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      adj irregular, uncertain or without organization in movement or behavior
      Problems in the Bangladesh's electric power sector include corruption in administration, high system losses, and delays in completion of new plants, low plant efficiencies, erratic power supply, electricity theft, blackouts, and shortages of funds for power plant maintenance.
      Diabetes is too erratic and unpredictable a condition for it to be possible to adopt one stable eating pattern.
      Currently, the increasingly erratic weather patterns are attributed by some environmentalists to deforestation and global warming.
      Sheen had been fired from the show last season for drug use and erratic behaviour.
      adj strange and unpleasant, esp in a ridiculous or slightly frightening way
      also a noun
      Grotesque was originally a style of ornament in art, and today also means strange, fantastic, ugly, or bizarre.
      The original meaning was restricted to an extravagant style of Ancient Roman decorative art rediscovered and then copied in Rome at the end of the 15th century.
      No. This game is grotesque. Twenty armless guys joined at the waist by a steel bar, forced to play soccer forever.
      The GUI was awful. The phone was slow, and the ergonomics were grotesque.
      n[C] floor of a fireplace ¶ area in front of this
      In historic and modern usage, a hearth is a brick- or stone-lined fireplace, with or without an oven, used for heating and originally also used for cooking food.
      For centuries, the hearth was such an integral part of a home, usually its central and most important feature, that the concept has been generalized to refer to a homeplace or household, as in the terms "hearth and home" and "keep the home fires burning".
      "Hearth and home" is used for referring to your home and family.
      In a medieval hall, the hearth commonly stood in the middle of the hall, with the smoke rising through the room to a smoke hole in the roof.
      Later, such hearths were moved to the side of the room and provided with a chimney.
      In fireplace design, the hearth is the part of the fireplace where the fire burns, usually consisting of masonry at floor level or higher, underneath the fireplace mantel.
      n[CU] a type of dance music that was first popular in the 1970s ¶ a place or event where people dance to pop music
      Disco is a genre of music containing elements of funk, soul, pop, salsa and psychedelic that was most popular in the 1970s, though it has since enjoyed brief resurgences.
      In what is considered a forerunner to disco-style clubs, a New York City DJ, David Mancuso, opened The Loft, a members-only private dance club set in his own home, in February 1970.
      In 1974 New York City's WPIX-FM premiered the first disco radio show.
      Many non-disco artists recorded disco songs at the height of disco's popularity, and films such as Saturday Night Fever and Thank God It's Friday contributed to disco's rise in mainstream popularity.
      Disco was the last mass popular music movement that was driven by the baby boom generation.
      "Kung Fu Fighting" (1974), performed by Carl Douglas and produced by Biddu, helped popularize disco music.
      n[s] a lot of different things mixed together in an untidy way
      v[T] mix things together in an untidy way
      A jumble sale, bring and buy sale (U.K, Australia, occasionally Canada) or rummage sale (U.S and Canada) is an event at which second hand goods are sold, usually by an institution such as a local Boys' Brigade Company, Scout group, or church, as a fundraising or charitable effort.
      A rummage sale by a church is called a church sale or white elephant sale, frequently as part of a church bazaar.
      Jumble is a word puzzle with a clue, a drawing illustrating the clue, and a set of words, each of which is "jumbled" by scrambling its letters.
      Jambalaya is a Louisiana Creole dish of Spanish and French influence.
      Jambalaya may have been created in Louisiana and may have its origins in Spanish paella, even if there is a dish also called jambalaia in Provence, southern France, that is also a mash-up of rice, chicken and saffron.
      Jumbles (other spellings Jambles, Jumbals, Jumbolls, Jumbolds, Jumballs) are cookie-like pastries, common in England and abroad since the Middle Ages, which tend to have a relatively simple recipe of nuts, flour, eggs, and sugar, with vanilla, anise, or caraway seed used for flavoring.
      n[C] a musical instrument consisting of a row of strings stretched over a large upright frame
      The harp is a stringed musical instrument which has a number of individual strings running at an angle to its soundboard, which are plucked with the fingers.
      Harps have been known since antiquity in Asia, Africa, and Europe, dating back at least as early as 3500 BCE.
      The instrument had great popularity in Europe during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, where it evolved into a wide variety of variants with new technologies, and was disseminated to Europe's colonies, finding particular popularity in Latin America.
