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      adj high
      Lofty mountains, buildings etc are very high and impressive.
      A lofty ideal or ambition is noble, important, and admirable.
      If you have a lofty attitude etc, you act as if you think you are better than other people.
      Goals don't have to be that lofty, but they should be SMART - Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and in a Timeframe.
      So I'm skeptical when I see huge lists of lofty goals because I know the flip side of this - disappointment, loss of self-esteem, sense of failure, if they don't all come true.
      At the age of just 39, Thomas Andrews had risen to these lofty heights in record time.
      Companies like Red Hat embrace and fund the "lofty ideals" by paying developers to do what they love.
      "When we launched Battlefield 1942 ten years ago, we had lofty ambitions to create a first-person shooter that would push the boundaries of innovation, creativity and design," said Karl Magnus Troedsson, General Manager of DICE.
      Compare lofty, patronize, and snobbish.
      adj highly abstract or theoretical
      Metaphysics is a traditional branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the fundamental nature of being and the world that encompasses it, although the term is not easily defined.
      Traditionally, metaphysics attempts to answer two basic questions in the broadest possible terms: What is ultimately there? What is it like?
      Why are we still unable to answer some of the big metaphysical questions people such as Plato and Aristotle asked 2,500 years ago?
      "Where do we come from?" is a classical metaphysical question.
      The book proceeds to more metaphysical subjects, and questions if we can create another intelligence form more intelligent than ourselves.
      v[I] labor continuously, work strenuously, or proceed with difficulty
      also a noun
      Spending a lot of time toiling away on research papers is causing mountainous woes for your partner, who is sick of ordering Chinese for the fifth night in a row.
      As rescuers toiled in the debris, a strong thunderstorm lashed the crippled city.
      Workers had often toiled in the fields from daybreak, so by midday they were hungry.
      I toiled day and night for 4 months, last year, to obtain a building permit.
      The phrase blood, toil, tears and sweat became famous in a speech given by Winston Churchill to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom on 13 May 1940.
      Days of Toil and Tears: The Child Labour Diary of Flora Rutherford, Almonte, Ontario, 1887 by Sarah Ellis (2008)
      v[I] vary
      Hotel room rates fluctuate on expected vacancy.
      Plus, I don't know about you, but other people fluctuate in size over their lifetime, so the dress you bought 10 years ago may not fit now.
      The voltage of the biological battery fluctuates, but it would take the control circuit somewhere between 40 seconds and four minutes to amass enough charge to power the radio.
      The price of gold fluctuates hourly according to supply and demand, so the price may be very different in the afternoon from the price you saw in the morning.
      Her weight fluctuated a bit through her career, usually rising in times of depression and falling back to her normal thereafter, but her dressmaker listed her as 118 pounds and the Hollywood studios tended to list her between 115-120 lbs.
      Adjustable Rate Mortgage (ARM) is a mortgage with a fluctuating interest rate.
      Compare fluctuate, swing, and volatile.
      n[U] a strong feeling of guilt and regret about sth you have done
      Although he was eventually cleared of the shooting, he still chose to leave the police force, as he still feels remorse for killing the girl.
      His stepfather showed no remorse for the terrible things he had done.
      The poem shows that he was full of remorse for the way that their relationship had developed in the later years.
      Detectives said the suspect has shown no remorse for the attack.
      He has been racked with remorse since the committing this offence.
      Compare regret, remorse, and repent.
      v[T] captivate
      If you are mesmerized by something, you are so interested in it or so attracted to it that you cannot think about anything else.
      The high fashion industry can mesmerize some individuals by the glamour that it represents.
      An intriguing look in woman's eyes can mesmerize virtually any man.
      Thailand mesmerizes and hooks the most seasoned travelers, many of them decide to stay permanently in Thailand as their home.
      He's so mesmerized he doesn't see the truck in front of him until it's too late.
      v[T] dig up, uncover
      If someone unearths something that is buried, they find it by digging in the ground.
      So is everybody here? I got here a little early myself. Let us begin. Now, the hadrosaurids have been unearthed in two main locations.
      Just in time for the final installment of The Twilight Saga to hit theaters, a "vampire" skeleton has been unearthed in England.
      Compare excavate and unearth.
      If you say that someone has unearthed something, you mean that they have found it after it had been hidden or lost for some time.
      If someone unearths facts or evidence about something bad, they discover them with difficulty, usually because they were being kept secret or were being lied about.
      I believe Alex may have unearthed the grade school science project that could be my ticket to the Nobel Prize. Behold.
