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      v[T] carelessly waste money, time, opportunities etc
      John Howard inherited a $20 billion surplus from Paul Keating in 1996, but managed to squander the money to the extent that Kevin Rudd was faced with a $120 billion dollar deficit when he took over.
      Your time is valuable and you don't want to squander it going to interviews that aren't in your pay bracket.
      If the scam were ever exposed, he would certainly lose votes that, in such a tight race, he knows he can't afford to squander.
      This is a priceless opportunity which should not be squandered.
      Two thirds of 1939's gold reserves had been squandered.
      However a rise in oil prices ended the economic boom and by 1976 it was clear the loans had been squandered.
      n[s] the area around the South Pole
      Antarctic region lies in south Pole opposite the Arctic region on North Pole.
      Antarctica is a continent within Antarctic region.
      Antarctica is a landmass buried under an ice sheet 1 mile thick while Antarctic region also contains floating ice sheet on ocean.
      Antarctica is the world’s 2nd smallest continent lying in Antarctic region in the South Pole.
      The Antarctic Peninsula is the northernmost part of the mainland of Antarctica, located at the base of the Southern Hemisphere.
      The Environmental Protocol of the Antarctic Treaty became law in 1998 after legislation in each of the member countries.
      n[C] a small earthquake ¶ a slight shaking movement ¶ a sudden feeling of excitement or fear
      An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves.
      The seismicity, seismism or seismic activity of an area refers to the frequency, type and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time.
      Perhaps the best known example is the 2008 Sichuan earthquake in China's Sichuan Province in May; this tremor resulted in 69,227 fatalities and is the 19th deadliest earthquake of all time.
      A tremor is an involuntary, somewhat rhythmic, muscle contraction and relaxation involving oscillations or twitching movements of one or more body parts.
      Most tremors occur in the hands.
      In some people, a tremor is a symptom of another neurological (related to the nervous system) disorder.
      A very common tremor is the chattering of teeth, usually induced by cold temperatures or by fear.
      Since then, the rupee, by and large (generally, rose against the dollar till the end of 2007, when the tremors of the global financial crisis started being felt in India.
      The ruble or rouble is a unit of currency of various countries in Eastern Europe and is closely associated with the economy of Russia.
      Compare tremble and tremor.
      n[C] the part of the nucleus of an atom that has a positive electrical charge
      One or more protons are present in the nucleus of an atom.
      The number of protons in the nucleus is referred to as its atomic number.
      Since each element has a unique number of protons, each element has its own unique atomic number.
      For example, the atomic number of chlorine is 17; this means that each chlorine atom has 17 protons and that all atoms with 17 protons are chlorine atoms.
      The Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Packages (ALSEP) determined that more than 95% of the particles in the solar wind are electrons and protons, in approximately equal numbers.
      The proton spin crisis (sometimes called the "proton spin puzzle") was a theoretical crisis precipitated by an experiment in 1987 which tried to detect spin configuration of the proton.
      And, in 2013, he made a guest appearance on The Big Bang Theory as the aged Professor Proton (Arthur Jeffries), a former science TV show host turned children's party entertainer, for which he won the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Guest Actor in a Comedy Series, his first Emmy Award.
      adj very unpleasant or shocking
      Mohammad Solaiman was sentenced today for the gruesome murder of his wife Shahida Sultanna.
      The trial of the gruesome murder of Shafilea Ahmed, the British girl of Pakistani origin, by her own parents in so-called 'honour-killing', which ended on Friday with both parents being convicted and jailed for life.
      The children's book will leave out the more gruesome details of James's drug-taking past and focus instead on his bond with Bob.
      In Australia, in 2000, Bankstown and Greenacre (in Sydney) had a succession of gang-rapes, in which the victims testified to the particularly gruesome details of being assaulted by a dozen or more men at a time.
      As gruesome killing of innocent people and destruction of properties continue in the country, the Middle Belt Youths Focus has threatened to unmask and match Boko Haram violence for violence if they failed to stop the attacks.
      The worst part is he was alive when this attack took place and so would have suffered for a long, lingering, gruesome death.
      Ooh, that accident must've been terrible. You look positively ghastly.
      v[I] interfere in a harmful manner
      On his way to work, he pulled over at King Edward Street after hearing a noise from the engine. He stopped to have a look and the idea came upon him to tamper with the brakes and to blame the other man for it, in effect to put his wife off him.
      I only have an old 80 GB HDD inside, and use it more to tamper with the Xbox than for anything serious.
      Make sure that the Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) on the dashboard identification plate matches the number on the vehicle registration form. Check that it has not been tampered with. If it has been tampered with, this may be a stolen vehicle.
