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      v[I] quickly increase in number or amount
      Web sites began to proliferate; there were 200 in 1993.
      Supermarkets proliferated in the United States along with suburban areas after World War II.
      Questions about future plans and prom dates proliferate, and then there's a big party at the end.
      It is going to take years for HTML5 authoring tools to evolve and proliferate, and for the world to develop lots of valuable HTML5 content.
      Internet firms selling criminal records and personal data to the public have proliferated in recent years, as low-cost computing enables even modest operations to maintain large databases on millions of Americans.
      Injection wells have proliferated over the last 60 years, in large part because they are the cheapest, most expedient way to manage hundreds of billions of gallons of industrial waste generated in the U.S. each year.
      Speaking at a Delhi Development Authority (DDA) workshop on 'Review of Master Plan of Delhi 2021', he said if there were no high-rises, slums would proliferate in the city.
      Even if some cancers grow to only a millimetre in size, they start to stimulate new blood vessel formation, and those blood vessels will bring to the cancer oxygen and nutrients which will help it grow. It's a way in which the cancer can help itself proliferate.
      In that oil-rich environment, bacteria proliferate, causing inflammation that shows up in the form of pimples.
      adj very cold ¶ unfriendly ¶ not responsive sexually
      The polar regions of Earth, also known as Earth's frigid zones, are the regions of Earth surrounding its geographical poles (the North and South Poles).
      The axial tilt of the Earth has a major effect on climate of the polar regions.
      Since the polar regions are the farthest from the equator, they receive the least amount of sunlight and are therefore frigid.
      He did not actually see the continent but he did cross the Antarctic Circle (67 South Latitude) and saw the icebergs and frigid waters of the far southern ocean.
      If a woman is frigid, she finds it difficult to become sexually aroused.
      Female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD), commonly referred to as Candace syndrome,[1] is a disorder characterized by a persistent or recurrent inability to attain sexual arousal or to maintain arousal until the completion of a sexual activity.
      Compare frigid, frosty, and icy.
      adj producing a great number or amount of sth
      An animal, person, or plant that is prolific produces a large number of babies, young plants, or fruit.
      You have the afternoon free to enjoy an optional walk in the forest around the base of Mt Kenya, known for its prolific bird life and black and white Colobus monkeys.
      A prolific sports player produces a lot of runs, goals etc.
      The 26 year-old has proved a prolific goal scorer for both Porto and Atletico Madrid in recent years.
      A prolific artist, writer etc produces many works of art, books etc.
      He was a prolific writer and authored nearly two hundred and fifty books.
      My wife was once a prolific blogger.
      v[T] return sb/sth to a good or healthy condition, state or way of living etc
      To rehabilitate someone who has been ill or in prison means to help them to live a normal life again.
      The prison service should try to rehabilitate prisoners so that they can lead normal lives when they leave prison.
      It's pretty cool. They've got me in with a guy who's doing something about hunger in lndonesia... and a psychotherapist who's using dolphins to rehabilitate prisoners, and Ellen Page, star of the charming independent film Juno.
      To rehabilitate someone who has a drug or alcohol problem means to help them stop using drugs or alcohol.
      The new program is aimed at rehabilitating local alcoholics.
      Anyway, Penny now believes that, on Friday night, we're going to participate in my cousin Leopold's drug intervention.
      An intervention is an orchestrated attempt by one or many people – usually family and friends – to get someone to seek professional help with an addiction or some kind of traumatic event or crisis, or other serious problem.
      Also during the intervention rehearsal meeting, a group member is strongly urged to create a list of activities by the addict that they will no longer tolerate, finance, or participate in if the addict does not agree to check into a rehabilitation center for treatment.
      If you rehabilitate a building, you return it to its previous good condition.
      Rental property owners may qualify for a low-interest loan to rehabilitate rental property.
      If you rehabilitate someone or something, you make people think that they are good again after a period when people had a bad opinion of them.
