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      adj happy and cheerful ¶ lively and enjoyable
      adv very
      "How could you not get it? You were Santa last year." "I don't know. Some fat guy's sleeping with the store manager. He's not even jolly, it's all political."
      "Hey, everybody! The bachelor boy has arrived! For he's a jolly good fellow-" "For he's a jolly good fellow, for he's a jolly good fellow, which nobody can deny."
      Oh, yes. We had a tree, we had a manger, we had an inflatable Santa Claus with plastic reindeer on the front lawn. And to make things even more jolly, there were so many blinking lights on the house they induced neighbourhood-wide seizures.
      "Splendid. So, please sit down. Can I offer you a sherry?" "Uh, a little early, isn't it?" "Not on Proxima Centauri." "That's very good. Jolly amusing, but if you don't mind, I'll hold off until sunset on Titan."
      He had a broad face and a little round belly, that shook when he laughed, like a bowl full of jelly. He was chubby and plump, a right jolly old elf, And I laughed when I saw him, in spite of myself; A wink of his eye and a twist of his head soon gave me to know I had nothing to dread.
      And so begins the destruction of jolly old England.
      n[C] an water plant with large white or pink flowers
      Nelumbo is a genus of aquatic plants with large, showy flowers. Members are commonly called lotus, though "lotus" is a name also applied various other plants and plant groups, including the unrelated genus Lotus.
      Members outwardly resemble those in the family Nymphaeaceae (water lilies), but Nelumbo is actually very distant to Nymphaeaceae.
      Lotus seeds or lotus nuts are the seeds of plants in the genus Nelumbo, particularly the species Nelumbo nucifera.
      The seeds are of great importance to East Asian cuisine and are used extensively in traditional Chinese medicine and in Chinese desserts.
      The seeds are most commonly sold in the shelled and dried form. Fresh lotus seeds are relatively uncommon in the market.
      The Lotus Position is a cross-legged sitting asana originating in meditative practices of ancient India, in which the feet are placed on the opposing thighs.
      Shiva, the meditating ascetic God of Hinduism, Siddhartha Gautama, the founder of Buddhism, and the Jinas of Jainism have been depicted in the lotus position.
      Lotus Cars is a British manufacturer of sports and racing cars, famous for its Esprit, Elan, Europa and Elise sports cars and for the highly successful Team Lotus in Formula 1.
      v[T] fill or make complete again ¶ add a new stock or supply to
      By drinking water you make sure you don't replenish the lost calories.
      You will need to replenish your body fluids by drinking water to activate your system.
      You shouldn't only drink water because it doesn't really replenish your body's needed salt and sugars.
      Adding multivitamins to your daily diet is beneficial to your recovery. Alcohol tends to suck out all the good vitamins in your body. Now is the time to replenish them.
      A healthy breakfast will not only replenish your energy stores but it will also reduce fatigue and lethargy.
      During his tenure, Prussia innovated agriculture by using potatoes and turnips to replenish the soil.
      The Defense Department expected to replenish the stock within 30 days.
      There the famished sailors gorged on sea birds and turtle eggs and replenished their supply of drinking water.
      Compare refill and replenish.
      n[C] a kind of small African ape
      Chimpanzees, sometimes colloquially chimps, are two extant hominid species of apes in the genus Pan.
      Chimpanzees are members of the family Hominidae, along with humans, gorillas, and orangutans.
      Chimpanzees split from the human branch of the family about four to six million years ago.
      Chimpanzees are the closest living relatives to humans, being members of the tribe Hominini (along with extinct species of subtribe Hominina).
      The male common chimp stands up to 1.2 m (3.9 ft) high and weighs as much as 70 kg (150 lb); the female is somewhat smaller.
      Chimpanzees make tools and use them to acquire foods and for social displays; they have sophisticated hunting strategies requiring cooperation, influence and rank; they are status conscious, manipulative and capable of deception; they can learn to use symbols and understand aspects of human language including some relational syntax, concepts of number and numerical sequence; and they are capable of spontaneous planning for a future state or event.
      Tarzan's primitivist philosophy was absorbed by countless fans, amongst whom was Jane Goodall, who describes the Tarzan series as having a major influence on her childhood.
      She states that she felt she would be a much better spouse for Tarzan than his fictional wife, Jane, and that when she first began to live among and study the chimpanzees she was fulfilling her childhood dream of living among the great apes just as Tarzan did.
