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      adj opposite to
      n[s] the opposite
      v[I] talk
      In logic, the converse of a categorical or implicational statement is the result of reversing its two parts. For the implication P → Q, the converse is Q → P.
      We here see that the mere act of crossing two distinct plants does not by itself benefit the offspring. This case is almost the converse of that in the last paragraph, on which the offspring profited so greatly by a cross with a fresh stock.
      A stock is a thick part of a stem onto which another plant can be added so that the two plants grow together.
      If Paul Ginsberg purchases one hundred shares of Ace Manufacturing stock at $1 per share and Ace Manufacturing goes bankrupt owing creditors millions of dollars, Ginsberg's loss is limited to the $100 purchase price that he originally paid for the shares. The converse is also true. If Ginsberg declares bankruptcy and owes creditors thousands of dollars, Ace Manufacturing Company is not liable and the creditors can claim only the one hundred shares of stock.
      English is a gateway to the past, present and future. Maths and science may be mastered via English but the converse is not true.
      Ross goes towards Charlie, who's conversing with a fellow paleontologist, and touches her shoulder to get her attention.
      Converse is an American shoe company with a production output that primarily consists of sports wear, and lifestyle brand footwear.
      A lifestyle brand is a brand that attempts to embody the interests, attitudes and opinions of a group or a culture.
      n[U] poison produced by some animals ¶ malice, spite
      Venom is a form of toxin secreted by an animal for the purpose of causing harm to another.
      Venom is injected into victims by means of a bite, sting or other sharp body feature, which differentiates it from poison (that is absorbed, consumed or inhaled).
      Venomous animals resulted in 57,000 human deaths in 2013, down from 76,000 deaths in 1990.
      Wasp sting, with a droplet of venom
      Pterois is a genus of venomous marine fish, commonly known as lionfish, native to the Indo-Pacific.
      The reptiles most known to use venom are snakes, some species of which inject venom into their prey via fangs.
      Snake venom is produced by glands below the eye (the mandibular gland) and delivered to the victim through tubular or channeled fangs.
      The venom of the male Sydney Funnel-web Spider is very toxic.
      I found it hard to believe the venom of the attack in the Daily Telegraph this week on our Mayor, Clover Moore, and all for trying to make Sydney a bike friendly city by building safe separated paths for cyclists.
      Dana fired back that Pulitzer exuded "the venom of a snake" and wielded "the bludgeon of a bully".
      adj not moving or flowing, motionless
      Another source of insects is any collection of stagnant water in open vessels, flower pots or coolers as these are a perfect breeding ground for mosquito larvae.
      Now that the sun was getting high it drew thin sickly looking clouds of poisonous vapour from the surface of the marsh and from the scummy pools of stagnant water.
      If something such as a business or society is stagnant, there is little activity or change.
      Leonard, just because your career's been stagnant for a few years, that's no reason to give up.
      Japan also invested heavily in research and innovation, especially applying automation in manufacturing as it recovered from defeat, but in recent years has been held back by a stagnant economy.
      Developed country coal use has been stagnant for over 20 years, but developing country demand has driven annual global coal use up by well over 50% in a decade.
      Compare stagnant and stale.
      adj showing that you love or care about sb/sth, loving
      "Oh god, I just feel so betrayed and embarrassed. Just wanna crawl into a hole and die." "Okay. Well, you know, this isn't that bad. It-it just paints the picture of a very affectionate woman who is open to expressing her affection in nontraditional locales."
      Amy's efforts are causing Sheldon to have affectionate feelings for her at inappropriate times.
      Amy has made Sheldon a more affectionate, open-minded person.
      "Missy" is an affectionate or sometimes disparaging form of address to a young girl.
      adj basic, not sophisticated
      Launched in 1999, LiveJournal offered and still offers a rudimentary form of social networking.
      Students are aware on a rudimentary level that we use a lot of products made in China.
      Your operating system probably has a rudimentary way of doing this, but most people who need more options will rely on a third-party application to handle screenshots.
      Interesting. I suppose if someone could teach sign language to KoKo the gorilla, I could teach Penny some rudimentary physics.
      In the attempt to cover everything I would like to add some physics or at least a rudimentary understanding of the forces applied.
      A rudimentary knowledge of the wild food in the area you are trekking wouldn't hurt either, even if it's just what berries and mushrooms to avoid and what ones are safe to eat.
      I had only a rudimentary grasp of Persian when I first met Mohammad Sharif in Tokat.
      The third of eight siblings, Amin only received a rudimentary education.
      adv extremely
      "Well our service is not grossly incompetent," said Allesandro.
      I think it is grossly unfair.
      It was said he had sent out "grossly offensive" racist comments.
      With a population in excess of 150 million people, about 3,700MW of electricity generated is grossly inadequate and unacceptable.
