different direction, for example by hitting or blocking it.
      Ross deflected the blow with his left forearm.
      To deflect someone from a course of action means to make them decide not to continue with it by putting pressure on them or by offering them something desirable.
      Violence will not deflect us from seeking a peaceful political settlement to the problems.
      If you deflect something such as criticism or attention, you act in a way that prevents it from being directed towards you or affecting you.
      Bill Clinton tried to deflect attention from a sex scandal.
      Such a measure, they believed, would help deflect criticism from the British government.
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      pre`dic`a`ment
      pri'dikəmənt
      n[C] a difficult or unpleasant situation that is not easy to get out of
      -
      Listen, it's kind of an emergency. Well, I guess you know that, or we'd be in the predicament room.
      Central Perk, Ross is telling Rachel about his class location predicament.
      I've hesitated to point this out, but I must now remind you that we are in our current predicament because of your initial and totally inadequate deceit.
      Oh, no worries, I explained my predicament to our letter carrier. He was sympathetic. His exact words were, Got your back, Jack. Bitches be crazy.
      The Irish find themselves in a major predicament.
      Compare fix, jam, pickle, and predicament.
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      mi`rac`u`lous
      mi'rækjuləs
      adj very effective or surprising or difficult to believe
      -
      It seems miraculous that their marriage could survive all of this.
      But then something miraculous happened.
      "Jaw-dropping!" "Unbelievable!" "Miraculous!" Audiences worldwide sing the praises of the National Circus of the People's Republic of China.
      1905 was a miraculous year for Einstein and for physics.
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      o`ver`shad`ow
      əuvə'ʃædəu
      v[T] cast a shadow over
      -
      If one building, tree, or large structure overshadows another, it stands near it, is much taller than it, and casts a shadow over it.
      Large oak trees overshadow the garden.
      If you are overshadowed by a person or thing, you are less successful, important, or impressive than they are.
      Leonard has always felt overshadowed by his famous elder brother.
      If an unpleasant event or feeling overshadows something, it makes it less happy or enjoyable.
      The threat of war overshadowed the summer of 1939.
      Compare cloud, darken, eclipse, obscure, and overshadow.
      If you steal someone's thunder, you get the success and praise they should have got by doing what they had intended to do.
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      mile`age
      'mailidʒ
      n[U] a distance measured in miles ¶ an advantage or opportunity that you get from sth
      -
      Always check the mileage before you buy a secondhand car.
      What kind of mileage does the car have on it?
      The car's average mileage is 22.73 miles per gallon.
      Smaller cars have better mileage and so cost less to run.
      Employees get a mileage allowance for business travel.
      The business mileage reimbursement rate is an optional standard mileage rate used in the United States for purposes of computing the allowable business deduction, for Federal income tax purposes under the Internal Revenue Code, at 26 U.S.C. § 162, for the business use of a vehicle.
      Under the law, the taxpayer for each year is generally entitled to deduct either the actual expense amount, or an amount computed using the standard mileage rate, whichever is greater.
      Car for sale: one careful owner, low mileage.
      There's no mileage in complaining to him - he'll just rebuke you.
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      pis`ton
      'pistən
      n[C] the part of an engine that moves up and down to create power
      -
      A piston is a component of reciprocating engines, reciprocating pumps, gas compressors and pneumatic cylinders, among other similar mechanisms.
      It is the moving component that is contained by a cylinder and is made gas-tight by piston rings.
      In an engine, its purpose is to transfer force from expanding gas in the cylinder to the crankshaft via a piston rod and/or connecting rod.
      In a pump, the function is reversed and force is transferred from the crankshaft to the piston for the purpose of compressing or ejecting the fluid in the cylinder.
      In some engines, the piston also acts as a valve by covering and uncovering ports in the cylinder wall.
      The Detroit Pistons are a franchise of the National Basketball Association (NBA) based in Auburn Hills, Michigan in Metro Detroit.
      The Piston Cup is a racing competition that Lightning McQueen and Chick Hicks race in. Doc Hudson and The King also used to race there, but they retired.
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      nar`rate
      'næreit
      v[T] tell a story, often by reading aloud from a text, or to describe events as they happen
      -
      It must have been so difficult to narrate the unfortunate event.
      This is a rather simple dance and she slowly shows each step and narrates as she demonstrates.
      Below is a trailer for the DVD narrated by Hal Holbrook.
      The site collects video clips of women narrating their memories of the Barbie doll.
      Compare dub, narrate, relate, and subtitle.
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      for`ti`fy
      'fɔ:tifai
      v[T] strengthen sth, esp to protect it
      -
      In the south one of the fortified lines ran from the mouth of the Luga River to Chudovo, Gatchina, Uritsk, Pulkovo and then through the Neva River.
      According to Soviet claims the Finnish advance was stopped in September through resistance by the Karelian Fortified Region, however Finnish troops had already earlier in August 1941 received orders to halt the advance after reaching their goals, some of which lay beyond the pre-Winter War border.
      Try to emotionally and alcoholically fortify yourself before going.
      If food or drink is fortified, another substance is added to it to make it healthier or stronger.
      When milk substitutes are lacking in vitamins or dietary minerals present in milk (such as vitamin B12 or calcium), they are sometimes fortified.
      Fortified wine is a wine to which a distilled spirit, usually brandy, is added.
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      no`ta`tion
      nəu'teiʃən
      n[UC] a system of signs or symbols used to represent information
      -
      In linguistics and semiotics, a notation is a system of graphics or symbols, characters and abbreviated expressions, used in artistic and scientific disciplines to represent technical facts and quantities by convention.
      Therefore, a notation is a collection of related symbols that are each given an arbitrary meaning, created to facilitate structured communication within a domain knowledge or field of study.
      Standard notations refer to general agreements in the way things are written or denoted.
      Chemical formulas are a way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound.
      BNF (Backus Normal Form or Backus–Naur Form) and EBNF (Extended Backus-Naur Form) are the two main notation techniques for context-free grammars.
      Hungarian notation is an identifier naming convention in computer programming, that represents the type or intended use of a variable with a specific pattern within its name.
      Compare notation and notion.
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      pierc`ing
      'piəsiŋ
      adj penetrating
      n[C] a hole made through part of your body
      -
      She felt a piercing sensation in her clitoris.
      Her scream is ear-piercing.
      She has several tattoos and multiple piercings.
      A piercing sound or voice is high-pitched and very sharp and clear in an unpleasant way.
      If someone has piercing eyes or a piercing stare, they seem to look at you very intensely.
      A piercing criticism, question, remark, etc is an unpleasant or uncomfortable one.
      She felt foolish and unsure under his piercing gaze.
      She shivered in the piercing wind.
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      rec`tan`gu`lar
      rek'tæŋgjulə
      adj shaped like a rectangle
      -
      Cut tofu into 4 rectangular slabs, each about the size of a deck of cards.
      The classroom was set up with six large rectangular tables, and groups of four to five students sat around each.
      Click the button, then click and drag your screen to select a square or rectangular area.
      As soon has he mentioned the flat, rectangular piece of gum that came with every five-cent pack of baseball cards I said, out loud, "The smell."
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