      In his first appearance in King Kong (1933), Kong was a gigantic prehistoric ape, or as RKO's publicity materials described him, "A prehistoric type of ape." While gorilla-like in appearance, he had a vaguely humanoid look and at times walked upright in an anthropomorphic manner.
      Compare baboon, chimpanzee, and gibbon.
      adj,adv ~ drugs can be obtained without a prescription ¶ ~ business shares are ones that do not appear on an official stock exchange list
      Other substances such as over-the-counter medications or prescriptions may also affect sleep.
      Remember the names of all medicines you are currently taking, including both over-the-counter and prescription medication as well as any dietary supplements. It is important for your doctor to know this information in order to prescribe the medicine that will be the most helpful.
      The drug had been sold legally over-the-counter at stores and online.
      In the case of over-the-counter transactions, buyers can require the seller to disclose the credits origin.
      The over-the-counter derivatives market contracted for the second consecutive half-year period.
      v[IT] push roughly (against sb) ¶ compete with sb for sth
      Going across a narrow bridge at night, a mother fell to her death over the edge, jostled by the crowd.
      There is nowhere to play and school children out on their PE lessons have to jostle for space on the streets.
      "Sheldon, can I ask you a question? You ever gonna sleep with Amy?" "Well, word around the university is I'm giving her sex organs a proper jostling."
      It's a place to relax over a leisurely dinner with friends or even with a date - you won't have to jostle with people or raise your voice to make yourself heard over the noise of clinking cutlery, and the service is quite attentive too.
      You then start to jostle for status and position in the group, which is when bitching gets even worse.
      They jostle for position only to be re-jostled by others jostling for position.
      Compare jostle, shove, and thrust.
      n[U] impressive beauty, power, or size
      Once through the Meridian Gate, I am surrounded by a sea of humankind, with myriad accents and languages identifying visitors from all over China and the world beyond, but the grandeur of the place seems to need no translation.
      The Meridian Gate (simplified Chinese: 午门) is the southern (and largest) gate of the Forbidden City.
      You will travel the world alone, marveling at the beauty and grandeur of cities like Paris, Rome, Budapest, Prague, Berlin and London.
      MS Grandeur of the Seas is a Vision-class cruise ship operated by Royal Caribbean International.
      A ship prefix is a combination of letters, usually abbreviations, used in front of the name of a civilian or naval ship. M/S stands for "motor ship", M/V stands for "motor vessel" and S/S means "steam ship".
      Delusions of grandeur is the belief that you are much more important or powerful than you really are.
      Delusions range from paranoia to feelings of grandeur.
      Compare grandeur, magnificence, and splendour.
      v[I] return like for like, esp evil for evil
      If you retaliate when someone harms or annoys you, you do something which harms or annoys them in return.
      Joey is retaliating against Chandler hiding his underwear by wearing a whole bunch of clothes.
      It is against the law for anyone to retaliate against someone who reports abuse in a long-term care home.
      Tall, ebony warriors watched our passage from their canoes, affronted by the intrusion, yet not daring to retaliate.
      Meanwhile, Hamas has promised to retaliate with suicide bombers after Israel knocked out most of their long-range rockets in airstrikes.
      Compare avenge, retaliate, and revenge.
      v[T] spread to and be perceived in every part of sth
      It's a theme that pervades the story of each of these women's rise in their careers.
      Chi is a mystical energy that pervades the universe in mysterious ways.
      The spiral arms are believed to be regions where the interstellar medium, the thin gas and dust which pervades the galaxy, is slightly denser than average.
      The author traces the beginnings of the ennui that pervaded the post war period, the death of Victorian concepts like honour and gallantry - all shattered in the rat-infested trenches of France and Belgium.
      Compare pervade and prevail.
      v[I] engage in a petty, bad-tempered quarrel, squabble
      Mr. Chairman, all the bickering and the resignations and the artful propaganda that has been thrown around the monetary policy of Franklin D. Roosevelt can not disguise the fact that he was selected by the international bankers to carry on the work they started with the great depression.
      Tom was raised by uncaring, bickering, alcoholic parents, who fostered his fear of intimacy.
      I had been on my own as a single mom for 10 years. I was used to the kid's constant presence, bickering, the odd bump, bruises and occasional tears.
      Initially, up till the Season 5, we saw contestants flirting, bickering, dancing vulgarly and even faking romance on the screen for publicity.
      I am tired of the nit-picking, bickering, and negativity.
      n[C] a well-known phrase or saying
      A saying is any concisely written or spoken linguistic expression that is especially memorable because of its meaning or structure.
