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      n[UC] fog that has become mixed and polluted with smoke
      Smog is a type of air pollutant. The word "smog" was made in the early 20th century as a portmanteau of the words smoke and fog to refer to smoky fog.
      The word was then intended to refer to what was sometimes known as pea soup fog, a familiar and serious problem in London from the 19th century to the mid 20th century.
      This kind of smog is caused by the burning of large amounts of coal within a city; this smog contains soot particulates from smoke, sulfur dioxide and other components.
      Modern smog, as found for example in Los Angeles, is a type of air pollution derived from vehicular emission from internal combustion engines and industrial fumes that react in the atmosphere with sunlight to form secondary pollutants that also combine with the primary emissions to form photochemical smog.
      In certain other cities, such as Delhi, smog severity is often aggravated by stubble burning in neighboring agricultural areas.
      The atmospheric pollution levels of Los Angeles, Beijing, Delhi, Mexico City and other cities are increased by inversion that traps pollution close to the ground.
      It is usually highly toxic to humans and can cause severe sickness, shortened life or death.
      Smog in New York City as viewed from the World Trade Center in 1988
      v[T] replace
      Is China destined to supplant the United States as the world's economic powerhouse, or will political repression and wealth inequality burst its bubble?
      In North America, the manufacturing sector has largely been supplanted by a service-sector economy.
      This Hindu tradition, along with Islamic law, was supplanted by the common law when India became part of the British Empire.
      Traditional print and paper textbooks are being supplanted by interactive textbooks available on tablets which enable text to be animated by the use of video, for example to bring scientific experiments to life.
      Quality is sacrificed to commerce and truthful communication is supplanted by marketing.
      v[T] destroy sb's belief in or good opinion of sb/sth
      also a noun
      A series of events leads Julie to become disillusioned with Asia and the influence Western consumerism was having on their traditional values.
      Later in the war he became disillusioned with many journalists, yet remained staunch in his belief in press freedom.
      Once an ardent Blairite, his career had already stalled when, disillusioned, he resigned at the end of July.
      Sorry to disillusion you, but currently the US economy is propped up by a trillion US Dollars from China.
      In the UK, there is considerable disillusion with the EU with its ever increasing budgetary demands and the major problems with the single currency.
      n[U] an honest and brave way of behaving that people admire ¶ aristocracy
      Many admirers have dwelt fondly on his nobility of bearing and impeccable manners.
      When King Udena regained his equilibrium and saw the miracle that his arrow could not harm Samavati, he was deeply moved. He asked her forgiveness and was even more convinced of her nobility and faithfulness.
      Nobility is a social class that possesses more acknowledged privileges or eminence than most other classes in a society, membership thereof typically being hereditary.
      The privileges associated with nobility may constitute substantial advantages over or relative to non-nobles, or may be largely honorary (e.g., precedence), and vary from country to country and era to era.
      Historically, membership of the nobility and the prerogatives thereof have been regulated or acknowledged by the monarch or government, thereby distinguishing it from other sectors of a nation's upper class.
      Nonetheless, nobility per se has rarely constituted a closed caste; acquisition of sufficient power, wealth, military prowess or royal favour has, occasionally or often, enabled commoners to ascend into the nobility.
      v[I] squat, crouch
      If you hunker down, you bend your knees so that you are in a low position, balancing on your feet.
      I was forced to hunker down in a cozy corner of the train station for an uncomfortable nights sleep.
      If you hunker down, you prepare yourself for a difficult situation.
      I wasn't prepared to hunker down and do the work.
      Many people had been with me for years. I decided to hunker down and keep my staff.
      Ditto for law enforcement, since odds are that a pandemic will be YOYO (You're on your own!) time. You'll need to get your beans, bullets, and Band-Aids squared away, pronto. Most important, you'll need to be prepared to hunker down for three or four months, with minimal outside contact.
      v[T] enclose in or as if in a case
      Sitting at the centre of the exclusion zone, the damaged reactor unit is encased in a steel and cement sarcophagus.
      The reddish brown pupa is encased in a loosely netted cocoon.
      The Sony Xperia S has a stonking HD screen with a higher pixel density than the iPhone 4S. However, all this is encased in a plasticky slab that lets it down.