      This week, Mr Bush is embarking on a series of heavily anticipated television interviews - his first since leaving office - to promote his new memoir, which has an enormous first print run of 1.5m, indicating that his publisher expects strong sales.
      Has Mr Bush rehabilitated his image already?
      Compare rehabilitate, reinstate, and restore.
      v[T] make sb nervous or frightened
      "And-and there's no danger to her or-or the baby?" "No-no. Contractions can be unnerving if you don't know what they are, but she's fine."
      That poster of Halle Berry is a little unnerving. She's like my fourth favorite Catwoman.
      In our brief road trip around the Embarcadero in San Francisco, the C-MAX Energi felt comfortable yet zippy.
      In electric-only mode, the car's silence seemed unnerving at first but that feeling soon faded.
      We enjoyed the gentle hum of the all-electric experience, especially in areas with slow traffic where power isn't necessary.
      When it comes to child abuse, the statistics in the United States are unnerving.
      This happened several times and unnerved me.
      He is a confident city biker, but even he gets seriously unnerved trying to ride on M St. and Pennsylvania Ave.
      This gap between the heart of Georgetown and safe separated bike lanes will discourage people from riding bikes to Georgetown.
      n[C] a problem that is likely to happen in a particular situation
      "You guys, I'm sorry, can you please talk a little slower?" "This is going in your book?" "Yeah, it's about relationships. You know? The traps, the pitfalls, what not to do, keep going. This stuff is great!"
      "I don't know. You guys work in the same lab." "So?" "There are pitfalls. Trust me, I know. When it comes to sexual harassment law, I'm a bit of a self taught expert."
      Compare fall, pit, and pitfall.
      Don't use a language you know less well because it's trendy or you think it will please the interviewer.This is a very common pitfall.
      Hilfiker does a masterful job of avoiding the major pitfall of books in this vein.
      Something that is written or spoken in a particular vein is written or spoken in that style or mood.
      Another pitfall Hilfiker dodges is that his book is truly a journey, it is not a static snapshot of a couple of years on the front line.
      adj ridiculous
      A burlesque is a a ludicrous or mocking imitation.
      I did, but I think I've kind of outgrown Star Trek. You know, stock characters, ludicrous plots, beam me up. What a load of hooey.
      The oil is going to be exported regardless if the pipeline is created, so the argument that by not building the pipeline less oil will be pumped into the world market, thus increasing the price of gas, is ludicrous.
      In any other area of technology, we wouldn't permit the sorts of ludicrous claims that appear in thousands of software patents.
      I think they should charge $100.00 for carry-ons to eliminate the ludicrous hassle in the aisles and speed up boarding and unloading.
      v[T] rid one's mind of
      So it is important to dispel the myth it promotes: that home birth is safe, medical intervention dangerous and obstetricians evil incarnate.
      Sarah is hoping this new attention could dispel some of the misconceptions about it.
      This simple, well executed study should dispel the notion that flat-footed people are prone to injury during exercise.
      Archbishop Kaigama also said he wanted to dispel the impression that Christians and Muslims in Nigeria were at war.
      n[CU] a liquid used for dissolving another substance
      adj having enough money to pay your debts
      A solvent is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically different liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
      A solvent is usually a liquid but can also be a solid or a gas.
      The quantity of solute that can dissolve in a specific volume of solvent varies with temperature.
      Common uses for organic solvents are in dry cleaning, as paint thinners, as nail polish removers and glue solvents, in spot removers, in detergents and in perfumes.
      Portugal struggles to remain solvent.
      They claim that people will understand that some banks are less likely to remain solvent than others and the market will take care of that.
      n[U] the part of mathematics involving adding, multiplying etc
      adj involving or related to ~
      Arithmetic or arithmetics (from the Greek ἀριθμός arithmos, "number") is the oldest and most elementary branch of mathematics.