      Aphorism - A saying that contains a general, observational truth. A well-known example is "Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely."
      Maxim or gnome - (1) A instructional saying about a general principle or rule for behavior; or, simply, (2) an aphorism. For example, "neither a borrower nor a lender be".
      Motto - A saying used frequently by an individual person or group to concisely state their general outlook or intentions.
      A canting motto is one that contains word play. For example, the motto of the Earl of Onslow is Festina lente, punningly interpreting on-slow (literally "make haste slowly").
      Compare fable, idiom, moral, motto, moxim, and proverb.
      The Best 100 Maxims from Benjamin Franklin's "Poor Richard's Almanack": http://www.rightattitudes.com/2011/01/17/inspirational-quotations-359/
      Diligence overcomes Difficulties, Sloth makes them.
      No gains without pains.
      The Proud hate Pride - in others.
      God helps them that help themselves.
      Speak little, do much.
      Would you persuade, speak of Interest, not of Reason.
      Diligence is the mother of good luck.
      Don't throw stones at your neighbours, if your own windows are glass.
      An empty bag will not stand upright.
      A promise between friends means never having to give a reason. - Phoebe Buffay - http://www.soncp.com/afs/a15.html
      Maxim is an international men's magazine, devised and launched in the UK, but now based in New York, and prominent for its photography of actresses, singers, and female models whose careers are at a current peak.
      v[I] echo or resound repeatedly
      The roar of the train reverberated in the tunnel.
      The narrow street reverberated with the sound of the workmen's drills.
      It is a poem that poignantly still reverberates in my mind.
      And so the backlash of the Libyan Civil War begins to reverberate around North Africa, just how NATO would have wanted.
      The sex scandal that destroyed the career of former CIA director David Petraeus continues to reverberate in Washington.
      Whilst the film is reported to stand apart from The Avengers, it is likely that there will be some plot threads sown in Iron Man 3 which will reverberate through the rest of the series.
      Compare resonance, reverberate, and vibrate.
      v[T] treat sb as an inferior ¶ use or visit a shop, restaurant etc ¶ support or give money to an organization or activity
      I find it both insulting and patronizing.
      So condescending and patronizing.
      You don't have to be polite and patronizing.
      I'm not trying to be harsh, patronizing, or insulting in this email.
      Between the two divisions there was considerable hostility, the elder trying to patronize the younger, the younger refusing to respect the elder.
      Stunning lobby. Did not have the chance to patronize the hotel restaurants - so can offer no opinion...
      He was helped and patronized by local artisans.
      Mark was supported, admired, and patronized by Queen Anne.
      Also, during her tenure many top-grade culprits working against the interest of India and patronized by Pakistan got safe asylum in Bangladesh.
      Though the king treated Bartholomew well he chose not to patronize the project.
      Compare condescend and patronize.
      v[I] fall back into a previous condition or a worse state after making an improvement
      also a noun
      "He goes back into rehab?" "Yes, but, he can relapse if Penny ever invites us to hear her sing again."
      They are all concerned that he is going to relapse and head back to rehab.
      No waiting period if there's a relapse of illness within 180 days of recovery.
      A relapse of pneumonia symptoms was not observed in any of the other patients in the postoperative follow-up.
      Former Collingwood coach Mick Malthouse says he did not recruit Ben Cousins in 2008 because he was warned of a relapse.
      We don't know for sure what makes some young people more likely than others to have a relapse.
      Compare collapse, elapse, regress, rehabilitate, relapse, and revert.
      adj brief
      On Wednesday afternoon - after issuing a statement publicly admitting to having a fling with her "Snow White and the Huntsman" director Rupert Sanders and telling her boyfriend of three years that she was "so sorry" for her "momentary indiscretion," the 22-year-old actress emerged in the L.A. streets looking tearful and run-down.
      She steps back, there is a momentary pause as her body, almost immobile, gathers momentum and then moves gracefully into a somersault.
      "But I couldn't even if I wanted to, because I don't know! I swear; I didn't see anything, and I don't wanna know! It was just a momentary lapse." "Momentary lapse. Don't-don't you have any self-control?"
      Life is but a momentary glimpse of the wonder of the astonishing universe.
      Compare commentary, complementary, complimentary, documentary, elementary, fragmentary, momentary, parliamentary, rudimentary, and sedimentary.
      v[T] prepare dough or clay by pressing it continuously ¶ massage firmly
      Use clean wet hands to knead the butter for about 5 minutes.
      Fold the marzipan into a ball and begin to knead the colour throughout the dough, adding more food colouring if desired.
