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      n[C] a device that measures temperature or a temperature gradient
      A thermometer has two important elements: the temperature sensor (e.g. the bulb on a mercury-in-glass thermometer) in which some physical change occurs with temperature, plus some means of converting this physical change into a numerical value (e.g. the visible scale that is marked on a mercury-in-glass thermometer).
      There are various principles by which different thermometers operate.
      They include the thermal expansion of solids or liquids with temperature, or the change in pressure of a gas on heating or cooling. Radiation-type thermometers measure the infrared energy emitted by an object, allowing measurement of temperature without contact.
      Thermometers are widely used in industry to control and regulate processes, in the study of weather, in medicine, and scientific research.
      Some of the principles of the thermometer were known to Greek philosophers of two thousand years ago; by the 18th century, standardized scales allowed the readings of different thermometers inter-comparable.
      The thermometer registered over 104°F.
      Celsius, historically known as centigrade, is a scale and unit of measurement for temperature.
      Fahrenheit (symbol °F) is a temperature scale based on one proposed in 1724 by the German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), after whom the scale is named.
      Fahrenheit to Celsius : (°F − 32) ÷ 1.8 =°C
      Celsius to Fahrenheit : (°C × 1.8) + 32 =°F
      n[C] a group of people and vehicles or animals traveling together
      The word Caravan is a ancient word which is using to refer to a group of people and their transports (Horses, Camels, Mules, ..., Cars, Trucks) which moving together and transfer cargoes.
      The word is also extracted from this word to describe certain types of box-shaped transport vehicles.
      A caravan (from Persian: کاروان‎) is a group of people traveling together, often on a trade expedition.
      Caravans were used mainly in desert areas and throughout the Silk Road, where traveling in groups aided in defense against bandits as well as helping to improve economies of scale in trade.
      In historical times, caravans connecting East Asia and Europe often carried luxurious and lucrative goods, such as silks or jewelry.
      Caravans could therefore require considerable investment and were a lucrative target for bandits.
      Compare convoy and caravan.
      adj neighboring, contiguous
      What? Let me see. (climbs up in the other adjoining stall)
      So glad we got adjoining rooms!
      Oh, I don't know. Maybe when you walk into a hotel room and you see a guy getting back together with his girlfriend, you should consider doing something other than crawling into the adjoining bed.
      In July 1754, Samuel Johnson held the first classes in a new schoolhouse adjoining Trinity Church, located on what is now lower Broadway in Manhattan.
      There are three pyramids at Giza, each of which once had an adjoining mortuary temple.
      n[CU] when sb believes sth that is not true
      Yes. It tells us that you participate in the mass cultural delusion that the sun's apparent position relative to arbitrarily defined constellations at the time of your birth somehow affects your personality.
      Of course, I'm listening. Blah, blah, hopeless Penny delusion, blah, blah, blah.
      Well, if you have any delusions about entering him against my robot, the Kripke Crippler in the Southern California Robot Fighting League Round Robin Invitational aka the SCRFLRRl, his name is gonna be Scrap Metal.
      Again, I can read the sign. But the sign and tape are covered with a layer of dust which indicates that the elevator has been nonfunctional for a significant amount of time, which suggests either a remarkable passivity among the, I assume 24 to 36 residents of this building based on the number of mailboxes and given typical urban population density, or a shared delusion of functionality.
      Grandiose delusions (GD) or delusions of grandeur are principally a subtype of delusional disorder that occurs in patients suffering from a wide range of mental illnesses, including two-thirds of patients in manic state of bipolar disorder, half of those with schizophrenia and a substantial portion of those with substance abuse disorders.
      Patients suffering from grandiose delusions wrongly hold themselves at an extraordinary high status in their mind.
      v[T] take control of another country by going to live there or sending people to live there
      If people colonize a foreign country, they go to live there and take control of it.
      If one day we decide to colonize other planets, our robots will have paved the way.
      The areas colonized by the French were collectively known as New France.
      South Africa was colonized by the English and Dutch in the seventeenth century.
      If animals or plants colonize an area, large numbers of them start to live there.
      As the ice disappeared the land was colonized by plants, animals, and people.
      adj depressing or depressed
      It is a grey and gloomy day outside.
      Paul, you paint a gloomy picture. In some ways I share the pessimism.
      It is well known that the holder of gloomy thoughts not only feels depressed but that his pessimism is sensed by others.
      Continuing its gloomy outlook, the IEA report said: "There are few signs that the urgently needed change in direction in global energy trends is under way."