      Harps vary globally in many ways.
      In terms of size, many smaller harps can be played in the lap, while larger harps are quite heavy and rest on the floor.
      Different harps may use strings of catgut or nylon, or of metal, or some combination.
      While all harps have a neck, resonator, and strings, "frame harps" have a pillar at their long end to support the strings, while "open harps" such as arch or bow harps, do not.
      If someone harps on about something, they talk about it continuously, especially in a way that is annoying or boring.
      BCE is the abbreviation for Before the Common/Current/Christian Era (an alternative to Before Christ, abbreviated BC).
      Common Era (also Current Era or Christian Era), abbreviated as CE, is an alternative naming of the calendar era, Anno Domini ("in the year of the/our Lord", abbreviated AD).
      Neither notation includes a year zero, and the two notations (CE/BCE and AD/BC) are numerically equivalent; thus "2015 CE" corresponds to "AD 2015", and "400 BCE" corresponds to "400 BC".
      The Gregorian calendar and the year-numbering system associated with it is the calendar system with most widespread use in the world today.
      For decades, it has been the global standard, recognized by international institutions such as the United Nations and the Universal Postal Union.
      The Gregorian calendar, also called the Western calendar and the Christian calendar, is internationally the most widely used civil calendar.
      It is named for Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in 1582.
      v[IT] sing or play notes in a smooth and connected manner ¶ speak unclearly without separating your words or sounds correctly ¶ criticize sb/sth unfairly
      also a noun
      Relaxed pronunciation (also called condensed pronunciation or word slurs) is a phenomenon that happens when the syllables of common words are slurred together.
      The words of, to, and have all tend to elide to nothing more than a schwa [ə] in many common situations.
      This sometimes leads to spelling confusion, such as writing "I could of..." instead of "I could have..." or "I could've".
      A slur is a symbol in Western musical notation indicating that the notes it embraces are to be played without separation.
      This proves the Birthers' claim that Obama is not a true American! How can he cast a slur on the fine American beers like Coors and Bud by implying that they are not fit for a President to drink.
      n[C] a group that includes all living things that have similar features ¶ kind, type
      A genus includes fewer members than a family and more members than a species.
      Homo is the genus of hominids that includes modern humans and species closely related to them.
      The genus is estimated to be about 2.5 million years old, emerging with the appearance of Homo habilis from australopithecine ancestors.
      It is the only genus in the subtribe "Hominina", which together with the subtribe "Australopithecina" forms the Tribe "Hominini", estimated to have diverged from the genus Pan in the late Miocene, by about 7 million years ago.
      Homo sapiens (anatomically modern humans) emerges about 0.2 million years ago, and is the only surviving species in the genus, all others having become extinct.
      In each of these genera, again, there are numerous species.
      Compare genius and genus.
      adj easy to control or deal with
      Simplify the idea until it's manageable as an early stage venture. Find ways to prove your business model on a shoestring budget.
      I tend to keep my emotions at a manageable level.
      Add to that, that I will be taking part in lots of different activities and you can imagine, that if I want to keep my luggage manageable, packing can be quite tricky.
      If you worry about breaking his heart again, I-I think it's still broken from the last time. I mean, So really, you're just, you know, taking the already broken pieces and breaking them into smaller, more manageable pieces. Ok, forget that. Honey, the question is this- do you really wanna marry Joey?
      n[C] sb who writes a book describing sb else's life
      Reagan's biographer Lou Cannon has told me that his research into the event has led him to conclude that the decision was not intended to inflame racist sentiment - but that it was, certainly, evidence of insensitivity and poor judgment.
      A biography or simply bio is a detailed description or account of a person's life.
      An authorized biography is written with the permission, cooperation, and at times, participation of a subject or a subject's heirs.
      An autobiography is written by the person himself or herself, sometimes with the assistance of a collaborator or ghostwriter.
      Memoir (from French: mémoire: memoria, meaning memory or reminiscence), is a literary nonfiction genre.
      An anecdote is a short account of an interesting or humorous incident.
      adj appearing, happening, or occurring repeatedly
      Migraine is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent moderate to severe headaches often in association with a number of autonomic nervous system symptoms.