      Under the direction of physician James Conant, Thomas was encased in a plaster cast, to be left on for a year in order to shrink the bone and stop the spread of the disease.
      Within twenty minutes, I was wearing the most ridiculous outfit I had ever worn in my life. I was encased in a slinky, red satin, full-length gown that was backless and cut very low in the front.
      Which plastic gadget, fitting neatly in one hand, can most quickly improve the lives of the world's poorest people?
      For the past decade the answer has been clear: the mobile phone.
      But over the next decade it will be the solar-powered lamp, made up of a few light-emitting diodes (LEDs), a solar panel and a small rechargeable battery, encased in a durable plastic shell.
      Compare encase and in case.
      adj against the law, illegal ¶ born out of wedlock
      A ruler is legitimate only in so far as he upholds the law. A ruler that violates the law is illegitimate.
      In 1747 Hutton fathered an illegitimate child.
      George believes he is the illegitimate son of former Prime Minister John Diefenbaker.
      Mircea died in 1418 and left behind a number of illegitimate children.
      v[IT] pull a plant and its roots out of the ground ¶ force sb out of the place where they live
      Each stem even including small ones, should be cut to as near ground level as possible. Any layered stems should be uprooted and detached.
      It is alleged that the main aim to establish the BGB camp is nothing but to uproot the indigenous villagers from their ancestral land.
      The Palestinian revolution's basic concern is the uprooting of the Zionist entity from our land and liberating it.
      It is easy to devour fire and drink the waters of the ocean. It is easy to uproot the Himalayas. But, it is difficult to eradicate lust.
      They invariably get out of control and go to seed. Just like sin, it's best to uproot and eradicate weeds at the very first sign.
      adj calm and controlled ¶ having a mild temperature
      I have the reputation of a temperate and law-abiding citizen.
      In geography, temperate or tepid latitudes of Earth lie between the tropics and the polar regions. The temperatures in these regions are generally relatively moderate, rather than extremely hot or cold, and the changes between summer and winter are also usually moderate.
      The north temperate zone extends from the Tropic of Cancer (approximately 23.5° north latitude) to the Arctic Circle (approximately 66.5° north latitude).
      The south temperate zone extends from the Tropic of Capricorn (approximately 23.5° south latitude) to the Antarctic Circle (at approximately 66.5° south latitude).
      The temperate climate zone is normally divided into two types of climates.
      Temperate Continental climates (which include arid climates within the Temperate zone), are normally located between 35 or 40 and 55 north latitude on the eastern side or interior of the large landmasses in Asia, Europe, and North America (no Temperate Continental climates occur in the southern Hemisphere).
      Temperate Oceanic Climates are normally located between 45 and 58 north latitude on the west sides or west coastal areas of the large landmasses in Asia, Europe, North America, extreme South America, and South Island, New Zealand.
      In the tropics, the decline was 60 percent, but in temperate regions, there was an increase of 30 percent.
      n[U] great skill or style
      v[T] do sth with a lot of skill or style ¶ deal with sth in a way that is clever but slightly dishonest
      His performance has range and finesse.
      In some leagues, basketball is a sport of speed, coordination, power, amazing skill, and finesse.
      I found the action scenes boring and unimaginative. They seemed to be choreographed and executed with all the finesse of a child banging two Transformers toys together on the kitchen floor.
      More so, his closest companions, Abu Bakr and Umar were recognized for their abilities, nobility, skills, and finesse.
      We often use honesty to avoid the hard work of handling a difficult situation with finesse and intelligence.
      There is no doubt that Sally Pearson has natural gifts on the track, but these had to be identified and finessed before she could achieve Olympic gold.
      Even if a dessert isn't of French origin, once it passes into the hands of the French, you can be sure it will be finessed and turned into a glorious swan.
      Courts that dissented were vilified. Laws that were inconvenient were changed, finessed or ignored.
      n[U] an untidy or confused state
      also a verb
      What a muddle of poor logic and misrepresentation this article is.
      I had spent the preceding week in a bit of a muddle.
      If you muddle along/on something, you continue doing it without having any clear plan or purpose, or without having enough help or support.
      My view is that the elites will continue to muddle along with these ad hoc measures and the ECB will continue to keep the system from the brink of collapse.