      It consists of the study of numbers, especially the properties of the traditional operations between them — addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.
      Arithmetic is an elementary part of number theory, and number theory is considered to be one of the top-level divisions of modern mathematics, along with algebra, geometry, and analysis.
      The terms arithmetic and higher arithmetic were used until the beginning of the 20th century as synonyms for number theory and are, sometimes, still used to refer to a wider part of number theory.
      Number theory is a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers, sometimes called "The Queen of Mathematics" because of its foundational place in the discipline.
      Primary education in mathematics often places a strong focus on algorithms for the arithmetic of natural numbers, integers, fractions, and decimals (using the decimal place-value system). This study is sometimes known as algorism.
      adj having a wide range, influence, or effect
      It is a principle that has far-reaching implications for the rest of the analysis.
      Loss of coral reef systems would have far-reaching consequences for the human societies that depend on them.
      This revolt had far-reaching effects on the economic and political structure of Bengal.
      The world has undergone far-reaching changes in the past two decades.
      In the age of global business and communications, reputation may also be far-reaching.
      Compare far-reaching and sweeping.
      n[U] the spreading of people from a national group or culture to other areas
      A diaspora (from Greek διασπορά, "scattering, dispersion") is a scattered population with a common origin in a smaller geographic area.
      Diaspora can also refer to the movement of the population from its original homeland.
      Diaspora has come to refer particularly to historical mass dispersions of an involuntary nature, such as the expulsion of Jews from Judea, the African Trans-Atlantic slave trade, Europeans from Northwestern Europe, the southern Chinese or Hindus of South Asia during the coolie trade, or the century-long exile of the Messenians under Spartan rule.
      Recently, scholars have distinguished between different kinds of diaspora, based on its causes such as imperialism, trade or labor migrations, or by the kind of social coherence within the diaspora community and its ties to the ancestral lands.
      Some diaspora communities maintain strong political ties with their homeland.
      Other qualities that may be typical of many diasporas are thoughts of return, relationships with other communities in the diaspora, and lack of full integration into the host country.
      adj old and in bad condition ¶ of low quality ¶ not fair or honest
      A person who is shabby is wearing old, worn clothes.
      Apart from a couple of guys in their 60's all the men looked shabby.
      He piled up 74 points in 56 games, which wasn't too shabby for a 17 year old.
      These summers were formative: I improved my French, grew into my adult-self, and most importantly, fell in love with the Qubecois! Not too shabby for a farm girl from Alberta!
      $1m for this shabby shack? I'm not a sha-bi (silly cunt)!
      I was able to get speeds of 35Mbps download and 5Mbps upload. Not too shabby.
      adj behaving in a silly and foolish way when you should be serious ¶ silly ¶ trivial
      He's still rather frivolous and needs to grow up.
      Forgive me, Penny, but that would be the very definition of a frivolous lawsuit.
      Some of these things can be frivolous, but others can be useful.
      I would myself say that most Apple patents are instead, just frivolous, but with serious repercussions for the competing industry.
      Hire a lawyer. A strongly worded letter can often dissuade people from pursuing frivolous claims.
      I'm a person who lives day to day with the money I make and I need that money for frivolous things like rent and food.
      Employees also need to be advised that misconduct action may be taken against an employee who makes a frivolous or vexatious report of suspected misconduct.
      n[C] a small songbird with a short beak
      A finch is a passerine bird, often seed-eating, found chiefly in the northern hemisphere and Africa.
      Finch is a popular surname.
      Finch was also the surname of the Earls of Winchilsea and Nottingham.
      Rachael Finch (born 8 April 1988) is an Australian beauty pageant titleholder and television reporter.
      A chaffinch (苍头燕雀) is a small European bird of the finch family.
      A bullfinch (红腹灰雀) is a type of small European bird. The male has a black head and a pinkish-red breast.
      A goldfinch (金翅雀) is a small bird with yellow feathers on its wings that is common in Europe.
      adj attracting attention or interest
      Something that is striking is very noticeable or unusual.