      Recurrent stimulation wouldn't help an economy which has basically lost all it's inherent confidence.
      Three-quarters of the government budget goes toward recurrent expenditure, including salaries.
      The risk of a recurrent ectopic is usually quoted at 10%.
      We will not sit idly in front of recurrent attacks that occur almost daily, against our citizens and our children.
      adj better, more desirable, suitable, or worthy
      "Certainly preferable to my plan." "Which was?" "A powerful laxative."
      Under the Social Security Act of 1935, single lump-sum cash payments amounting to 3 percent of the worker's total wages were made at the time of his death. The Board felt that monthly benefits to widows and orphans would be preferable.
      Mr. Peres said it would be preferable to deal with Iran without a war.
      On other occasions a letter was preferable to a personal visit.
      As various kinds of malware hack the Registry in order to disable the Windows firewall, it's far preferable to install one of the excellent third party solutions.
      n[UC] bad/ill luck
      I had the misfortune to share a room with someone who snored loudly.
      Some people seem to enjoy the misfortunes of others.
      It's unfair to take advantage of other people's misfortunes.
      If a neighbor met misfortune, you took care of them.
      No misfortune is seen in Jacob, no misery observed in Israel.
      This season misfortune and mishaps have tested the Cardinals from the beginning of spring training.
      v[I] (of the tide) go out, recede
      also a noun
      Ebb is the movement of a tide back toward the sea.
      If someone or something is at a low ebb or at their lowest ebb, they are not being very successful or profitable.
      If the tide ebbs, the ocean's level on a coast gradually becomes lower. A more usual word is go out.
      If someone's life, support, or feeling ebbs, it becomes weaker and gradually disappears.
      The price of gold has ebbed over the past year.
      You can use ebb and flow to describe the way that something repeatedly increases and decreases or rises and falls.
      Oh, the pain may ebb and flow, but if you've got a bad case of piles, you are going to need medical attention.
      She said her disorder "ebbed and flowed" through the years.
      They have a correct knowledge of the stars, and of the ebb and flow of the tide.
      adj careful about or conscious of sth
      I'll quote a few passages, mindful of not being too verbose.
      The Conference was mindful of the impact such an increase could have on other public entities and on public users accessing the system to obtain information on a particular case.
      In preparing for oral arguments, counsel should be mindful that this court follows the practice of reading briefs prior to oral argument.
      We all need to be more mindful of our choices in life.
      The government, mindful of public fury that exploded into street clashes in the depressed south of the country after price hikes in 1989 and 1996, had been reluctant to raise fuel prices.
      Compare attentive, heedful, and mindful.
      n[U] the people related to you who lived a long time ago
      Alwi is a devout Muslim of Arabic ancestry.
      In 2007 he learned through a DNA test that his ancestry was four percent Chinese.
      What percentage of the English ancestry group in America is in the millionaire category?
      Three other ancestry groups have significantly higher concentrations of millionaires.
      Her mother is of French ancestry.
      Helen's family can trace their ancestry back to the sixteenth century.
      v[T] consider sth to be caused by, written by or belonging to sb/sth
      If you ascribe an event or condition to a particular cause,you say or consider that it was caused by that thing.
      If you ascribe a quality to someone,you consider that they possess it.
      If you ascribe something such as a quotation or a work of art to someone,you say that they said it or created it.
      The report ascribes the rise in childhood asthma to the increase in pollution.
      Tom's jaw dropped. The motives Jerri had ascribed to his actions had nothing to do with his real intentions.
      The remark ascribed to Gates was placed in quotation marks: "nobody would ever need" 640K of computer memory.
      That rise can be ascribed to a range of factors.
      Compare ascribe and attribute.
      Compare ascribe, circumscribe, describe, inscribe, prescribe, proscribe, scribe, subscribe, and transcribe.
      v[T] exaggerate
      'Overstate' and 'understate' are antonymous.
      The implications of this can not be overstated.
      The reason print-media websites are failing is the way the web makes it plain via click-through counts on web-based ads that the number of eyeballs on the ads paying for the content is vastly overstated.
      It is therefore likely the threat of Global Warming has been overstated.