      Check the odometer reading (average is 25,000 km/yr) to ensure is hasn't been tampered with.
      The warning follows ATM machines in Elworth being tampered with by fraudsters.
      Compare meddle and tamper.
      n[C] sth that you do regularly for fun in your free time
      Singapore is a place where eating is a national pastime.
      Baguettes (long thin loaves of bread popular in France) and croissants are mandatory in any French caricature. Wine and cheese are a national pastime.
      A croissant is a buttery, flaky, viennoiserie or Vienna-style pastry named for its well-known crescent shape.
      I remember that as a lad growing up in Sydney, a favourite pastime of mine was to go with a couple of mates to the Science Museum.
      Dancing was a favourite pastime of Edith's.
      In much of America, up until recently, hunting was a popular pastime for all classes, from blue-collar manufacturing workers in the Rust Belt to aristocratic land-owners in the West.
      Shopping is a popular pastime for many Pakistanis, especially among the well-to-do and the thirty-million strong middle class.
      Compare hobby and pastime.
      n[U] the state of being a mother, motherhood
      Well, it's just that maternity clothes are so expensive.
      I went to a used clothes store and got like a bunch of maternity stuff. These are sooo comfortable!
      So, if I wanna have my kid when I'm 35, I don't have to get pregnant until I'm 34. Which gives Prada four years to start making maternity clothes!
      Joey (Entering, wearing the maternity pants from earlier) All right where's that turkey!
      Man! When you said it was a problem about your boss and the baby I figured it was something about maternity leave.
      Parental leave is an employee benefit that provides paid or unpaid time off work to care for a child or make arrangements for the child's welfare.
      It's all gonna be ok. They're just so happy that I'm not suing them that they gave me one extra month paid maternity leave.
      They sent me home from work. They were like, "Start your maternity leave now! Just rest, get ready for the baby."
      The Hospital, Ross and Rachel, who's in a wheelchair, are arriving in the waiting room for the maternity ward.
      Um, my maternity leave just ended. They told me that if I didn't come back today, they were gonna fire me.
      Wow! Five-month maternity leave, you're back for four days, kiss a co-worker, and call in sick, they are lucky to have you!
      Okay, so Kim the night manager went on maternity leave, and her husband's name is Sandy, right? So get this, her replacement is a woman named Sandy whose husband's name is Kim.
      Compare maternity and paternity.
      adj shy and nervous, lacking confidence, or easily frightened
      He is too timid to be a very good salesman.
      Lora is smart, timid, and the constant target of bullies.
      Chickens are not by nature at all timid. In fact, when I was young, my neighbor's chicken got loose and chased me up the big elm tree in front of our house.
      There are individuals who may be too timid to pick up a microphone and sing however if singing is something performed by everybody all at once, concerns about not knowing the verse or being out of tune simply fly out the window.
      The story is told in alternating chapters from each sister's first perspective. A reader learns each sister's unique voice. The sister's narration varies from shy and timid, to bold and dramatic, to pious and peaceful, to young and naive, depending on which sister is sharing her voice.
      Compare docile, meek, placid, and timid.
      v[T] make a quick, witty or angry reply
      also a noun
      "I wasn't talking to you, I was talking to the pig," he retorted.
      "Is there something wrong with wanting to protect you?" he retorted.
      "From the Bible." I retorted.
      He retorted that this heading was actually his idea.
      Oh, you think you're so clever. Well, let me just tell you, while I do not currently have a scathing retort, you check your e-mail periodically for a doozy.
      Ok, better comebacks Mike, better comebacks.
      Ok, this kind of back talk is not gonna fly when we're married!
      More back talk. And yes, I may be borrowing a few lines from my recent unsuccessful audition for "Family Honor 2: This is a time it's personal."
      Well I guess I should've thought about my wife and kids before I talked back to chef Geller!
      n[C] sth that is very helpful and improves the quality of life
      Social welfare has been a boon for a large segment of the population.
      Online dating is a boon for guys who fit the media-promulgated aesthetic ideal (tall, muscular, white).
      Or maybe what you thought would be a boon for your business is turning out to be just one more of those things you never have time to get to.
      The ease of self-publishing and e-book distibution of such books is a boon to the writer and readers.
      That'd be a great boon to me, and wouldn't cost you anything. Thanks.
      However, the boon of 3D printing can turn into a bane as well.
      I realise that modern formula is a boon in circumstances where breastfeeding is not possible.