      The Mighty Ducks wore a jersey with a huge duck crashing through the ice wearing goalie equipment, and the Kings wore a white jersey with a logo on the upper left chest that bore a striking resemblance to Burger King's mascot.
      Someone who is striking is very attractive, in a noticeable way.
      Kalekye Mumo is a striking woman, the kind that owns a room the minute she walks in.
      Anyone within striking distance of the Greater Toronto Area should consider your multimedia services (=be close to).
      n[U] conflict
      The probability of civil strife is greatest when multiple pressures at different levels in society interact to increase grievance and opportunity simultaneously.
      At times the air was so polluted you had to wear a mask, there were long queues for basic necessities, and political strife had become so common, our favorite game as children was "communists versus fascists."
      This did not boost production, but caused over 20 years of war and internal strife, with thousands fleeing their homes in terror.
      Land-related conflicts are among the leading causes of ethnic strife in sub-Saharan Africa.
      Man and wife, trouble and strife: Brosnan with Cassandra Harris at the For Your Eyes Only premiere.
      n[C] a member of the group of mammals which includes humans, monkeys, and apes;a priest with the highest position in his country
      A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").
      Primates arose from ancestors that lived in the trees of tropical forests; many primate characteristics represent adaptations to life in this challenging three-dimensional environment.
      Most primate species remain at least partly arboreal.
      With the exception of humans, which inhabit every continent, most primates live in tropical or subtropical regions of the Americas, Africa and Asia.
      They range in size from Madame Berthe's mouse lemur, which weighs only 30 g (1 oz), to the eastern lowland gorilla, weighing over 200 kg (440 lb).
      Based on fossil evidence, the earliest known true primates, represented by the genus Teilhardina, date to 55.8 million years old.
      Primate is a title or rank bestowed on some bishops in certain Christian churches.
      n[C] a large number of people
      I had thought the challenge for the hordes of journalists arriving here in Tampa.
      There's a ton of possibility here, with Facebook opening up their network to the hordes of talented developers.
      Once again this week, a horde of bloggers and overly excited media members are drooling at the prospect of a new Apple product.
      Surrounded by hordes of Red Bull-soaked teenagers in hot pants and tank tops, I got the feeling it was more than a lack of Southern Cross tattoos making me feel out of place.
      President Jefferson also opened the house for public tours, and it has remained open, except during wartime, ever since.
      In addition, he welcomed visitors to annual receptions on New Year's Day and the Fourth of July.
      In 1829, a horde of 20,000 Inaugural callers (visitors) forced President Andrew Jackson to flee to the safety of a hotel while, on the lawn, aids filled washtubs with orange juice and whiskey to lure the mob out of the mud-tracked White House.
      Compare crowd, hoard, horde, and swarm.
      adj showing strong feelings
      As an ardent supporter and promoter of your book, I am very sorry to hear that you aren't getting the financial recognition your work deserves.
      He is an ardent supporter of animal rights and PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals) and recently donated a pair of autographed drumsticks in support of PETA's campaign against Kentucky Fried Chicken.
      John is originally from Liverpool and is an ardent fan of the club.
      Born on October 25, 1926, in Shanghai, Wang in his youth was an ardent follower of Mao Zedong.
      I have always been an ardent advocate of equal marriage rights for lesbian and gay people as far as the State's involvement is concerned.
      Compare ardor, ardent, fervent, and passionate.
      n[C] a large room where a lot of people sleep
      A dormitory (dorm) or hall of residence or hostel, is a building primarily providing sleeping and residential quarters for large numbers of people, often boarding school, college or university students.
      In the United States dorm is the most common term. On the other hand, in the United Kingdom the term hall is more usual, especially in a university context.
      A dormitory can also be a single room containing several beds.
      CADs, or cold-air dormitories, are found in multi-level rooming houses such as fraternities, sororities, and cooperative houses.