      After it has been resting for about 15 to 20 minutes we're going to knead the dough one more time quickly.
      When all the butter is in, turn up the speed and knead for at least 6 minutes, until the dough is very smooth, shiny, unsticky, elastic and comes away from the sides of the bowl perfectly.
      A rolling pin is a cylindrical food preparation utensil used to shape and flatten dough. Two styles of rolling pins are found; roller and rods.
      Rod: Thin rods typically made of wood around 2–3 cm in diameter. They are used by rolling the rod across the dough using one's palm.
      "Say goodbye to sore muscles!" "Goodbye muscles!"
      n[C] a flexible, mobile, elongated organ present in some species of animals
      Cuttlefish have large, W-shaped pupils, eight arms, and two tentacles furnished with denticulated suckers, with which they secure their prey.
      Squid, like cuttlefish, have eight arms arranged in pairs and two, usually longer, tentacles.
      The arms of octopuses are often distinguished from the pair of feeding tentacles found in squid and cuttlefish.
      Living abalone in tank showing epipodium and tentacles, anterior end to the right.
      Front view of land snail showing upper and lower sets of tentacles.
      Compare antenna, tentacle and testicle.
      If you talk about the tentacles of a political, commercial, or social organization, you are referring to the power and influence that it has in the outside community.
      The tentacles of this new economic reality could stretch over decades.
      Lightweight programming models have done little to help users to take control of their data, but rather have enabled the tentacles of the social network site behemoths to expand their control of the web.
      v[T] oppress or harass with ill-treatment, esp because of race, religion, gender, sexual orientation, or beliefs
      The Puritans of the Massachusetts Bay Colony were the most active of the New England persecutors of Quakers, and the persecuting spirit was shared by the Plymouth Colony and the colonies along the Connecticut river.
      The Puritans were a group of English Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries, including, but not limited to, English Calvinists.
      In modern times, the word 'puritan' is often used to mean 'against pleasure'. Historically, the word was used pejoratively to characterize the Protestant group as extremists.
      Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
      Quakers (or Friends, as they refer to themselves) are members of a family of religious movements collectively known as the Religious Society of Friends.
      The Netherlands granted asylum to persecuted religious minorities, e.g. French Huguenots, English Independents (Congregationalists), and Jews from Spain and Portugal.
      Nelson Mandela and seven others were persecuted for being anti-apartheids.
      "Whuh-ah! Woah! You can't talk about that, either, Dr. Cooper. Your language is entirely inappropriate, and I'm gonna advise that you shut your mouth right now." "I, I don't see why I'm the one being persecuted here. Dr. Hofstadter, he was bragging about his sexual desirability to anyone who would listen."
      Compare persecute and prosecute.
      n[U] a type of grain that is used for making bread and whisky
      Rye is a grass grown extensively as a grain, a cover crop and as a forage crop. It is closely related to barley and wheat.
      Rye grain is used for flour, rye bread, rye beer, crisp bread, some whiskeys, some vodkas, and animal fodder.
      Rye is a cereal grain and should not be confused with ryegrass, which is used for lawns, pasture, and hay for livestock.
      Rye is grown primarily in Eastern, Central and Northern Europe.
      Forage is plant material (mainly plant leaves and stems) eaten by grazing livestock. Fodder refers particularly to food given to the animals (including plants cut and carried to them), rather than that which they forage for themselves.
      A cover crop is a crop planted primarily to manage soil erosion, soil fertility, soil quality, water, weeds, pests, diseases, biodiversity and wildlife in an agroecosystem.
      v[T] kill violently ¶ amuse sb a lot
      The blood of this sacrifice sprinkled on the door-posts of the Israelites was to be a sign to God, when passing through the land to slay the first-born of the Egyptians that night, that he should pass by the houses of the Israelites.
      Far be it from Thee to (You certainly would not) do such a thing, to slay the righteous with the wicked, so that the righteous and the wicked are treated alike.
      "Okay, I bought the game and I've been exploring the lsland of Tortage. But I can't figure out how to pass the guard captain." "Do you have an enchanted sword?" "No no, I've a bronze dagger." "You can't slay the guard captain with a bronze dagger. Lord, it's like the car key in your apartment door all over again."
      Buffy the Vampire Slayer is a 1992 American action/comedy horror film about a Valley girl cheerleader named Buffy who learns that it is her fate to hunt vampires.
      Honey, you know I think you're hilarious! Come on, you know that joke you told me last week? The one about Jerry Lewis and the girl with the lazy eye? That slayed me.
