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      n[UC] a chemical combination of oxygen and one other element ^
      An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element[1] in its chemical formula.
      Most of the Earth's crust consists of solid oxides, the result of elements being oxidized by the oxygen in air or in water.
      Hydrocarbon combustion affords the two principal carbon oxides: carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.
      The two most common oxides in nature are silicon dioxide and water.
      Compare dioxide, monoxide, and oxide.
      v[T] be very near, next to, or touching
      "Chandler's wearing panties." "What? Let me see. (climbs up in the other adjoining stall)"
      A patio (from Spanish; "courtyard", "forecourt", "yard") is an outdoor space generally used for dining or recreation that adjoins a residence and is typically paved.
      So glad we got adjoining rooms!
      Oh, I don't know. Maybe when you walk into a hotel room and you see a guy getting back together with his girlfriend, you should consider doing something other than crawling into the adjoining bed.
      The fire fighting units have managed to stop the fire spreading to adjoining areas.
      n[C] note made for future use ¶ an informal legal agreement
      A memorandum (abbrev.: memo) was from the Latin verbal phrase memorandum est, the gerundive form of the verb memoro, "to mention, call to mind, recount, relate", which means "It must be remembered (that)...".
      It is therefore a note, document or other communication that helps the memory by recording events or observations on a topic, such as may be used in a business office.
      The plural form of the Latin noun memorandum so derived is properly memoranda, but if the word is deemed to have become a word of the English language, the plural memorandums, abbreviated to memos, may be used.
      A memorandum can have only a certain number of formats; it may have a format specific to an office or institution.
      In law specifically, a memorandum is a record of the terms of a transaction or contract, such as a policy memo, memorandum of understanding, memorandum of agreement, or memorandum of association. Alternative formats include memos, briefing notes, reports, letters or binders. They could be one page long or many.
      If the user is a cabinet minister or a senior executive, the format might be rigidly defined and limited to one or two pages.
      If the user is a colleague, the format is usually much more flexible.
      At its most basic level, a memorandum can be a handwritten note to one's supervisor.
      In business, a memo is typically used by firms for internal communication, as opposed to letters which are typically for external communication.
      Hence, we can consider memoranda as an upward communication process through which any complaint, issues, opinion, views and suggestion are put forward to the authorized level.
      v[T] combine so as to form a new, complex product
      To synthesize a substance means to produce it by means of chemical or biological reactions.
      The proteins then move away from the intersection as they synthesize a new paired strand.
      The primary structure of bovine insulin was first determined by Frederick Sanger in 1951.
      After that, this polypeptide (多肽) was synthesized independently by several groups.
      If you synthesize different ideas, facts, or experiences, you combine them to form a single idea or impression.
      The projects will require the teams to locate and synthesize information, and then present final deliverables to the clients.
      n[C] a small creature like a worm with many legs
      Caterpillars of most species are herbivorous, but not all; some are insectivorous, even cannibalistic.
      Caterpillars as a rule are voracious feeders and many of them are among the most serious of agricultural pests.
      In fact many moth species are best known in their caterpillar stages because of the damage they cause to fruits and other agricultural produce, whereas the moths are obscure and do no direct harm.
      Conversely, various species of caterpillar are valued as sources of silk, as human or animal food, or for biological control of pest plants.
      Continuous track, also called tank tread or caterpillar track, is a system of vehicle propulsion in which a continuous band of treads is driven by two or more wheels.
      adj emitting heat or light ¶ obviously very happy, or very beautiful
      You will also be able to enjoy the radiant sun in this Caribbean paradise.
      You look radiant.
      Rachel, Rachel, look how you glow.
      This is Maid of Honor Amy Farrah Fowler, bringing you the wedding activities just weeks out from the big day. Let's check in with a beautiful, radiant young woman, and her friend who's about to get married.
      v[T] puzzle
      This will perplex me unti lthe very day I die.
      And it perplexes my husband too.
      I'm so perplexed by this too.
      Compare bemuse, bewilder, confuse, perplex, and puzzle.
      If you are at a loss, you are confused and uncertain about what to do or say.
      adj with a wavelength that is just beyond the violet end of the visible spectrum
      Too much ultraviolet light can be bad for your skin.
      The sun's ultraviolet rays are responsible for both tanning and burning.
      Some air pollutants have reduced the capacity of the atmosphere to filter out the sun's harmful ultraviolet radiation.
      Ultraviolet light has a wavelength which is beyond the violet end of the range of colors that can be seen by human beings.
      Ultraviolet (UV) light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 400 nm to 10 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
      UV radiation is present in sunlight, and is produced by electric arcs and specialized lights such as mercury-vapor lamps, tanning lamps, and black lights.