      In CADs and in hostels, the room typically has very few furnishings except for beds.
      While the practice of housing employees in company-owned dormitories has dwindled, several companies continue this practice in the U.S. and other countries.
      Housing units in prisons that house more than the one or two inmates normally held in cells are referred to as "dormitories" as well.
      Boarding schools generally have dormitories as resident halls at least for junior or younger children around age 4 to 9 years of age.
      In classic British boarding schools these typically have bunk beds that have traditionally come to be associated with boarding schools.
      A bunk bed is a type of bed in which one bed frame is stacked on top of another.
      n[U] a rubbing away or wearing down by friction
      Attrition is a form of coastal or river erosion, when the bed load is eroded by itself and the bed.
      Dental attrition can be defined as "tooth-to-tooth wear of the dentition", resulting in loss of tooth tissue, usually starting at the incisal or occlusal surfaces.
      Attrition warfare is a military strategy in which a belligerent attempts to win a war by wearing down the enemy to the point of collapse through continuous losses in personnel and materiel.
      The word attrition comes from the Latin root atterere to rub against, similar to the "grinding down" of the opponent's forces in attrition warfare.
      The War of Attrition involved fighting between Israel and Egypt, Jordan, PLO and their allies from 1967 to 1970.
      Customer attrition, also known as customer churn, customer turnover, or customer defection, is the loss of clients or customers.
      Banks, telephone service companies, Internet service providers, pay TV companies, insurance firms, and alarm monitoring services, often use customer attrition analysis and customer attrition rates as one of their key business metrics (along with cash flow, EBITDA, etc.) because the cost of retaining an existing customer is far less than acquiring a new one.
      adj careful about what you say or do ¶ small and not very noticeable
      Even contacts such as council clerks who are allowed to give you information openly may not want to seem to be favouring you, so be discreet.
      She followed him from a discreet distance in her car.
      It is essential to be discreet and sensitive; not all students will want their condition or impairment widely known in their college or faculty.
      Rachel discreetly coughs to warn Monica.
      So, we're all standing around looking at the post-op X-ray and there it is, clear as day, right in the guy's chest cavity: One of my earrings.
      Oh my God, what did you do?
      What do you think I did? I discreetly slipped off the other earring, put it in my pocket, and then got the hell out of there.
      This is a live shot of Kripke's lab via a mini webcam I was able to install, thanks to a dollar bill discreetly placed in the night janitor's shirt pocket. At the same time, I also secured large quantities of these chemicals above the tiles in the drop ceiling.
      Compare discreet, discrete, indiscreet, low-profile, prudent, tactful, and tactless.
      v[IT] pierce with a pointed object
      also a noun
      If a tire punctures, or if you puncture it, a small hole appears in it.
      I tried to be punctual for my acupuncture appointment, but I got a puncture on the way and arrived late.
      The tyres are guaranteed never to puncture or go flat, but a nail punctured the back tyre.
      It had a slow puncture and had to be pumped up every five minutes.
      The queen farted; there was a stunned silence, punctured by shrill laughter. Her dignity was punctured.
      n[C] feeling of ill-will, envy, resentment, spite etc
      v[T] do or give sth very unwillingly
      You can call a contest between two people or groups a grudge match when they dislike each other.
      Cut to Mona and Joey clearing the dining room table for the grudge match between Chandler and Ross.
      If you have or bear a grudge against someone, you have unfriendly feelings towards them because of something they did in the past.
      When I was criticized for my views on Twitter a few days ago, my first impulse was to run away, ignore everyone, and harbor a grudge against them all.
      You're not still carrying a grudge because I beat you at that card tournament, are you?
      And Joey, get me a bottle of wine and glasses? (He begrudgingly does so.)
      My boss really grudges paying me salary.
      He would grudge a penny even to the poorest beggar.
      I grudge the time I spend travelling to work.