      Oh, don't be such gloomy Gusses. Look at the size of these shrimp! At what point do we start calling them lobsters?
      Compare bleak, dismal, gloomy, and glum.
      n[C] a very small mark, spot, or piece of sth
      A foreign body is an object in your eye that shouldn't be there. This could be a speck of dust, a small wood chip, metal shaving, insect, or small pieces of glass.
      Let me take the speck out of your eye.
      We are only a tiny little speck in the vastness of the physical universe.
      This country is a tiny speck on the globe.
      Even a pearl started as a speck of dirt.
      v[T] go back to
      I was reading about this jellyfish that never dies. Instead, it reverts to its asexual state and then grows up again.
      We thought my 90-year-old grandfather had reverted to an asexual state, but the lawsuit from his Jamaican caregiver proved us all wrong.
      "My point is, immortality is not only a possibility, it is real." "Only if you're this jellyfish which periodically reverts to a mass of undifferentiated protoplasm."
      The land then reverts to the original owner or his heirs.
      As a result, Walmart reverted back to its original strategy of offering more products, with tighter aisles, more clutter and lots of bargain bins in the hopes that customers would spend more because of a perception "there were bargains to be had".
      v[IT] cut across or through
      If two lines or roads intersect, they meet or go across each other.
      If a place, area, or surface is intersected by things such as roads or lines, they cross it.
      If one thing intersects with another or if two things intersect, the two things have a connection at a particular point.
      In 1960s Nigeria, a country blighted by civil war, three lives intersect.
      His shining bald head and clean shaven expressionless face diagonally intersected by the black leather eye patch glistened with sweat under the light of the crystal chandelier hanging in the ornate marble vestibule.
      A Venn diagram uses intersecting circles to illustrate the similarities, differences, and relationships between groups.
      adj commanding respect by virtue of age, dignity, character, or position
      A venerable person or thing is respected because of their great age, experience etc.
      Venerable Sir, which part of your body is painful?
      Explorer is one of the most venerable parts of Windows with a heritage you can trace back to the " MS-DOS Executive " in Windows 1.0.
      Iran is one of the most venerable civilizations on earth.
      In 1801 it was already a venerable institution.
      Compare venerable and vulnerable.
      n[C] the edge of a road where rain flows away ¶ an open pipe at the lower edge of a roof which collects and carries away rain
      A street gutter is a depression running parallel to a road designed to collect rainwater flowing along the street and divert it into a storm drain.
      A gutter alleviates water buildup on a street, allowing pedestrians to pass without walking through puddles and reducing the risk of hydroplaning by road vehicles.
      A rain gutter (from Latin gutta : drop), also known as a "rain catcher", is a narrow channel, or trough, forming the component of a roof system which collects and diverts rainwater away from the roof edge.
      It is also known as an eavestrough (especially in Canada), eaves channel, dripster, guttering or simply as a gutter.
      The main purpose of a rain gutter is to protect a building's foundation by channeling water away from its base.
      If someone is in the gutter, they are very poor and live in a very bad way.
      We are all in the gutter (=the bad social conditions of the lowest and poorest level of society), but some of us are looking at the stars.
      In typography, gutter is the space between columns of printed text, including the gap between facing pages.
      Tabloid journalism is a style of journalism that tends to emphasize topics such as sensational crime stories, astrology, gossip columns about the personal lives of celebrities and sports stars, and junk food news.
      Such journalism is commonly associated with tabloid sized newspapers like the National Enquirer, Globe, or The Sun and the former News of the World.
      Not all newspapers associated with such journalism are in tabloid size; for example, the format of Apple Daily is broadsheet, while the style is tabloid.
      The terms tabloids, supermarket tabloids, gutter press and rag refer to the journalistic approach of such newspapers rather than their size.
      If a candle gutters, it burns with an unsteady flame.
      adj safe or suitable to eat
      Even if the egg is fertilized, it is still edible.
      The contribution of coconut oil to the national edible oil pool is 6 %.
      There are 23,000 edible plants on this planet and we eat about 300 of them.
      Edible flowers have long been used in cooking for decoration and flavoring.
      Edible mushrooms and poisonous mushrooms are of two different colors.
      adj ruled or controlled only by men
      Patriarchy is a social system in which: males hold primary power; males predominate in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property; and, in the domain of the family, fathers or father-figures hold authority over women and children.
      Many patriarchal societies are also patrilineal, meaning that property and title are inherited by the male lineage. The female equivalent is matriarchy.