      A boon companion is cheerful friend with whom one enjoys spending time.
      adj more powerful, common, or easily noticed than others
      Islam is the predominant religion in Indonesia, and 88% of the country's population are followers.
      The predominant religion in Bangladesh is Islam, with 88.3% of the population adhering to that faith.
      The English language is predominant in primarily wealthy nations whose researchers have disproportionate access to research funding and success with publication.
      French is the predominant language in many areas of Quebec.
      It is the acid that is the predominant form of nitrogen which easily turns to ammonia.
      Arranged marriages are cultural practices which are predominant in certain countries throughout the world.
      Compare predominant and prevailing.
      v[IT] make a liquid such as water or alcohol more pure ¶ obtain liquid from a plant using a similar process ¶ get the main ideas or facts from a much larger amount of information
      Whisky or whiskey is a type of distilled alcoholic beverage made from fermented grain mash.
      Distilled alcohol was known in Latin as aqua vitae ("water of life").
      Scotch whiskies are generally distilled twice, although some are distilled a third time and others even up to twenty times.
      Brandy is a spirit produced by distilling wine.
      Distilled water is water that has many of its impurities removed through distillation. Distillation involves boiling the water and then condensing the steam into a clean container.
      I think that the existing 2011-15 University Strategy document needed to be distilled into a new condensed and more focussed format.
      How can such a sophisticated manga be distilled into a movie that everyone will understand?
      n[C] a tall pole that the sails hang from on a ship ¶ a tall metal tower that sends out radio and television signals
      The mast of a sailing vessel is a tall spar, or arrangement of spars, erected more or less vertically on the centre-line of a ship or boat.
      Large ships have several masts, with the size and configuration depending on the style of ship.
      Nearly all sailing masts are guyed masts. A guyed mast is a tall thin vertical structure that depends on guy lines for stability.
      A guy-wire or guy-rope, also known as simply a guy, is a tensioned cable designed to add stability to a free-standing structure.
      Snowy accidentally knocks the model over and breaks its mainmast. Repairing it, then showing the ship to Haddock, Tintin discovers that the ship is named the Unicorn.
      Radio masts and towers are, typically, tall structures designed to support antennas (also known as aerials) for telecommunications and broadcasting, including television. Similar structures include electricity pylons and towers for wind turbines.
      In designing a drive-in system, dimensions of the fork truck, including overall width and mast width, must be carefully considered.[
      Each main rotor is mounted on a vertical mast over the top of the helicopter, as opposed to a helicopter tail rotor, which connects through a combination of drive shaft(s) and gearboxes along the tail boom.
      Half-mast (or "half-staff") is flying a flag below the summit of the flagpole (mast). In many countries this is seen as a symbol of respect, mourning, or distress.
      adj on the alert, watchful
      But if you are by yourself, be vigilant and walk in well-lit areas.
      We have to be vigilant and to let them know that we are watching what they do.
      Be vigilant about eating right (eliminate added sugars and sugar syrups, any grain that isn't 100 per cent whole, most saturated fats and all trans fats); get seven to eight hours of sleep a night; and wash your hands often.
      Xi told the new 25-member Politburo that the party must be vigilant against graft, noting that corruption in other countries in recent years has prompted major social unrest and the collapse of governments.
      "Did anyone touch it?" "Gloves were worn by everyone involved. I was vigilant."
      "When would you've accidentally eaten chrysanthemum blossoms?" "It's part of an unlikely scenario that involves sleepwalking and a 24-hour flower mart with a less-than-vigilant proprietor. Oh, Lord, my belly!"
      n[C] a large piece of cloth worn esp by women over their shoulders or head
      A shawl is a simple item of clothing, loosely worn over the shoulders, upper body and arms, and sometimes also over the head.
      Kashmir, in India, was a pivotal point through which the wealth, knowledge, and products of ancient India passed to the world. Perhaps the most widely known woven textiles are the famed Kashmir shawls.
      Shawls are used in order to keep warm, to complement a costume, and for symbolic reasons.
      One famous type of shawl is the tallit, worn by Jewish men during prayers and ceremonies.
      Today, shawls are worn for added warmth (and fashion) at outdoor or indoor evening affairs, where the temperature is warm enough for men in suits but not for women in dresses and where a jacket might be inappropriate.
      "I'm sorry, Sheldon bought a loom and learned how to weave?" "He actually got pretty good. He made us all matching serapes."
      This is not a serape, this is a poncho.
      Carry a jacket or shawl to cover your upper arms and avoid wearing shorts if you plan to visit a religious building.