      Among other details unearthed in the book on the notoriously-secretive Apple co-founder: Jobs' Meeting With Obama, Jobs, who was known for his prickly, stubborn personality, almost missed meeting President Obama in the fall of 2010 because he insisted that the president personally ask him for a meeting.
      v[I] follow a winding and turning course
      also a noun
      A meander, in general, is a bend in a sinuous watercourse or river.
      A meander forms when moving water in a stream erodes the outer banks and widens its valley, and the inner part of the river has less energy and deposits silt.
      If a river, stream or road meanders, it follows a route which is not straight or direct.
      As we reached the valley floor the path meandered along a river and we entered a beautiful wooded area.
      If you meander somewhere, you move slowly and not in a straight line.
      If a text, process or activity meanders, it has no clear direction.
      We meandered around the park for about 2.5 hours.
      adj in name or thought but not reality
      You use nominal to indicate that someone or something is supposed to have a particular identity or status, but in reality does not have it.
      He's the nominal head of our college - the real work is done by his deputy.
      A nominal price or sum of money is very small in comparison with the real cost or value of the thing that is being bought or sold.
      For a nominal charge, you'll receive a self-contained kit complete with instructions and everything you need to get started.
      The prices consumers pay for goods and services and the amount of money they receive for performing work tend to change over time.
      The increase in the prices of goods and services in the economy is called inflation.
      In economics and finance, the term "real" describes a value that has been adjusted for inflation, while the term "nominal" is attributed to values that are not adjusted for inflation.
      Nominal wages describe the dollar amount of wages earned without taking inflation into account.
      Real wages are the amount of income a person earns relative to some past date while correcting for the impact of inflation.
      n[C] a large box that is used for carrying fruit, bottles etc
      also a verb
      A crate is a large shipping container, often made of wood, typically used to transport large, heavy or awkward items.
      Steel and aluminium crates are also used.
      Smaller plastic crates are used for delivery of bottles and other fragile items.
      A wooden crate has a self-supporting structure, with or without sheathing.
      There are many variations of wooden crate designs. By far the most common are 'closed', 'open' and 'framed'.
      If the goods are crated or otherwise packaged, indicate the quantity of packages or crates.
      I live in Sweden and yes, you can not keep a dog crated or in the car for more than "a short time".
      n[C] a very tall modern city building
      A skyscraper is a tall, continuously habitable building of over 40-50 floors, mostly designed for office, commercial and residential use.
      A skyscraper can also be called a high-rise, but the term skyscraper is often used for buildings higher than 150 m (492 ft).
      For buildings above a height of 300 m (984 ft), the term Supertall can be used, skyscrapers reaching beyond 600 m (1,969 ft) are classified as Megatall.
      One common feature of skyscrapers is having a steel framework that supports curtain walls.
      Burj Khalifa, the tallest skyscraper in the world since 2010, with a height of 829.8 m.
      Burj Khalifa (Arabic: برج خليفة, "Khalifa Tower"), known as Burj Dubai before its inauguration, is a skyscraper in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.
      v[T] please or satisfy
      We are gratified by the consumer response to this limited-edition product.
      The assassin leaned in closer to him and was gratified to see a hint of fear glaze across the priest's eyes.
      They live only to gratify the desires of the flesh.
      We are greatly gratified by the recognition of our graduates as being of international standard.
      It is gratifying to see these two nations with so much in common taking steps towards a more mature relationship.
      Compare gratify and indulge.
      n[C] sb/sth that passes sth on to sb/sth else ¶ a piece of equipment used for sending electronic signals
      When MTCT of HIV is looked at only as a children's rights issue the pregnant woman is viewed as a transmitter of disease instead of a woman with rights of her own.
      In electronics and telecommunications a transmitter or radio transmitter is an electronic device which, with the aid of an antenna, produces radio waves.
      The transmitter itself generates a radio frequency alternating current, which is applied to the antenna.
      In addition to their use in broadcasting, transmitters are necessary component parts of many electronic devices that communicate by radio, such as cell phones, wireless computer networks, Bluetooth enabled devices, garage door openers, two-way radios in aircraft, ships, and spacecraft, radar sets, and navigational beacons.
      The term transmitter is usually limited to equipment that generates radio waves for communication purposes; or radiolocation, such as radar and navigational transmitters.
      Generators of radio waves for heating or industrial purposes, such as microwave ovens or diathermy equipment, are not usually called transmitters even though they often have similar circuits.
      A transmitter can be a separate piece of electronic equipment, or an electrical circuit within another electronic device.