      The Brontie sisters were remarkable women for their time. They lived in a patriarchal society.
      In a patriarchal society like Punjab, women are defined by matrimony.
      In patriarchal culture, boys and men are praised for their toughness and aggression while applauded for being 'real men' when they are being violent.
      adj dangerously lacking in security or stability
      Now, if for once in your life, you looked at a map of the area, you might understand that a nation the size of New Jersey, surrounded by hostile states, with its back to the sea, is in a precarious position.
      The colony was also in a precarious position economically.
      The housing market in a precarious position: we have a massive gap between prices and incomes, worsening affordability, and an indebted nation of homeowners unable to withstand economic shocks.
      In this precarious situation, I found myself with a difficult decision to make.
      "So, how about construction?" "Oh, that would be good! Sawing, hammering, eating out of a lunch pail as my working-class fellows and I sit perched precariously on a girder high above the metropolis."
      adj very bad or cruel
      It is said that Milton Berle had a penis of monstrous (unusually large) size.
      You guys! You don't have to fight over her anymore. Whoever doesn't get Gladys gets Glynnis. (Rachel and Monica are gasping for air at the sight of this monstrous piece of art.)
      She became pregnant, and gave birth to three monstrous creatures, each with fifty heads and a hundred hands.
      It is a monstrous crime against humanity.
      What unprecedented, monstrous evil this demonstrates!
      Compare hideous, monster, and monstrous.
      v[T] twist, squeeze, or compress, esp so as to extract liquid
      When you wring out a wet cloth or a wet piece of clothing, you squeeze the water out of it by twisting it strongly.
      Their clothes and hair were wringing wet.
      If someone wrings their hands, they hold them together and twist and turn them, usually because they are very worried or upset about something.
      You can also say that someone is wringing their hands when they are expressing sorrow that a situation is so bad but are saying that they are unable to change it.
      So while politicians and health policy makers are wringing their hands, searching frantically for solutions to a healthcare system groaning under the weight of the exploding numbers of elderly people.
      They will wring their hands, try to display some humility but behind it all they laugh at the rest of us believing that we are too stupid to really understand what is going on.
      If you wring something out of someone, you manage to make them give it to you even though they do not want to.
      I have always clung to my bed in the mornings, trying to wring the last drops of sleep from the night.
      Red giants are stars wringing the last of the thermonuclear energy out of their cores.
      adj concerning each of two or more persons or things
      Such treaties provide reciprocal rights and obligations.
      Teaching and learning are reciprocal and interdependent concepts where the two terms influence, interact, and impact each other.
      These results suggest that there is a reciprocal relationship between mothers and infants.
      No. If I can't have your clams, you can't have my dessert. This is a two-way street (a reciprocal situation).
      Compare mutual and reciprocal.
      adj relating to animals that kill and eat other animals
      Predatory fish usually have numerous, strong teeth on the jaws.
      I think these sales tactics are predatory and unethical.
      Predatory lending is the unfair, deceptive, or fraudulent practices of some lenders during the loan origination process.
      Predatory pricing (also undercutting) is a pricing strategy where a product or service is set at a very low price, intending to drive competitors out of the market, or create barriers to entry for potential new competitors.
      v[T] take away, deduct
      Four subtracted from nine equals five, nine minus four is five.
      Students in the Middle Phase use mathematical skills and knowledge to solve real-world problems. They use a variety of strategies to add, subtract, multiply and divide whole numbers, fractions and percentages.
      To determine the total value of my home do I subtract the amount of the mortgage from the value of my home?
      The East-West component of a ship's velocity simply adds to or subtracts from the effect of the Earth's rotation.
      If two is added to the denominator and subtracted from the numerator, the value of the fraction is 1/2.
      Their minimum net worth is determined by subtracting the total minimum value of all liabilities from the total minimum value of all assets.
      n[C] a form of a language that is spoken only in one area
      The term dialect is used in two distinct ways.
      One usage - the more common among linguists - refers to a variety of a language that is a characteristic of a particular group of the language's speakers.
      The term is applied most often to regional speech patterns, but a dialect may also be defined by other factors, such as social class.
      A dialect that is associated with a particular social class can be termed a sociolect, a dialect that is associated with a particular ethnic group can be termed as ethnolect, and a regional dialect may be termed a regiolect or topolect.
      According to this definition, any variety of a language constitutes "a dialect", including any standard varieties.