      The European Central Bank (ECB) is the central bank for the euro and administers monetary policy of the Eurozone, which consists of 19 EU member states and is one of the largest currency areas in the world
      If you muddle through something, you succeed in doing it with difficulty, or not in a very satisfactory way.
      Of course there's risk of injury. But somehow, almost all people manage to muddle through a bicycle ride, or even a year's worth of bicycle rides, without being killed or severly injured.
      A muddler is a bartender's tool, used like a pestle to mash—or muddle—fruits, herbs, and/or spices in the bottom of a glass to release their flavor.
      Muddling spoons are not the same as muddlers, though both are used to make mixed (typically) alcoholic drinks.
      Compare meddle and muddle.
      No-no-no! I can't get myself right out of them! You must have me confused with The Amazing Chandler! Come on, you have to unlock me, she could be gone for hours, and I'm cold.
      adj likely to make you healthy
      The key to Ikarian longevity is not simply a healthful diet.
      The physical domain focuses on the ability to exercise properly, to eat a healthful diet, and to avoid high-risk behaviors.
      Eating bananas (along with other fruits and vegetables) is an important part of a healthful diet.
      We also counsel moderate exercise as part of a healthful lifestyle.
      The Kids' Safe and Healthful Foods Project, a collaboration between the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and The Pew Charitable Trusts, provides nonpartisan analysis and evidence-based recommendations on policies that affect the safety and healthfulness of school foods.
      In Oposa vs. Factoran (1993), the Supreme Court held that the right to a balanced and healthful ecology is a fundamental legal right that carries with it the correlative duty to refrain from impairing the environment.
      n[U] tiny drops of moisture condensed on cool surfaces from water vapor in the air
      Dew is water in the form of droplets that appears on thin, exposed objects in the morning or evening due to condensation.
      As the exposed surface cools by radiating its heat, atmospheric moisture condenses at a rate greater than that at which it can evaporate, resulting in the formation of water droplets.
      When temperatures are low enough, dew takes the form of ice; this form is called frost.
      Because dew is related to the temperature of surfaces, in late summer it forms most easily on surfaces that are not warmed by conducted heat from deep ground, such as grass, leaves, railings, car roofs, and bridges.
      Dew should not be confused with guttation, which is the process by which plants release excess water from the tips of their leaves.
      The dew point is the temperature at which the water vapor in a sample of air at constant barometric pressure condenses into liquid water at the same rate at which it evaporates.
      Mountain Dew (currently stylized as Mtn Dew in the United States) is a carbonated soft drink brand produced and owned by PepsiCo.
      They drink very little, but eat at night when it is cooler and the plants are wet with dew.
      adj all-powerful
      Almighty is an Abrahamic term for God.
      The Almighty Allah has accepted your repentance.
      Let their own eyes see their destruction, and let them drink of the wrath of the Almighty.
      Almighty dollar is an idiom often used to satirize an individual or cultural obsession with material wealth, or with capitalism in general. The phrase implies that money is a kind of deity.
      All money go my home, all money go my home.
      Compare almighty, mighty, impotent, and omnipotent.
      n[C] an act intended to deceive or trick
      also a verb
      A hoax is a deliberately fabricated falsehood made to masquerade as truth.
      The English philologist Robert Nares (1753–1829) says that the word hoax was coined in the late 18th century as a contraction of the verb hocus, which means "to cheat", "to impose upon" or "to befuddle often with drugged liquor".
      Hocus is a shortening of the magic incantation hocus pocus. Hocus Pocus or hocus-pocus is a generic term that may be derived from an ancient language and is currently used by magicians, usually the magic words spoken when bringing about some sort of change.
      Bippity-boppity-boo is a song introduced in the 1950 film Cinderella.
      A hoax is an attempt to trick an audience into believing that something false is real. Since Wikipedia is an "encyclopedia anyone can edit", it can be abused to create hoaxes.
      NASA has not carried anyone to the moon and back. The moon landings fairy tale is a hoax.
      None of the moon hoaxers can provide any evidence to suggest that the missions were hoaxed.
      Obama is the greatest hoax ever perpetrated on the American people.
