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      v[I] exist in an unpleasant or unwanted situation, often for a long time
      If someone languishes somewhere, they are forced to remain and suffer in an unpleasant situation.
      If something languishes, it fails to improve and develop or become successful.
      His 13-year-old brother Austin is languishing in a wheelchair.
      Had the DNA test not been conducted, I would have been languishing in jail and probably would have died there.
      There are thousands of people languishing in camps in Indonesia who wish to seek asylum.
      He was throwing parties in the Castle while the masses were languishing in poverty.
      They are now languishing in refugee camps for more than 17 years in the south.
      Meanwhile, Omar Khadr continues to languish in Guantanamo Bay, facing a military trial where evidence gained through torture is admissible.
      Those tech-empowered billions in the developing world will not be satisfied languishing in second-class status.
      Even people who already had tickets were left to languish in line before someone came along and told them they could go directly to the turnstiles.
      As Europe's economies continue to languish in full-blown recession or low growth, the knock-on effects are being seen in the accounts of companies most dependent on advertising revenue.
      Ireland will continue to languish at the bottom of the international league tables for women's representation.
      Compare flourish, languish, languid, and languor.
      v[T] lengthen or prolong
      Criticism centred on the fourth volume which was felt to protract the novel beyond its natural conclusion.
      When you graduate from medical school, you will be required to take an oath to never protract the sickness of a patient.
      Lord, blast their hopes, blight their lives, protract their bitter pilgrimage, make heavy their steps, water their way with their tears, stain the white snow with the blood of their wounded feet!
      Sekisui's move into the Australian market follows a protracted period of recession in both the Japanese economy and housing sector since 2008.
      There has never been a protracted war from which a country has benefited.
      Roger is embroiled in a protracted legal battle for his forfeited earldom and inheritance.
      Jimmy Defoe, has passed away after a protracted battle with cancer.
      What many Ukrainian leaders hoped to see was a protracted struggle which would weaken both Nazi Germany and Soviet Russia to the point that both totalitarian powers would be forced to abandon their designs of controlling Eastern Europe.
      The whole education system is a protracted process of university entrance.
      The most likely consequence of the security transition is a protracted conflict between the government of Afghanistan and the Taliban that continues long after coalition forces have ceased active combat operations.
      Compare extract, protract, and retract.
      n[C] sb with exceptional talents or powers
      In psychology research literature, the term child prodigy is defined as person under the age of ten who produces meaningful output in some domain to the level of an adult expert performer
      Child prodigies are rare, and in some domains, there are no child prodigies at all. Prodigiousness in childhood does not always predict adult eminence.
      The term Wunderkind (from German: "wonder child") is sometimes used as a synonym for "prodigy", particularly in media accounts.
      Examples of particularly extreme prodigies could include Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Evgeny Kissin and Teresa Milanollo in music; Bobby Fischer, Judit Polgár, Magnus Carlsen, Sergey Karjakin, Paul Morphy and José Capablanca in chess; Carl Friedrich Gauss, Shakuntala Devi, Srinivasa Ramanujan, John von Neumann and Terence Tao in mathematics; Pablo Picasso and Wang Ximeng in art; and Saul Kripke in philosophy.
      Chess prodigies are children who can beat experienced adult players and even Masters at chess.
      Expectations can be high for chess prodigies; while some become World Champions, others show little or no progress in adulthood.
      Robert James "Bobby" Fischer (March 9, 1943 – January 17, 2008) was an American chess prodigy, grandmaster, and the eleventh World Chess Champion. Many consider him the greatest chess player of all time.
      The title Grandmaster is awarded to chess players by the world chess organization FIDE. Apart from World Champion, Grandmaster is the highest title a chess player can attain.
      The Ford Prodigy was a low emission vehicle 72 mpg-US (3.3 L/100 km; 86 mpg-imp) diesel-hybrid concept car launched in 2000.
      v[IT] (cause to) flow out suddenly and with force, in a fast stream
      also a noun
      When liquid or fire spurts from somewhere, or when something spurts liquid or fire, it comes out quickly and suddenly in a thin, powerful stream.
      Oil first spurted from this well on 16 October 1931.