      It's hard to overstate the power of this book, which takes on a familiar subject in a completely original way.
      n[C] short sharp sound made by a small bird or a cricket
      v[I] make this sound
      Every day - despite the chirping of birds in the early springtime air, despite the brave little green stalks of crocuses poking their way toward the sun, despite the inevitable roll of the great spinning earth, despite the rhythmic changing of the seasons, despite the lengthening days and the warming sun - every day we are one day closer to our final meeting with fate.
      You will not miss the chirping of birds in early morning especially on the lower points, the bronze colored sunbirds hopper between lobelia and groundsels in search of nectar just in front of you undisturbed by your presence.
      Chirping of the birds and cooing of the cuckoos are making the day perfect.
      Birds are softly chirping in the cool mountain air.
      The ambiance was very soothing too with soft music playing and birds chirping in the background.
      Compare chirp and twitter.
      n[C] a natural tendency to behave in a particular way, an innate inclination
      The propensity to swindle grows parallel with the propensity to speculate during a boom.
      The higher is the propensity to consume domestically produced goods and services, the greater is the multiplier effect.
      Another remarkable feature of the Libyan contribution to the war against US forces inside Iraq is the marked propensity of the northeastern Libyans to choose the role of suicide bomber as their preferred method of struggle.
      Court documents show the men talked about their propensity for violence.
      The propensity to spend extra income rather than save is high.
      v[I] search for sth among a lot of other things
      also a noun
      I rummaged through my purse and found a pen and a scrap of paper to write on.
      For hours she rummaged through these works looking for pictures of volcanoes and earthquakes.
      I sort of rummaged around in the rubble of one of the houses there and I found two little cups, little china cups about maybe inch-and-a-half diameter.
      Sometimes, a rummage around YouTube will turn up some gems to lighten the mood.
      I love nothing better than a rummage through car boot sales and charity shops.
      In the U.S., the term "flea market" refers to many commercial venues where informal sales are conducted, of both second-hand and new goods by different private sellers.
      Frequently the sellers pay a fee to participate.
      Churches and other groups also sponsor flea-markets where the organization collects seller fees, and may also sell food and have its own "white elephant" or "rummage" tables or booths.
      Yard sale, garage sale, tag sale, moving sale, etc., are terms in the U.S. for informal sales by private parties.
      Compare fumble, jumble, and rummage.
      n[U] a natural form of sugar that exists in fruit
      The name "glucose" comes from the Greek word γλευχος, meaning "sweet wine, must".
      The suffix "-ose" is a chemical classifier, denoting a carbohydrate.
      It is also known as dextrose or grape sugar.
      Glucose may be stored in plants as the polymers starch and cellulose.
      Glucose is a ubiquitous fuel in biology.
      In plants and some prokaryotes (原核生物细胞), glucose is a product of photosynthesis.
      adj damaging, harmful, or injurious
      In addition to the detrimental effects on physical health, those hormones stimulate regions of the brain that control fear, motivation and mood.
      A parasite is generally detrimental to the reproductive capacity of the invaded host.
      It's considered more detrimental to air quality during warm weather.
      However, if the immune system of the host becomes compromised, for example due to immunosuppressive medical treatments or HIV, the disease can become reactivated with detrimental consequences.
      n[C] a large cave
      A cave or cavern is a hollow place in the ground, especially a natural underground space large enough for a human to enter.
      A groan exploded like a thunderclap against the cavern walls, followed by an immense sound like water sucked rapidly down a narrow drain.
      He manages to land his ship inside a cavern on one of the larger asteroids to rest and find a way to fix the ship.
      I had entered a vast arched cavern, which stretched into utter darkness beyond the range of my light.
      The walls of the shaft gave away, and Wolverine entered a giant cavern. "Jane? what are you doing here?"
      Compare cavity and cavern.
      v[T] state
      The amendments of 1939 stipulated that the amount authorized to be appropriated for federal aid to state public health programs should be increased from $8,000,000 to $11,000,000.
      "Why don't we just stipulate that the date goes well and move to the key variable?" "You mean kiss you now?" "Yes." "Can you define the parameters of the kiss?" "Close mouthed but romantic."
      Alright, will you at least stipulate that Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home is inarguably the best?
      I'll agree to that only if you'll stipulate that 80% of our difficulties were caused by you.
      "You always get your way." "I'll stipulate to that if you give me the ring."
      Compare simulate, stimulate, and stipulate.