      A story which suggested that users of Internet Explorer have a lower IQ than people who chose other browsers appears to have been an elaborate hoax.
      adj relating to farming or farmers
      Agrarian means pertaining to agriculture, farmland, or rural areas.
      An agrarian society (or agricultural society) is any society whose economy is based on producing and maintaining crops and farmland.
      Another way to define an agrarian society is by seeing how much of a nation’s total production is in agriculture.
      In an agrarian society cultivating the land is the primary source of wealth.
      Bangladesh has an agrarian economy with 22.83% of GDP coming from the agriculture.
      While disappointed with the progress of agrarian reform, Stdile claims that, "only the strength of millions of mobilized, politically aware Brazilians will help the government to face those powerful interests and change the current economic model. We are hopeful."
      adj weak, or not effective/good
      I lay down upon the ground half dead until the sun appeared; then, though I was very feeble, both by reason of my hard labour and want of food, I crept along to look for some herbs fit to eat.
      My calves liver didn't really inspire me. It was a little feeble in taste and portions.
      How do you think people would feel about Prince Joey, the king's feeble minded (stupid or not sensible) but well-meaning cousin?
      There is something feeble and contemptible about a man who can not face the perils of life.
      The Qur'an is also one uneducated man's (Muhammad) feeble attempt to piece together Christian and Jewish theology.
      This is nothing more than a feeble excuse.
      Who said you had to go to the gym to exercise? How often do we give the feeble response, "But I don't have time!"
      v[IT] walk with heavy or noisy steps ¶ walk slowly for a long distance
      n[C] the sound of sb's heavy steps ¶ a long walk ¶ a woman who has many sexual partners
      Feigenbaum, who was supposed to have lost his gardening job on Long Island in late July or early August of 1894, said that he had tramped through the country side doing odd jobs and, upon arriving in New York City, was sleeping rough on the benches in Tompkins Square Park, only a block from the Hoffman's apartment.
      He lost his job and tramped the streets when work was hard to find.
      When I was a child, my family and I tramped into the bush to dig over the abandoned sites of old gold mines.
      A Tramp Abroad is a work of travel literature, including a mixture of autobiography and fictional events, by American author Mark Twain, published in 1880. The book details a journey by the author, with his friend Harris, through central and southern Europe.
      "Well why not? So you can spend your time with this tramp?!" "Tramp?!" "I'm sorry. Dr. Green, Mona. Mona, Dr. Green."
      n[C] sb who believes that one sex is weaker, less intelligent, or less important than the other
      also an adjective
      Sexism or gender discrimination is prejudice or discrimination based on a person's sex or gender.
      Sexism affects men and women, but especially women.
      It has been linked to stereotypes and gender roles, and may include the belief that one sex or gender is intrinsically superior to another.
      Extreme sexism may foster sexual harassment, rape and other forms of sexual violence.
      If they do so because they think a female's point of view is not worthwhile because she is a female, then that is sexist.
      Yeah, what is that? Like, some kind of guy thing? Like, some kind of sexist guy thing? Like it's poker, so only guys can play?
      Last night at work, Geoffrey told this really sexist joke. After that, not so funny anymore.
      I think that's incredibly sexist of you. I believe in a gender-blind society like in Star Trek, where women and men of all races and creeds work side by side as equals.
      A misogynist is a woman hater, not someone who is sexist.
      Compare racist, rapist, and sexist.
      n[C] the wife of one's father and not one's natural mother
      Snow White's evil stepmother wasn't given a name, she was just called the Queen in both the Disney movie and original story.
      The young prince struck up an affair with his stepmother.
      Earlier today, when the girl saw her stepmother, she was so terrified that she cried and ran away.
      I'm the stepmother of four great kids.
      v[T] raise in rank, character, or status, elevate ¶ glorify, honor, praise
      According to the Book of Acts, Acts 2:33, after Jesus' resurrection and ascension, he was "exalted to the right hand of God."
      The LORD says to my Lord: "Sit at my right hand until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet."
      In the Bible, the "right hand" is the special place of honour.
      All praise is due to Allah The Exalted, and may Allah raise the rank of our beloved Prophet Muhammad.