      Rifle fire spurted from both sides of the river while Iraqis poured out of a trench behind the Humvees and others fired from a nearby rooftop on the same side of the Euphrates.
      If someone or something spurts somewhere, they suddenly increase their speed for a short while in order to get there.
      Within a century, protected British industries had spurted ahead of their European competitors.
      A spurt of liquid is a stream of it which comes out of something very forcefully.
      The jets of water are produced when archer fish press their tongues against a groove in their mouths to form a gun-barrel-like shape, and close their gills to force out a spurt of water.
      A spurt of activity, effort, or emotion is a sudden, brief period of intense activity, effort, or emotion.
      Joshua spotted his sister and, with a spurt of energy so characteristic of three year olds, dashed out to join her.
      Some of this growth occurs after the growth spurt of the long bones has ceased or slowed.
      If something happens in spurts, there are periods of activity followed by periods in which it does not happen.
      I still have not had a cigarette. The cravings still come in spurts.
      Also, I find that my creativity comes in spurts with serious lulls in-between.
      Compare gush, jet, sport, spurt, and surge.
      n[C] a vehicle that can travel in space
      A spacecraft is a vehicle, or machine designed to fly in outer space.
      Spacecraft are used for a variety of purposes, including communications, earth observation, meteorology, navigation, space colonization, planetary exploration, and transportation of humans and cargo.
      On a sub-orbital spaceflight, a spacecraft enters space and then returns to the surface, without having gone into an orbit.
      For orbital spaceflights, spacecraft enter closed orbits around the Earth or around other celestial bodies.
      Spacecraft used for human spaceflight carry people on board as crew or passengers from start or on orbit (space stations) only, while those used for robotic space missions operate either autonomously or telerobotically.
      I'm gonna get on this spaceship and I'm gonna go to Blargon 7 in search of alternative fuels.
      Pheebs? Flying a jet? Better make it a spaceship so that you can get back to your home planet!
      "What kind of spaceship has a hole in the middle?" "A Romulan battle bagel?"
      Compare airship, capsule, spaceship, and shuttle.
      n[CU] a material composed of two or more metals or a metal and a nonmetal
      An alloy is a mixture of either pure or fairly pure chemical elements, which forms an impure substance (admixture) that retains the characteristics of a metal.
      Alloys are made by mixing two or more elements; at least one of which being a metal.
      Alloys are used in some applications, where their properties are superior to those of the pure component elements for a given application.
      Examples of alloys are steel, solder, brass, pewter, Duralumin, phosphor bronze and amalgams.
      Alloying a metal is done by combining it with one or more other metals or non-metals that often enhance its properties. For example, steel is stronger than iron, its primary element.
      The use of alloys by humans started with the use of meteoric iron, a naturally occurring alloy of nickel and iron.
      Electrum, a natural alloy of silver and gold, was often used for making coins.
      Pig iron, a very hard but brittle alloy of iron and carbon, was being produced in China as early as 1200 BC, but did not arrive in Europe until the Middle Ages.
      n[UC] belief or set of beliefs put forward by some authority
      Dogma is a principle or set of principles laid down by an authority as incontrovertibly true.
      The term derives from Greek δόγμα "that which seems to one, opinion or belief" and that from δοκέω (dokeo), "to think, to suppose, to imagine".
      Doctrine (from Latin: doctrina or possibly from Sanskrit: dukrn) is a codification of beliefs or a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the essence of teachings in a given branch of knowledge or belief system.
      Dogma serves as part of the primary basis of an ideology or belief system, and it cannot be changed or discarded without affecting the very system's paradigm, or the ideology itself.
      Dogma came to signify laws or ordinances adjudged and imposed upon others by the First Century. The plural is either dogmas or dogmata.
      The term "dogmatics" is used as a synonym for systematic theology, as in Karl Barth's defining textbook of neo-orthodoxy, the 14-volume Church Dogmatics.
      Dogmata are found in religions such as Christianity, Judaism, and Islam, where they are considered core principles that must be upheld by all believers of that religion.
      A disciple is a person who believes in and follows the teachings of a religious or political leader.
      v[I] fail to function
      n[C] failure to function
      Police are urgently investigating the missing 81 minutes between Hussain arriving from Luton in London and the time his bomb went off. His device may have malfunctioned. He may have lost his nerve.