      Compare butcher, kill, slaughter, and slay.
      n[C] a thick piece of sth ¶ a strong and sexually attractive man
      I can melt chocolate, make oatmeal, or braise a hunk of meat, and I only very rarely burn something.
      This isn't just a case of cutting the moldy corners off a hunk of cheese and putting new plastic wrap over it.
      I like simple and quick so for lunch I combine mixed salad leafs with a hunk of iceberg lettuce and other bits (radishes, chopped carrots etc) for lunch every day.
      It is for those reasons that the automakers focus so much attention on their crash and safety ratings because at the end of the day that's just a hunk of metal that can be replaced but a human life is so much more.
      One of the worst things that we can encounter when we purchase a car is a defect, especially the kind that can turn our new ride into a hunk of junk.
      The Hulk is a fictional superhero that appears in comic books published by Marvel Comics.
      Kwon Sang-Woo is not only a publicly recognized hunk, he is also in great shape.
      v[T] make sb inclined to sth in advance
      If something predisposes someone to think or behave in a particular way, it makes it likely that they will think or behave in that way.
      Some of the things that humans are predisposed to be afraid of (and that often become the target of phobias) include snakes, spiders, birds of prey, dogs, reptiles, and heights.
      If something predisposes someone to a disease or illness, it makes it likely that they will suffer from that disease or illness.
      Diabetes predisposes patients to infections.
      There are subgroups of individuals who appear to be predisposed to the development of this complication.
      Stress can predispose people to heart attacks.
      The inhabitants are predisposed to rheumatism by the damp climate.
      Compare disposition, inclination, predispose, and temperament.
      adj insignificant
      Japan's average daily soy intake is 29.5g, whereas in the U. S. it is negligible. Japan's breast cancer death rate is 6 per 100,000 people, and the U. S. rate is 22.4 per 100,000.
      The overall economic impact of implementing paid sick leave is negligible.
      This means CO2 is virtually no GHG (Greenhouse Gas), its effect is estimated to be negligible.
      Geithner considers these tax cuts for the wealthiest Americans one of the weakest ways to stimulate economic growth, arguing that tax cuts at that level have a negligible effect on household spending.
      Wind farms use a negligible amount of water when operating, and very moderate amounts during construction.
      A wind farm or wind park is a group of wind turbines in the same location used to produce electricity.
      The Gansu Wind Farm in China is the largest wind farm in the world, with a target capacity of 20,000 MW by 2020.
      Compare neglect, negligible, and trivial.
      v[T] void or annul by recalling, withdrawing, or reversing
      We reserve the right to revoke the free use of any materials hosted on our website, including these maps.
      Once made, this election can not be revoked.
      Australian citizenship may be revoked by the Minister for Immigration and Citizenship.
      The licence can be revoked by the licensor at any time simply by giving notice to the licensee.
      The Archives will revoke your permission if we consider you are damaging records in the process of photographing them, or failing to comply with other conditions you have undertaken to meet.
      Well, I can't give you a massage, because my license's been revoked again!
      God. I forgot how much I love driving. I've got to get my license renewed.
      Yes! You know, in six months the statute of limitations runs out and I can travel internationally again!
      Penny, I am very, very sorry for what I have done. Here's your laundry. I rescind your strikes and you are no longer banished.
      Oh, man, did the KISS Army repeal "don't ask, don't tell"?
      I also have all 61 episodes of the BBC series Red Dwarf and Fiddle-Faddle. All yours if you're willing to reinstate the roommate agreement.
      Compare evoke, invoke, provoke, and revoke.
      adj done or kept secret
      He suspected that she had had a clandestine affair with his bodyguard.
      The United States Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms defines "clandestine operation" as "An operation sponsored or conducted by governmental departments or agencies in such a way as to assure secrecy or concealment. A clandestine operation differs from a covert operation in that emphasis is placed on concealment of the operation rather than on concealment of the identity of the sponsor. In special operations, an activity may be both covert and clandestine and may focus equally on operational considerations and intelligence-related activities."
      It revolves around a clandestine operation that includes deception, subterfuge and playing on the weaknesses of the enemy target.
      A former officer in the Clandestine Service stated that books are "the most important weapon of strategic (long-range) propaganda."
      We want our public authorities to protect us from such dangers, and if they need to use the latest technology in a clandestine manner to do so, then so be it.
      Secrecy (also called clandestinity or furtiveness) is the practice of hiding information from certain individuals or groups, perhaps while sharing it with other individuals.