      A black light, also referred to as a UV-A light, Wood's light, or simply ultraviolet light, is a lamp that emits long wave (UV-A) ultraviolet light and not much visible light.
      Although lacking the energy to ionize atoms, long-wavelength ultraviolet radiation can cause chemical reactions, and causes many substances to glow or fluoresce.
      Consequently, biological effects of UV are greater than simple heating effects, and many practical applications of UV radiation derive from its interactions with organic molecules.
      Living things on dry land would be severely damaged by ultraviolet radiation from the sun if most of it were not filtered out by the Earth's atmosphere, particularly the ozone layer.
      Compare infrared and ultraviolet.
      n[U] great danger
      The journey through the rain froest was fraught with peril.
      You must come at once, for we are all in great peril.
      If you say that someone does something at their peril, you are warning them that they will probably suffer as a result of doing it.
      The bike has no brakes you ride it at your peril.
      Ignore her at your own peril: Globally, women consumers control $20 trillion in consumer spending.
      n[UC] an occupation to which sb is specially drawn or for which she/he is suited, trained, or qualified
      Though now often used in non-religious contexts, the meanings of the term originated in Christianity.
      Use of the word "vocation" before the sixteenth century referred firstly to the "call" by God to an individual, or calling of all humankind to salvation, particularly in the Vulgate, and more specifically to the "vocation" to the priesthood or to the religious life, which is still the usual sense in Roman Catholicism.
      The Vulgate is the Latin Bible commonly used in the Roman Catholic Church.
      Roman Catholicism recognizes marriage, single life, religious and ordained life as the four vocations.
      Martin Luther, followed by John Calvin, placed a particular emphasis on vocations, or divine callings, as potentially including most secular occupations, though this idea was by no means new.
      A priest has a calling to be a priest, and a plumber has a vocation to be a plumber.
      In universities staffed by people with a strong sense of vocation, who love their work and like their students, fulfilment will be frequent and resentment rare, irrespective of the level of fees.
      Compare vacation and vocation.
      v[T] give a particular quality to sth, bestow ¶ give information, knowledge, wisdom etc to sb, disclose, pass on, transmit
      The smoke from the lamps imparts the air with a rich, buttery smell that is almost overwhelming at first.
      Our father loved the flavour apricots kernels imparted to the jam and we used hammers to smash them.
      Did I teach Emma that? Did I just impart wisdom?
      Rachel had information that she couldn't wait to impart.
      v[IT] reduce the volume or compass of
      When a gas or vapor condenses, or is condensed, it changes into a liquid.
      Condensed milk is cow's milk from which water has been removed.
      It is most often found in the form of sweetened condensed milk (SCM), with sugar added, and the two terms "condensed milk" and "sweetened condensed milk" are often used synonymously today.
      Sweetened condensed milk is a very thick, sweet product which when canned can last for years without refrigeration if unopened.
      Unsweetened condensed milk products spoil more easily and are now uncommon.
      Condensed milk is used in numerous dessert dishes in many countries.
      Compare condense, distill, and evaporate.
      It's a cold drink, it's a hot day. Little beads of condensation are inching their way closer and closer to the surface of the wood.
      If you condense something, especially a piece of writing or speech, you make it shorter, usually by including only the most important parts.
      Montage (/mɒnˈtɑːʒ/) is a technique in film editing in which a series of short shots are edited into a sequence to condense space, time, and information.
      v[I] secretly plan with sb to do something bad or illegal
      The mainstream press conspired with the banks and regulators to sweep the secret loans scandal under the carpet.
      Wayne Swan went behind his back and conspired with the big three corporations to come up with the current plan.
      It feels like the world is conspiring against me today.
      Police on Tuesday arrested a man suspected of conspiring with his ex-girlfriend to defraud the state for unemployment benefits to the tune of $7,654 while he was incarcerated, police reported.
      If events conspire to do something, they happen at the same time and make something bad happen.
      Falling demand and high interest rates have conspired to produce a big drop in profits.
      v[IT] break up, or make sth break up, into very small pieces
      If something disintegrates, it becomes seriously weakened, and is divided or destroyed.
      In the film adaptation, Lord Voldemort disintegrates when he is defeated, while in the novel, he just falls to the ground.
      I'm not entirely satisfied that it's okay to use a Star Trek Transporter (which disintegrates you, sends information about you to another place, and rebuilds you there).
      After 13 childless years together, our marriage began to disintegrate.
      The second you stop advertising your traffic volume will begin to disintegrate.