      This returns your OS to an earlier time, before it malfunctioned.
      One time there was a blackout and the emergency generators malfunctioned.
      Causes of anaemia can range from low iron in the diet to a malfunction in the liver.
      By the early 1920s, many researchers strongly suspected that diabetes was caused by a malfunction in the digestive system related to the pancreas gland.
      Cisco said the issue came to light because of a malfunction in the BGP implementation of another (unnamed) vendor, which caused a series of crashes but it admits the problem might also affect its own kit.
      Microsoft is not responsible for technical malfunction of any telephone network or lines, servers or providers, or any combination thereof.
      adj marked by inventive skill and imagination
      Something that is ingenious is very clever and involves new ideas, methods, or equipment.
      Someone who is ingenious is good at inventing things and solving problems in new ways.
      She was so ingenious, she invented an ingenious dildo.
      Prof. Ein-Dor and his colleagues came up with an ingenious way to test this idea.
      Daniel Lambert weighed 335kg and was considered a medical oddity. Too heavy to work, Lambert came up with an ingenious idea: he would charge people a shilling to see him.
      He came up with an ingenious solution. Perhaps sometimes the planets do stray a little but then God nudges them to get them back on course.
      To deal with the problem, merchants came up with an ingenious plan. They made small clay tokens, in various shapes and with various markings, to indicate different products.
      In Harmonia 57 mist is collected in an ingenious system of pipes, then used to water plants that grow in porous concrete walls.
      A few years ago I learned an ingenious method for dealing with other people when they're doing things you wish they wouldn't do.
      v[T] put out a fire or light ¶ stop a feeling or idea from continuing to exist
      It took about six hours and 2,000 gallons of water per minute to extinguish the downtown fire.
      They brought the foam retardant out to extinguish the fire and got everybody away from the plane.
      Keep water or sand nearby to extinguish the fire.
      The fire at 301 George started at approximately 4:20 am and lasted until around 8:00 am, when firefighters managed to extinguish the blaze.
      A fire extinguisher, or extinguisher, is an active fire protection device used to extinguish or control small fires, often in emergency situations.
      On longer time scales, attention turns to the sheltering Sun. Our constant companion is midway through its conversion of hydrogen into helium. In about 5 billion years, its guttering flame will be extinguished.
      Katie issued a solo statement announcing the couple's divorce, hinting at some heat around the final extinguishing of the marriage.
      v[T] make a situation worse ¶ make sb's feelings stronger
      I also agree that US interference is likely to inflame the situation.
      Don't get grumpy or be rude, that will only inflame the situation and make it seem like you have something to hide.
      The violence in Syria, which has killed more than 36,000 people since the uprising against Assad began in March 2011, threatens to inflame an already combustible region.
      The work, however, is likely to inflame the debate about GM (genetically modified) foods.
      Proposal. One wild night of torrid lovemaking that soothes my soul and inflames my loins.
      A part of your body that is inflamed is swollen, red, and painful because of an infection or injury.
      Hemorrhoids are vascular structures in the anal canal which help with stool control. They become pathological or piles when swollen or inflamed.
      Sheldon has an inflamed larynx.
      n[U] the acquisition of goods, services or works from an external source
      It is favourable that the goods, services or works are appropriate and that they are procured at the best possible cost to meet the needs of the acquirer in terms of quality and quantity, time, and location.
      Based on the consumption purposes of the acquired goods and services, procurement activities are often split into two distinct categories. The first category being direct, production-related procurement and the second being indirect, non-production-related procurement.
      Direct procurement occurs in manufacturing settings only. It encompasses all items that are part of finished products, such as raw material, components and parts.
      Direct procurement, which is the focus in supply chain management, directly affects the production process of manufacturing firms.
      In contrast, Indirect procurement activities concern “operating resources” that a company purchases to enable its operations.
      It comprises a wide variety of goods and services, from standardized low value items like office supplies and machine lubricants to complex and costly products and services; like heavy equipment and consulting services.
      Procurement fraud can be defined as dishonestly obtaining an advantage, avoiding an obligation or causing a loss to public property or various means during procurement process by public servants, contractors or any other person involved in the procurement.