      Take a shawl for churches, where exposed shoulders and arms are not permitted.
      n[UC] a belief that things such as magic or luck have the power to affect your life
      Superstition is the belief in supernatural causality—that one event causes another without any natural process linking the two events—such as astrology, religion, omens, witchcraft, prophecies, etc., that contradicts natural science.
      The word superstition is sometimes used to refer to religious practices (e.g., Voodoo) other than the one prevailing in a given society (e.g., Christianity in western culture), although the prevailing religion may contain just as many superstitious beliefs.
      Some cultures consider black cats to signify good or bad luck.
      With the development of folklore studies in the late 18th century, use of the derogatory term superstition was sometimes replaced by the neutral term "folk belief", an attempt to go over local cultural biases.
      Thus, describing a practice such as the crossing fingers to nullify a promise as "folk belief" implies a neutral description from the perspective of ethnology or folklore studies, while calling the same thing a "superstition" implies its rejection as irrational.
      Just imagine how better the World would be without religion and superstition.
      "Find a penny, pick it up. All day long, you'll have good luck." This common rhyme refers to an old superstition, and like many superstitions, it has many variations and the reasoning behind those variations are also numerous.
      "Of course you feel terrible. You completely screwed up your karma, dude." "You don't really believe in that superstition, do you?" "It's not superstition, it's practically Newtonian. For every action, there's an equal and opposite reaction."
      Modern reactions to feng shui are mixed. The Skeptic Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience states that some principles of feng shui are "quite rational", while noting that "folk remedies and superstitions... [have been] incorporated into feng shui's eclectic mix".
      Players today hold the superstition that they will not touch or come in contact with the "Cup" until they have legitimately won it.
      adj not continuous, intermittent
      Sporadic occurrences of something happen at irregular intervals.
      This issue is sporadic and does not occur always.
      If these activities are sporadic and irregular, they do little to no damage to joints.
      Traditionally, the windmills were used to grind cereals. Although wind is sporadic and circulatory, it contains terrific energy.
      Just after 8:30 am. Contractions are sporadic and not too intense. The midwife suggested I go back to bed.
      The curtain of clouds lifts temporarily the next day, and sporadic sunshine breaks through as we crisscross the exposed back of Copper Ridge.
      Gaza militants kept up sporadic rocket attacks against Israel.
      Compare intermittent and sporadic.
      n[U] the leading or controlling position
      Air supremacy is a position in war where a side holds complete control of air warfare and air power over opposing forces.
      It is defined by NATO and the United States Department of Defense as the "degree of air superiority wherein the opposing air force is incapable of effective interference."
      A USAF F-22 Raptor, a stealth fifth generation air superiority fighter.
      Air supremacy is the highest level, where a side holds complete control of the skies.
      Air superiority is the second level, where a side is in a more favorable position than the opponent.
      Air parity is the lowest level of control, where a side only holds control of skies above friendly troop positions.
      We're living in a world in which the US has undisputed military supremacy.
      The first Act of Supremacy was legislation in 1534 that granted King Henry VIII of England Royal Supremacy, which means that he was declared the supreme head of the Church of England.
      The Supremacy Clause is the provision in Article Six, Clause 2 of the United States Constitution that establishes the United States Constitution, federal statutes, and treaties as "the supreme law of the land."
      White supremacists believe that white people are better than people of other races.
      v[T] try to destroy the authority of a political, religious, etc. system ¶ destroy sb's beliefs or loyalty
      Rulers who wish to subvert the public liberty may have found an established clergy convenient auxiliaries.
      It's a program designed to subvert the Iranian nuclear effort through sabotage.
      NATO is trying to install is the Saudi model - easy to be subverted by Western culture and turn the population into passive consumers.
      Our perception of kung fu has since been subverted by movie making.
      I feel this administration is subverting the Constitution on the same level as Richard Nixon.
      "To tell you the truth, I thought if anyone was going to screw things up for Howard, it'd be Sheldon." "Well, your expectations have been subverted. Aha."
      Compare overthrow, subvert, undermine, and uphold.
      v[T] evaluate
      Education Age asked three education specialists to appraise the policy's national plan for school improvement.
      This will force banks to appraise the credit risk more fully.
      At the end of each day commercial banks have to appraise the status of their reserve accounts.
      The bank will only lend on 90% of $360,000 the appraised value, or $330,000.
      During the purchase process, the appraised value is used to ensure the buyer has not overpaid significantly for the property and that the property is in overall, great shape.
      The Queen, as a veteran of countless royal tours, is used to politicians on the make. She has been pawed by premiers and appraised by pontiffs and manipulated by ministers.