      The act was a bill that addressed and was meant to reduce the amount of corruption that was causing the Senate, and, through them, the Republic, to disintegrate.
      n[C] a sudden forceful expression of emotion, esp anger
      Oh! My life-size cardboard Mr. Spock is here! I know he wouldn't care for an outburst of human emotion, but, oh goodie, oh goodie, oh goodie. Commander Spock requesting permission to be unfolded.
      Yeah, I apologize for my earlier outburst. Who needs Halo, when we can be regaled with the delightfully folksy tale of the whore of Omaha?
      Oh, for god's sake, (Shouting) Judy, pick up the sock! Pick up the sock! Pick up the sock! (Everybody stares) I'm sorry, was that rude? Did-did my, my little outburst blunt the hideousness that is this evening? Look, I know, you all have a lot going on, but all I wanted to do, was have dinner with my friends on my birthday. And you are all so late and you didn't even have the courtesy to call. (Her phone rings) Well, it's too late now.
      Joey and Ross get annoyed with Chandler's outburst.
      Chandler is so shocked at Ross's outburst that he drops his spoon and backs up.
      Airport, Ross has headphones on, and is listening to a 'How To Speak Chinese' tape. Occasionally, he makes an outburst in Chinese in accordance with the tape.
      v[T] provide with property, income, or a source of income ¶ equip or supply with a talent or quality
      If someone endows an institution, scholarship, or project, they provide a large amount of money which will produce the income needed to pay for it.
      A financial endowment is a donation of money or property to a nonprofit organization for the ongoing support of that organization.
      Private individuals soon adopted the practice of endowing professorships. Isaac Newton held the Lucasian Chair of Mathematics at Cambridge beginning in 1669, more recently held by the celebrated physicist Stephen Hawking.
      Africa is well endowed with natural resources, which to a large extent, are still untapped.
      A woman who is well-endowed has large breasts.
      A man who is well-endowed has a large penis.
      "There once was a man from Nantucket" is the opening line for many limericks, in which the name of the island of Nantucket creates obscene rhymes and puns. The protagonist is typically portrayed as a well-endowed, hypersexualized person.
      Okay, well, can we imply that you're well-endowed?
      n[s] the immediately surrounding area
      The Moon was formed not in the vicinity of the Earth, but in a different part of the solar system.
      Only, in the vicinity of a black hole, the tidal forces are much stronger than we experience on Earth.
      There is a limited number of eating venues in the immediate vicinity of The factory.
      The general vicinity of Katharagama has yielded evidence of human habitation at least 125,000 years ago.
      No word yet on when a Spears book may be released, but with the singer appearing on a network TV show (and being paid handsomely for it - in the vicinity of $15 million) and having sold nearly 100 million albums worldwide in her career, the advance is likely to be substantial.
      n[C] a shape with four straight sides and four angles of 90º
      In Euclidean plane geometry, a rectangle is any quadrilateral with four right angles.
      It can also be defined as an equiangular quadrilateral, since equiangular means that all of its angles are equal (360°/4 = 90°).
      It can also be defined as a parallelogram containing a right angle.
      A rectangle with four sides of equal length is a square.
      The word rectangle comes from the Latin rectangulus, which is a combination of rectus (right) and angulus (angle).
      In Euclidean geometry, a rhombus (◊), plural rhombi or rhombuses, is a simple (non-self-intersecting) quadrilateral all of whose four sides have the same length.
      Traditionally, in two-dimensional geometry, a rhomboid is a parallelogram in which adjacent sides are of unequal lengths and angles are non-right angled.
      In Euclidean geometry, a convex quadrilateral with at least one pair of parallel sides is referred to as a trapezoid in American and Canadian English but as a trapezium in English outside North America.
      In geometry, a pentagon (from the Greek pente and gonia, meaning five and angle) is any five-sided polygon.
      In geometry, a hexagon (from Greek ἕξ hex, "six" and γωνία, gonía, "corner, angle") is a polygon with six edges and six vertices.
      The total of the internal angles of any hexagon is 720°.
      adj being or relating to a sign that sth exists, is true, or is likely to happen
      These instances are indicative of the immense and growing political weight of the military in American society.
      But he said the recent violence and unrest is indicative of the difficulties along the way.
      Past performance is not indicative of future performance.
      This survey may or may not be indicative of how public opinion will respond to the coming package of proposals.
      Other moods existing in English besides the indicative are the imperative ("Be quiet!") and the conditional ("I would be quiet") (although this is not always analyzed as a mood) and in some dialects, the subjunctive (as in "I suggest you be quiet").
      n[C] an assortment of flowers, leaves, fruits, twigs or various materials that is constructed to resemble a ring
      In English-speaking countries, wreaths are used typically as household ornaments, mainly as Christmas decoration.