      In business, outsourcing involves the contracting out of a business process to another party.
      If someone procures a prostitute, they introduce the prostitute to a client.
      A pimp is a man who makes money by controlling prostitutes.
      adj spreading by contact ¶ spreading easily from one person to another
      If a person is contagious, they have a disease that can be spread to other people by touch.
      A contagious disease is a subset category of transmissible diseases.
      Examples of contagious disease are AIDS, influenza, and the common cold, which are passed fairly easily through contact between an infected individual and a susceptible individual.
      An infectious disease can be passed easily from one person to another, especially through the air they breathe.
      Cholera and typhoid fever are both termed water- and food-borne infectious diseases. They are caused by bacteria and spread through contaminated water and food.
      Usually, epidemics are caused only by contagious diseases, but occasional exceptions occur, such as with black plague.
      This is because epidemics may also be regarded in terms of proportion of people infected with a transmissible disease.
      Because of the nature of non-contagious communicable diseases, such as yellow fever or filariasis, their spread is little affected or not affected by medical isolation (for ill persons) or medical quarantine (for exposed persons).
      Thus, a "contagious disease" is sometimes defined in practical terms of whether isolation or quarantine make sense as a public health response.
      Sheldon, relax. She doesn't have any symptoms. I'm sure she's not contagious.
      Oh, please. If influenza was only contagious after symptoms appear, it would've died out thousands of years ago. Somewhere between tool using and cave painting, Homo habilis would've figured out how to kill the guy with the runny nose.
      Stan Lee does not have a contagious skin disease.
      Yawning most often occurs in adults immediately before and after sleep, during tedious activities and as a result of its contagious quality.
      Oh, an exotic little treat. I was just talking to Siri about Peking duck, and she said she knew about four Chinese grocers, two of which were fairly close to me. Her spontaneity is contagious.
      A contact lens, or simply contact, is a thin lens placed directly on the surface of the eye.
      adj of, suggesting, or suitable for a picture ¶ strikingly expressive or vivid
      A picturesque place or scene is attractive, especially because it is old and interesting.
      Picturesque language uses unusual, interesting, or sometimes rude words to describe something.
      The wooden bridge leading from the picturesque village of Walberswick to the beach is always crammed with children clutching crabbing lines and plastic buckets.
      Either way, you can still enjoy a picturesque view of the Statue of Liberty by taking the ferry that goes into the Ellis Island.
      "It's much easier to enjoy the picturesque route we travel to work when you remove the spectre of fiery vehicular death," said Sheldon-bot.
      With steep volcanoes and white sandy beaches exposed to the trade winds, they carry the picturesque name of the Windward Islands.
      Compare grotesque and picturesque.
      The main building, which dominates a breathtakingly picturesque valley, also houses an ornate temple filled with colorful Buddhas and altars.
      n[U] a situation in which people are killed or injured
      "Afghanistan? Opium?" All I can think about is the war and bloodshed.
      Hamas is once again dragging the region to violence and bloodshed.
      Mursi has called for dialogue between Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Turkey and Iran to find a way to stop the bloodshed in Syria.
      Out of the Valentine Strasser and the Maada Bio revolution came the flowering of democratic tenets and good governance in Sierra Leone born out of the bloodshed of the 11-year civil war.
      The fighting comes as veteran UN diplomat Lakhdar Brahimi is due to begin a peacemaking mission, replacing Kofi Annan who quit after his six-point plan including an April 12 cease-fire failed to stop the bloodshed.
      Compare, bloodbath, bloodletting, and bloodshed.
      n[U] absence of any form of political authority
      Anarchy refers to a society, entity, group of persons or single person without recognition of authority.
      Since its inception in the original ancient Greek, anarchy has been used in the negative sense to imply political disorder or lawlessness within a society.
      In 1840, however, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon adopted the term in his treatise What Is Property? to refer to a new political philosophy, anarchism, which advocates stateless societies based on voluntary associations.
      So clearly the whole place is about to fall into anarchy.
      The scene quickly descended into anarchy.
      They attack people, they attack military installations, they want to create anarchy in the country.
      Compare anarchy, hierarchy, matriarchy, monarchy, oligarchy, and patriarchy.