      Surely Prof Chubb will not be in the exalted position for much longer if he continues to speak such heresy as requiring actual evidence for man-made global warming.
      adj ≠well-mannered ¶ shocking or intended to shock people through mild indecency
      Time-out (also known as social exclusion) is a form of behavioural modification that involves temporarily separating a child from an environment where unwanted behavior occurred.
      In the UK, the punishment is often known as the naughty chair or naughty step. This term became popular in the US thanks to two reality TV series, Supernanny and Nanny 911.
      The Naughty Step technique was first issued in The Bailey Family. A child sits or stands on a step for 1 minute per year depending on their age, then apologizes.
      "Well, how about this year, instead of Santa, we have fun celebrating Hanukkah?" "No Santa? Was I bad?"
      You can describe books, pictures, or words, as naughty when they are slightly rude or related to sex.
      Mr. Zelner even enjoys a naughty limerick now and then.
      Yeah, he's really great though. He has this incredible zest for life, and he treats me like a queen, except at night when he treats me like the naughty girl I am.
      You know what hell honey? Guys are just different. They like things that we can't understand. You know, I once dated this guy who wanted to pretend that he was an archeologist and that I was this naughty cave woman who he unfroze from a block of ice.
      n[U] a set of psychological and psychotherapeutic theories and associated techniques
      Psychoanalysis is a set of psychological and psychotherapeutic theories and associated techniques, created by Austrian physician Sigmund Freud and stemming partly from the clinical work of Josef Breuer and others.
      Since then, psychoanalysis has expanded and been revised and developed in different directions.
      Some of Freud's colleagues and students, such as Alfred Adler and Carl Gustav Jung, went on to develop their own ideas independently.
      Freud insisted on retaining the term psychoanalysis for his school of thought, and Adler and Jung accepted this.
      Under the broad umbrella of psychoanalysis there are at least 22 theoretical orientations regarding human mental development.
      The various approaches in treatment called "psychoanalysis" vary as much as the theories do. The term also refers to a method of analysing child development.
      Freudian psychoanalysis refers to a specific type of treatment in which the "analysand" (analytic patient) verbally expresses his thoughts, including free associations, fantasies, and dreams, from which the analyst induces the unconscious conflicts causing the patient's symptoms and character problems, and interprets them for the patient to create insight for resolution of the problems.
      n[UC] natural ability or skill, esp in learning
      An aptitude is a component of a competency to do a certain kind of work at a certain level, which can also be considered "talent".
      Aptitudes may be physical or mental.
      Aptitude is not developed knowledge, understanding, learned or acquired abilities (skills) or attitude.
      The innate nature of aptitude is in contrast to achievement, which represents knowledge or ability that is gained through learning.
      Aptitude and intelligence quotient are related, and in some ways differing views of human mental ability.
      Whereas intelligence quotient sees intelligence as being a single measurable characteristic affecting all mental ability, aptitude often refers to one of many different characteristics which can be independent of each other, such as aptitude for military flight, air traffic control, or computer programming.
      A test or examination (informally, exam) is an assessment intended to measure a test-taker's knowledge, skill, aptitude, physical fitness, or classification in many other topics (e.g., beliefs).
      Compare apt and aptitude.
      adj turning around a fixed point
      n[C] roundabout
      A traffic circle is a type of intersection that directs both turning and through traffic onto a one-way circular roadway, usually built for the purposes of traffic calming or aesthetics.
      In the United States, traffic engineers typically use the term rotary for large scale circular junctions between expressways or controlled-access highways.
      A rotary dial is a component of a telephone or a telephone switchboard that implements a signaling technology in telecommunications known as pulse dialing.
      On the rotary dial, the digits are arranged in a circular layout so that a finger wheel may be rotated with one finger from the position of each digit to a fixed stop position, implemented by the finger stop, which is a mechanical barrier to prevent further rotation.
      A rotorcraft or rotary-wing aircraft is a heavier-than-air flying machine that uses lift generated by wings, called rotary wings or rotor blades, that revolve around a mast.
      Rotorcraft generally include those aircraft where one or more rotors are required to provide lift throughout the entire flight, such as helicopters, cyclocopters, autogyros, and gyrodynes.
      Rotation around a fixed axis is a special case of rotational motion. The fixed axis hypothesis excludes the possibility of an axis changing its orientation, and cannot describe such phenomena as wobbling or precession.