      My Fair Lady is a 1964 American musical film adaptation of the Lerner and Loewe stage musical of the same name based on the 1938 film adaptation of the original 1913 stage play Pygmalion by George Bernard Shaw.
      The older gentleman introduces himself as Colonel Pickering, a linguist who has studied Indian dialects.
      Cantonese, or Standard Cantonese, is the dialect of Yue Chinese spoken in the vicinity of Canton (i.e. Guangzhou) in southern China.
      It is the traditional prestige dialect of Yue.
      In sociolinguistics, prestige is the level of respect accorded to a language or dialect as compared to that of other languages or dialects in a speech community.
      The concept of prestige in sociolinguistics is closely related to that of prestige or class within a society.
      Generally, there is positive prestige associated with the language or dialect of the upper classes, and negative prestige with the language or dialect of the lower classes.
      The concept of prestige is also closely tied to the idea of the standard language, in that the most prestigious dialect is likely to be considered the standard language, though there are some notable exceptions to this rule, such as Arabic.
      Uh, excuse me. Uh, I am Regine Philange. I-I was passing by when I heard this man speaking the-the regional dialect of my French town of Estée Lauder.
      Uh then there was that dialect coach who helped you with that play where you needed a southern accent. Which after twenty hours of lessons still came out Jamaican.
      And then, and then I realized I'll always be their friend, their friend who can speak in many dialects and has training in stage combat and is willing to do partial nudity.
      Historically the Pennsylvania Dutch have spoken the dialect of German known as Pennsylvania Dutch or Pennsylvania German.
      Compare accent and dialect.
      v[IT] make or become sick
      When they are taken from these homes they sicken and die.
      It sickens and saddens me to read the comments here.
      I'm sickened and disgusted that our country is allowing this to happen.
      It is heart sickening to see that even the police force was inactive and didn't take proper action.
      Simultaneously, a festival of cloying clichés. You sicken me.
      "I can't help it. My Howie Wowie has an owie." "That is the most sickeningly sweet thing I have ever experienced. And I am sipping Kool-Aid through a Red Vine."
      Compare disgust and sicken.
      v[I] sleep lightly for a short time
      also a noun
      If you doze off, you fall into a light sleep, especially during the daytime.
      And with that happy thought, I doze off.
      Quite often if I'm here on the computer she'll curl up on my lap and doze off.
      Applicant refused to sit down and insisted on being interviewed standing up. Candidate dozed off during interview.
      The boys love chatting at night before one of them dozes off.
      v[T] imprison
      They maintain the power to incarcerate those who deal drugs, but have stopped incarcerating those who use them.
      The U.S. incarcerates more people for drug offenses than Western Europe incarcerates for all offenses.
      She followed another famous captive, Sir Thomas More, who was incarcerated in the Bell Tower in 1534.
      Only racists like former US vice president Dick Cheney thought he should remain incarcerated for the rest of his life.
      n[CU] fashion
      Vogue is an American fashion and lifestyle magazine that is published monthly in 23 national and regional editions.
      Vogue China became the sixteenth edition of Vogue when its first issue was released for September 2005; its debut had been in the works for over two years.
      The British edition of Vogue is a fashion magazine that has been published since the autumn of 1916.
      "I work at Ralph Lauren and the whole fall line has got this like equestrian theme going on. I don't suppose you saw the cover of British Vogue, but..." "Can I just have the candy?"
      "You didn't read this one either?!" "Well, I was gonna, but I accidentally read something else." "What?" "Vogue! Hey, so tell me about this Jane Eyre woman."
      n[UC] sth that makes you feel better when you are sad or disappointed
      Consolation, consolement, and solace are terms referring to psychological comfort given to someone who has suffered severe, upsetting loss, such as the death of a loved one.
      It is typically provided by expressing shared regret for that loss and highlighting the hope for positive events in the future.
      Consolation is an important topic arising in history, the arts, philosophy, and psychology.
      If it's any consolation, I'm not happy about it either. Good night.
      Well, if it's any consolation, I'm sure Leonard's tormented every moment he's away from your warm embrace and cherry lips.
      Compare condole and console.
      A consolation prize is a small prize which is given to a person who fails to win a competition.
      She missed out on the top job,but as a consolation prize was made deputy chairman.
      If it's any consolation, things do get easier as the child gets older.
      He had the consolation of knowing that he couldn't have done any better.
      At least you weren't hurt that's one consolation
      The fact that there has been a reduction in crime is little consolation to victims of crime.