      Enormous popular attention in the media focuses on the Western United States in the second half of the nineteenth century, a period sometimes called the Old West, or the Wild West, frequently exaggerating the romance and violence of the period.
      n[U] compelling attractiveness or charm that can inspire devotion in others ¶ a divinely conferred power or talent
      Scholars in political science, psychology, and management use the term "charisma" to describe a particular type of leader having "symbolic leader influence rooted in emotional and ideological foundations".
      The English term charisma is from the Greek χάρισμα khárisma, which means "favor freely given" or "gift of grace". The term and its plural χαρίσματα (charismata) derive from χάρις (charis), which means "grace".
      The meaning of charisma has become greatly diffused from its original divinely conferred meaning, and even from the personality charisma meaning in modern English dictionaries, which reduces to a mixture of charm and status.
      Cultural icons of the 20th century such as Marilyn Monroe are known as powerful sex symbols due to their popular charisma.
      Without any of the special privileges his celebrity status might have afforded him, he honorably served his country in the U.S. Army.
      His talent, good looks, sensuality, charisma, and good humor endeared him to millions, as did the humility and human kindness he demonstrated throughout his life.
      Known the world over by his first name, he is regarded as one of the most important figures of twentieth century popular culture.
      Elvis died at his Memphis home, Graceland, on August 16, 1977.
      Yes Virginia, there is such a thing as personal magnetism and charisma.
      Compare charisma, miasma, and plasma.
      v[IT] make or become bright or brighter
      When a light brightens a place or when a place brightens, it becomes brighter or lighter.
      The stage lights brightened to reveal a street scene.
      If the weather brightens, it becomes less cloudy or rainy, and the sun starts to shine.
      By the time I had got back, the weather had brightened up again so I put the camera on the tripod and set it up in the drive.
      If your eyes brighten, you suddenly look interested or excited.
      The pace gets faster, more coffee is poured, eyes brighten, laughs start, and pretty soon the whole place is humming and rattling like a cage full of happy finches chirping away.
      If someone brightens or their face brightens, they suddenly look happier.
      Ursula puts the box directly into Phoebe's hand. Phoebe brightens.
      If someone or something brightens a place, they make it more colourful and attractive.
      Filing system? Oh-oh! You mean those-those little colored labels you put on all the folders? It certainly did brighten up the inside of the filing cabinets.
      Oh, just some pictures I made and hung up. I thought they'd brighten up the place. They do, don't you think?
      If someone or something brightens a situation or the situation brightens, it becomes more pleasant, enjoyable, or favourable.
      At the same time, it would further brighten the prospect of e-commerce in the country.
      v[IT] travel about selling wares
      Someone who peddles things goes from place to place trying to sell them.
      Street hawkers have taken advantage of the traffic jams to peddle their wares.
      My business was called Annie's Originals. Pretty original huh? Anyway, I peddled the jumpers at local shops and an occasional craft show.
      If someone peddles an idea or a piece of information, they try very hard to get people to accept it.
      And yet the British peddle the idea that Indian nationalism is their gift to us.
      Yet Mann's own webpage continues to peddle the lie that he shared a Nobel Peace Prize.
      But both lies have been successfully peddled to us by the elites.
      Compare paddle, peddle, and puddle.
      n[s] skill at performing some special task
      Despite your best efforts to lock down Windows, some staff have an uncanny knack of creating problems when they use work-issued PCs for personal use.
      Like her mom and dad, she also had a knack for math and science.
      "Merrill Lynch?" "Yeah, I had a massage client who worked there and-and he said I had a knack for stocks."
      "Oh my God! You do a great Chandler!" "Uh-huh. Yeah I-I have a knack for impressions."
      "No, I mean, I, I, I got the money first." "Smart. Get paid up front. Yeah, I think you have a real knack for gigolo work, Leonard."
      v[I] move clumsily ¶ feel confused and not know what to say or do next ¶ experience difficulties and be likely to fail
      n[CU] a thin flat fish
      "You by the door. In or out?" "In." Monica joins in the dancing. She still flounders.
      'If she said to you, "Ross, I want you on this couch, right here, right now," what would you say?' Ross flounders.
      Meanwhile, the Canadian cheese industry began to flounder. Exports to its biggest market, the UK, dropped off in the '20s as the standard of living rose for the British worker, which meant families could afford more meat.