      A transmitter and receiver combined in one unit is called a transceiver.
      The term transmitter is often abbreviated "XMTR" or "TX" in technical documents.
      v[IT] step heavily on sb/sth
      "Why don't we just put 'poor little Tooty' out in the hall?" "During a blackout? She'll get trampled!"
      Any group big enough to trample me to death. General rule of thumb is 36 adults or 70 children.
      Then China was a weak power trampled all over by the west from the early 19th century.
      Freedom is trampled on and is replaced by what this group thinks is what is good for the country.
      One of the people that was trampled was a pregnant woman.
      The party has marched on Independence Day, dragging American flags through the streets, trampling the flag on the ground and setting it on fire.
      Compare stamp, stomp, tread, tramp, and trample.
      v[T] block
      If something obstructs a road or path, it blocks it, stopping people or vehicles getting past.
      To obstruct someone or something means to make it difficult for them to move forward by blocking their path.
      To obstruct progress or a process means to prevent it from happening properly.
      If someone or something obstructs your view, they are positioned between you and the thing you are trying to look at, stopping you from seeing it properly.
      A ventilation system must not be obstructed by material or equipment placed in front of the ventilation openings.
      I believe that they have gone to considerable lengths to obstruct the course of justice by interfering with my freedom of speech and travel.
      Could the officer actually see the vehicle clearly? Was their view obstructed by ramps or elevation or anything else?
      n[C] an armed thief
      The New English Dictionary on Historical Principles (NED) defined "bandit" in 1885 as "one who is proscribed or outlawed; hence, a lawless desperate marauder, a brigand: usually applied to members of the organized gangs which infest the mountainous districts of Italy, Sicily, Spain, Greece, Iran, and Turkey".
      In modern usage the word may become a synonym for "gangster", hence the term "one-armed bandit" for gambling machines that can leave the gambler with no money.s
      Banditry is the life and practice of bandits.
      "The Bandit of Sherwood Forest" is a movie about Robin Hood.
      Compare bandit, gangster, outlaw, and robber.
      v[T] cover with or as if with a thin layer of gold
      The autumn sun gilded the lake.
      The gilded dome of the cathedral rises above the city.
      "To gild the lily" means to adorn unnecessarily something already beautiful.
      The Gilded Age in United States history is the late 19th century, from the 1870s to about 1900.
      The term was coined by writer Mark Twain in The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today (1873), which satirized an era of serious social problems masked by a thin gold gilding.
      adj unusual and attractive, esp in an old-fashioned way
      The Borneo Eco Ride is a 10 days tour that begins in quaint town of Sandakan and ends in the gorgeous island of Mabul.
      Approximately 30 minutes from Montego Bay you arrive at the quaint village of Lethe and the Great River Valley.
      Dundrave has many wonderful restaurants, quaint shops and coffee bars to stop for a refill before making a return walk to Ambleside.
      This scenic coastal route is interspersed with a series of quaint and charming towns along the way.
      Ohio's Amish country is a mosaic of quaint farms, rolling hills dissected by razor-straight rows of corn, lush hardwood forests, and pastures so green that you'd swear you had stepped into a Bill Coleman photograph.
      He wore wire-rimmed glasses and quaint nineteenth-century dundrearies whiskers that bushed his jowls.
      n[UC] the act or an instance of inducting
      Induction Day or I-Day is the official name for the first day of Plebe Summer at the United States Naval Academy.
      In Australia, some universities require students to arrive at university a week before classes start in order to gain course approval.
      This also allows students a chance to orient themselves to student life without the pressure of lectures - hence the term Orientation week is used to describe this week of induction into university life.
      Induction is the support and guidance provided to novice teachers and school administrators in the early stages of their careers.
      Labor induction is artificially stimulating childbirth.
      Mathematical induction is a method of mathematical proof typically used to establish a given statement for all natural numbers.
      It is a form of direct proof, and it is done in two steps.
      The first step, known as the base case, is to prove the given statement for the first natural number.
      The second step, known as the inductive step, is to prove that the given statement for any one natural number implies the given statement for the next natural number.
      From these two steps, mathematical induction is the rule from which we infer that the given statement is established for all natural numbers.
      Electromagnetic induction is the production of an electromotive force across a conductor when it is exposed to a varying magnetic field.
      It is described mathematically by Faraday's law of induction, named after Michael Faraday who is generally credited with the discovery of induction in 1831.
      n[C] the central or most important area
      The Heartland Institute is an American conservative and libertarian public policy think tank based in Chicago.