      Ross is now clearly drunk. He is holding up a shot glass to his eye like a jeweller's eye. "Anyone want me to appraise anything?"
      Compare appraise, assess, evaluate, and estimate.
      n[C] an imaginary place or situation in which everything in society is perfect
      A utopia is a community or society possessing highly desirable or perfect qualities.
      The word was coined in Greek by Sir Thomas More for his 1516 book Utopia, describing a fictional island society in the Atlantic Ocean.
      The book is a frame narrative primarily depicting a fictional island society and its religious, social and political customs.
      The word comes from the Greek: οὐ ("not") and τόπος ("place") and means "no-place".
      The term has been used to describe both intentional communities that attempt to create an ideal society, and imagined societies portrayed in fiction.
      It has spawned other concepts, most prominently dystopia (an imaginary community or society that is undesirable or frightening).
      Utopian is used to describe political or religious philosophies which claim that it is possible to build a new and perfect society in which everyone is happy.
      Neverland is a fictional location featured in the works of J. M. Barrie and those based on them. It is the dwelling place of Peter Pan, Tinker Bell, the Lost Boys and others.
      Sir Thomas More was an important councillor to Henry VIII of England and Lord Chancellor from October 1529 to 16 May 1532.
      In 1533, More refused to attend the coronation of Anne Boleyn as the Queen of England.
      With his refusal to support the King's annulment, More's enemies had enough evidence to have the King arrest him on treason.
      After the jury's verdict was delivered and before his sentencing, More spoke freely of his belief that "no temporal man may be the head of the spirituality".
      The Tudors is a British-Irish-Canadian historical fiction television series set primarily in sixteenth-century England.
      n[C] a drop of liquid that has fallen on to a surface and has dried
      v[T] make a ~ ¶ soak up or dry sth with paper
      The Rorschach test (aka the Rorschach inkblot test, the Rorschach technique, or simply the inkblot test) is a psychological test in which subjects' perceptions of inkblots are recorded and then analyzed using psychological interpretation, complex algorithms, or both.
      Rachel puts her hands on Mr. Zelner's desk blotter and he moves it.
      The western blot (sometimes called the protein immunoblot) is a widely used analytical technique used to detect specific proteins in a sample of tissue homogenate or extract.
      If something is a blot on a person's or thing's reputation, it spoils their reputation.
      What a blot on the celebration of Australia Day!
      If something is a blot on a person's or thing's reputation, it spoils their reputation.
      If one thing blots out another thing, it cover or hide the other thing completely.
      The heather was growing dim around them, and the horizon was blotted out by white mist.
      If you blot out an unpleasant memory, a thought etc, you deliberately try to forget it.
      Their offspring will continue forever, and their glory will never be blotted out.
      Place cooked patties on a plate lined with paper towel to blot off the excess oils.
      She also quickly blotted up the spilled gasoline with some paper towels and tossed them into the toilet.
      Compare blot, blotch, discolor, and stain.
      v[T] deliberately encourage people to fight, argue etc
      Biden said what he said to incite the protesters even further, no more no less.
      The mission of these fighters was to incite the Palestinian refugees, mostly Sunnis, to proclaim an independent emirate and to fight Hezbollah.
      The Saudis also fear Iran's ability to incite violence within Saudi Arabia by influencing the kingdom's Shiite minority.
      They want to incite hatred and mistrust.
      It is also a criminal offence to incite racial and religious hatred of others by threatening physical harm towards a person or their property.
      They did it in 1964 by means of a series of communal riots, incited by the activists of Muslim league and other Islamic parties.
      Some scholars assert that critical verses in the New Testament have been used to incite prejudice and violence against Jewish people.
      Compare excite and incite.
      adj of or relating to a monarch, royal
      A Regal may point to a lesser royal personality: to a Knyaz, Fürst, Druhtinaz, or perhaps to a Sovereign Prince, who may be leading a lesser royal clan, or even a principality.
      Neither is the regal power among the Germans absolute and uncontrollable; lesser matters are ordered and disposed by the princes; greater affairs by all the people.
      Regal Entertainment Group, abbreviated REG, is an American movie theater chain headquartered in Knoxville, Tennessee.
      Regal Cinemas is a UK-based cinema chain since the early days of the cinema.
      The Regal was a United States automobile produced by the Regal Motor Car Company of Detroit, Michigan from 1907 to 1918. In 1916, the touring car sold for US$650.
      The Buick Regal is an Executive car introduced by General Motors for the 1973 model year. North American production ended in 2004 and began again in 2011.
      Embassy Regal is a brand of UK cigarette produced by Imperial Tobacco.