      Operators, banks and loyalty schemes in Singapore can now use a common API to interact using short-range radio tech Near Field Communications, while in Europe similar schemes continue to flounder.
      Flounder (比目鱼; 鲽) are a group of flatfish species. They are demersal fish found at the bottom of oceans around the world.
      The EU's harvest of cod, flounder, and redfish from 1986 to 1991 was five times the NAFO quota.
      adj kind and generous
      Benevolence means good will or disposition to do good.
      When I speak of the Deity, I refer to one omnipotent, benevolent, Supreme Creator.
      The Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association (CCBA) (traditional Chinese: 中華會館) is a historical Chinese Association established in various parts of the United States and Canada with large populations of Chinese.
      Welcome to the official website of the Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association, the oldest service organization in Chinatown established in 1883.
      The Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association (CCBA) is one of the oldest community organizations in Chinatown. The parent organization of the Chinese Community Center, the CCBA was founded in 1883 and has represented and served the needs of Chinese Americans in New York City ever since.
      The Royal Air Force Benevolent Fund (RAF Benevolent Fund or RAFBF) is the Royal Air Force's leading welfare charity, providing financial, practical and emotional support to serving and former members of the RAF - regardless of rank - as well as their partners and dependents.
      The Musicians' Benevolent Fund is a United Kingdom charity offering help and support to working and retired musicians, other professionals in the music industry, and their dependants.
      Comapre benign, benevolent, malicious, and malevolent.
      n[U] failure to give care or attention, esp when this causes harm or damage
      The bridge's architect was sued for criminal negligence.
      My wife accuses me of negligence unless I phone her every day.
      In this case, through the negligence of the defendant, ammonia fumes were released into the bakery.
      Unless damage is caused by the abuse or the negligence of the tenant, all structural and mechanical maintenance and repairs are typically the landlord's responsibility.
      The liability of the United States for the negligence of a Federal Reserve Bank employee depends, therefore, on whether the Bank is a federal agency under Sect. 2671.
      All this being said, there are precedents for awards (something, especially money, that is officially given to someone as a payment or after a legal decision) for damages to newborns with disabilities that result from the negligence of third parties.
      This case involved damage to a container of equipment admittedly caused by the negligence of the terminal operator.
      She says because of the negligence of the hospital, she's now sterile and has lost a daughter.
      Compare dereliction and negligence.
      v[T] cut up a dead body, a plant, etc in order to study its structure ¶ examine, analyze, or criticize in great detail
      Doctors in Alexandria dissected human bodies and they gained a much better knowledge of anatomy.
      Between 1752 and 1832 the Murder Act dictated that that the bodies those executed as murderers should either be delivered to the surgeons to be "dissected and anatomised" or hung in chains.
      Amy's lab. Amy is dissecting a brain.
      Typical bureaucratic nonsense. You can get animals addicted to a harmful substance, you can dissect their brains, but you throw their own faeces back at them and suddenly you're unprofessional.
      Vivisection (from Latin vivus, meaning "alive", and sectio, meaning "cutting") is surgery conducted for experimental purposes on a living organism, typically animals with a central nervous system, to view living internal structure.
      Within a few hundred words she is not only able to dissect the entire world economy but also goes one step further to outline the key shift between issues with "banking balance sheets" to those of governments.
      I'm not proposing today to dissect the history of the credit crunch.
      A credit crunch (also known as a credit squeeze or credit crisis) is a reduction in the general availability of loans (or credit) or a sudden tightening of the conditions required to obtain a loan from the banks.
      adj ≠active
      Hallasan, the tallest mountain in South Korea and a dormant volcano that rises 1,950 m above sea level and have 360 satellite volcanoes around the main volcano, is the central feature and attraction.
      While galaxies at the center of most clusters may have been dormant for billions of years, the central galaxy in this cluster seems to have come back to life with a new burst of star formation.
      The bacteria may remain within these walls for years - alive, but in a dormant state.
      Other than letting the data lie dormant in the company's member database, wouldn't it be nice if the company could do something to make your day more special to you?
      They have a bacillus in their lungs, but it is dormant.
      Compare dormant and hibernate.