      Wreaths have much history and symbolism associated with them.
      They are usually made from evergreens and symbolize strength, as evergreens last even throughout the harshest winters.
      Bay laurel may also be used, and these wreaths are known as laurel wreath.
      In the Greco-Roman world, wreaths were used as an adornment that could represent a person’s occupation, rank, their achievements and status.
      The wreath that was commonly used was the laurel wreath.
      The use of this wreath comes from the Greek myth involving Apollo, Zeus' son and the god of life and light, who fell in love with the nymph Daphne.
      When he pursued her she fled and asked the river god Peneus to help her.
      Peneus turned her into a laurel tree.
      From that day, Apollo wore a wreath of laurel on his head.
      Laurel wreaths became associated with what Apollo embodied; victory, achievement and status and would later become one of the most commonly used symbols to address achievement throughout Greece and Rome.Laurel wreaths were used to crown victorious athletes at the original Olympic Games.
      n[CU] a death caused by an accident, war, violence, or disease ¶ the ability of a disease or accident to kill people ¶ the feeling that you have no control over events
      "I wish you weren't wearing flip-flops. It's dangerous to drive in flip-flops." "Sheldon." "Sorry. I just don't want to be yet another flip-flop fatality."
      The latest death to be reported comes from New Jersey, where 13 fatalities have now been reported.
      Since 1995, the number of cyclist and pedestrian fatalities has decreased by more than 20 percent (from 6,452 to 5,094 fatalities).
      After the age of 75, the risk of driver fatality increases sharply, because older drivers are more vulnerable to both crash-related injury and death.
      The man's brother became Taiwan's first SARS fatality, and a fellow passenger on the train also became a case.
      The Interstate System is the safest road system in the country, with a fatality rate of 0.8 - compared with 1.46 for all roads in 2004.
      Compare casualty, destiny, fatality, and fate.
      v[T] give sb a lower or less important position, rank, etc than before
      "Promote" and "relegate" are antonyms.
      If a sports team that competes in a league is relegated, it has to compete in a lower division in the next competition, because it was one of the least successful teams in the higher division.
      The only option for you is to plan to replace your unit or relegate it to being a backup for a new computer in 3-5 years and keep going like that.
      The Blades were relegated to the third tier that season, despite Sabella's efforts.
      Although he was relegated to a backup role, McBride was an inspiration for his teammates.
      But due to the excessive stress given on learning and speaking English language especially at the school level, Hindi is now being relegated to just a language subject taught in the classrooms.
      Compare delegate and relegate.
      n[U] madness or lunacy
      Insanity, craziness or madness is a spectrum of behaviors characterized by certain abnormal mental or behavioral patterns.
      Insanity may manifest as violations of societal norms, including a person becoming a danger to themselves or others, though not all such acts are considered insanity.
      In modern usage, insanity is most commonly encountered as an informal unscientific term denoting mental instability, or in the narrow legal context of the insanity defense.
      In criminal trials, the insanity defense is the claim that the defendant is not responsible for his or her actions during a mental health episode (psychiatric illness or mental handicap).
      In English, the word "sane" derives from the Latin adjective sanus meaning "healthy". The phrase "mens sana in corpore sano" is often translated to mean a "healthy mind in a healthy body".
      If you describe someone's behavior as lunacy, you mean that it seems very strange or foolish.
      n[CU] the quality of being strict or severe
      "The MBA degree, with the rigor and discipline it brings, is an asset for many types of positions and career paths within New York Life," Zeltner wrote in an email.
      I can't think of a field of study that has less scientific rigor.
      In order to get our Year 12 students ready for the challenge and rigour of the IB Diploma Programme, we will be hosting a number of induction sessions which will cover areas such as ToK, CAS, study skills, behavior and uniform policies.
      The rigors of something is the problems and difficulties of a situation.
      Roberts, 45, says the average person doesn't understand the rigours of what it takes to play professional hockey.
      Worn by her austerities and the rigors of childbearing, Margaret died on the sixteenth of November, 1093.
      n[U] harmony or agreement of interests or feelings
      He is one who unites the divided, who promotes friendships, enjoys concord, rejoices in concord, delights in concord, and who speaks words that promote concord.
      Compare accord, concord, and discord.
      In grammar, concord between words happens when they match correctly.
      In 'She likes it',there is concord between the singular form of the verb and the singular pronoun.
      Concord is a neighborhood located in the Borough of Staten Island in New York City, New York, United States.
      Aérospatiale-BAC Concorde is a turbojet-powered supersonic passenger jet airliner that was in service from 1976 to 2003.