      A think tank (or policy institute, research institute, etc.) is an organization that performs research and advocacy concerning topics such as social policy, political strategy, economics, military, technology, and culture.
      Although the heartland of the Arab nations was what is known today as Saudi Arabia, the Romans gave the name Arabia to a province of their empire which lay south and east of Palestine, in the corner of the Mediterranean world between Syria and Egypt.
      When Obama took Ohio and Pennsylvania, it showed the industrial heartland of America had rallied to his side.
      For decades, the heartland of America has been the breadbasket of the world.
      When the Japanese Army invaded the heartland of China in 1937, Chiang was forced to move his capital from Nanking to Chungking.
      v[T] oblige
      If something obligates you to do a particular thing, it creates a situation where you have to do it.
      Amy pointed out to me that since you did something nice for me, I'm obligated to do something nice for you. So, yes, I'll go to your dopey play.
      I don't know what she's talking about, but I'm obligated to agree with her. She's my girlfriend.
      "I don't need a vacation." "You're obligated to take one. And I'd also like you to know the most-often received suggestion in my suggestion box you installed without asking me is can Dr. Cooper take a vacation? Okay, settled, then. I'll see you all on Monday, except for you." "But if I don't come into work, what am I supposed to do with myself?" "Read, rest, travel. I hear Afghanistan is nice this time of year."
      Wrong, sir. Wrong. Under section 37B of the roommate agreement, miscellaneous duties, you are obligated to take me to the dentist.
      I'm legally obligated to inform you that I took a karate lesson when I was 11. I'd be a regular ninja by now if my mom could've arranged a carpool.
      Nevertheless, I do feel obligated to point out to you, that she did not reject you. You did not ask her out.
      That's uh, quite all right, but I feel obligated to tell you that this meeting is being videotaped.
      Why can't we just have what we have now? Why can't we just talk, and laugh, and make love, without feeling obligated to one another... up till tonight I thought that's what you wanted too.
      n[U] the state or period of being imprisoned, confined, or enslaved
      Do not let a hedgehog hibernate when in captivity. It is lethal. This can be entirely avoided with proper temperature.
      Adult bobcats weigh between 15 and 20 pounds; with large individuals weighing as much as 35 pounds. Some may live up to 15 years of age in the wild, and much longer in captivity.
      The 11-year-old girl recovered from the captivity of kidnappers after three months has planned to throw a party for all those who have saved her life.
      Dolphins eat fresh fish in the wild but in captivity they have to eat frozen fish.
      adj containing or filled with water ¶ pale, weak
      Diarrhea is an illness in which waste from the bowels is watery and comes out often.
      Sap is the watery substance that carries food through a plant.
      I did not burst into tears. My eyes just got a little watery.
      If someone has a watery grave, they drown.
      If you describe food or drink as watery, you dislike it because it contains too much water, or has no flavour.
      It's a great spot, with a good vibe, but there's no excuse for weak, watery coffee at breakfast place.
      I did not respond, except with a watery smile.
      v[IT] remove the clothing of
      also a noun
      After we got undressed and jumped in bed, you, you asked if I had protection.
      Everyone's undressing her with their eyes.
      I'll tell you what you shouldn't do. Don't spray him some with that body spray from the commercial where the women undress when they smell it? That doesn't work at all. No matter how much you put on.
      My character's catholic and he falls in love with this Jewish girl.
      They run away together and get caught in this big rainstorm. So we go into this barn and undress each other and hold each other.
      It's really sweet and tender.
      Yeah, well you call her and tell her that you know when we were kids her precious little Frannie tried to undress me several times, okay?
      And if I hadn't have stopped her, there probably wouldn't even be a wedding to go to.
      Compare disrobe and undress.
      Ugly Naked Guy came to the door in a state of undress.
      n[U] the return and growth of an activity that had stopped
      Fueling the debate, in part, has been the resurgence of the Atkins Diet, which eschews carbs but allows liberal use of high-fat foods, including foods high in saturated fat -- butter, bacon, steak, cheese, and the like.
      The danger posed to African Americans - most notably the resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan, the sharp rise in the number of lynchings, and the acts of violence associated with viewings of the film - tipped the balance and led to a nationwide campaign to censor Griffith's production.
      A resurgence of cholera infections is feared after Hurricane Sandy.
      The recent resurgence of whooping cough cases in Australia has heightened the importance of vaccination and isolating people who are infected.
      North Carolina has seen a major resurgence in black bears.