      Al Gore's movie "An Inconvenient Truth" is grossly misleading about climate change.
      n[C] a noisy quarrel or fight
      also a verb
      Chairs were so badly made in the Wild West, they immediately shattered when used in a bar-room brawl.
      The next year, Kai Dempsey was killed in a brawl at the Railway Hotel in Liverpool and Andrew was charged with murder.
      According to local reports, when a brawl broke out on the pitch one player pulled a knife on an opponent.
      They brawl in the streets, or on makeshift soccer fields.
      For the second time in a week, members of the TNG (Transitional National Government) parliament brawled in the parliament meeting place, over who shall be the new speaker of parliament.
      n[C] a small electrical device containing a semiconductor
      A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals and electrical power.
      Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits.
      The transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices, and is ubiquitous in modern electronic systems.
      Following its development in 1947 by American physicists John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley, the transistor revolutionized the field of electronics, and paved the way for smaller and cheaper radios, calculators, and computers, among other things.
      The transistor is on the list of IEEE milestones in electronics, and the inventors were jointly awarded the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics for their achievement.
      Bell Telephone Laboratories needed a generic name for their new invention: "Semiconductor Triode", "Solid Triode", "Surface States Triode", "Crystal Triode" and "Iotatron" were all considered, but "transistor", coined by John R. Pierce, won an internal ballot.
      A triode is an electronic amplifying vacuum tube. Triodes were widely used in consumer electronics devices such as radios and televisions until the 1970s, when transistors replaced them.
      A bipolar junction transistor (BJT or bipolar transistor) is a type of transistor that relies on the contact of two types of semiconductor for its operation. BJTs can be used as amplifiers, switches, or in oscillators.
      BJTs come in two types, or polarities, known as PNP and NPN based on the doping types of the three main terminal regions.
      A semiconductor diode, the most common type today, is a crystalline piece of semiconductor material with a p–n junction connected to two electrical terminals.
      n[C] the period of greatest popularity, success, or power, prime
      He was born in Harlem in 1930, the heyday of swing bands.
      The 1960s were the heyday of racial segregation.
      In its heyday, the big smoke-belching steam engine seemed immortal.
      Moth hunting had its heyday in the Victorian era, when collectors went out to beat caterpillars down from the trees.
      In his heyday, he was the best test driver in F1, a key to Ferrari's success.
      Its heyday was in the Roman period when its copper reserves were discovered and mining began.
      n[C] a human who is perceived to be uncivilized
      The word barbarian is often used either in a general reference to member of a nation or ethnos, typically a tribal society as seen by an urban civilization either viewed as inferior, or admired as a noble savage.
      In idiomatic or figurative usage, a "barbarian" may also be an individual reference to a brutal, cruel, warlike, insensitive person.
      In the Roman Empire, Romans used the word "barbarian" for many people, such as the Germanics, Celts, Iberians, Thracians and Parthians.
      The original Hua–Yi distinction between "Chinese" and "barbarian" was based on culture and power but not on race.
      The purpose of the Great Wall of China was to stop the "barbarians" from crossing the northern border of China.
      The barbarian nation of the Huns, which was in Thrace, became so great that more than a hundred cities were captured and Constantinople almost came into danger and most men fled from it...
      Attila, frequently referred to as Attila the Hun, was the ruler of the Huns from 434 until his death in March 453.
      Attila was a leader of the Hunnic Empire, which stretched from the Ural River to the Rhine River and from the Danube River to the Baltic Sea.
      Night at the Museum is a 2006 American fantasy adventure-comedy film based on the 1993 children's book of the same name by Milan Trenc.
      Larry releases the Akhmenrah's mummy from his sarcophagus to control the two Anubis statues.
      The pharaoh speaks English from many years as an exhibit at Cambridge, and helps Larry and Nick escape by making the Anubis statues destroy the gate.
      They run into Attila and his Huns, but Larry calms them down and they join the trio.
      adj of, relating to, or in the interests of utility ¶ exhibiting or stressing utility over other values, practical ¶ of, characterized by, or advocating utilitarianism
      n[C] sb who advocates or practices utilitarianism
      Today, we have lots of great options for desks that are more than utilitarian horizontal surfaces.
      For Taylor, a shirt is more than utilitarian. It's a form of expression, a mood, an attitude.
      Critics saw flaws in wasted space and the building having no relation to its surroundings. That's why I love it. Who needs a generic, completely utilitarian building that no one pays attention to when you can have this?
      Many people in modern civilizations believe that the value of nature is found only in its "utilitarian value" (beneficial use).
      Why is it that there are significantly more wild animals on private land in South Africa now than there was more than a century ago? The answer to this is that landowners recognized the utilitarian value of wildlife and chose to ranch with wildlife in preference to other land uses.
      Utilitarianism is a theory in normative ethics (the study of ethical action) holding that the moral action is the one that maximizes utility.
      Utility is defined in various ways, including as pleasure, economic well-being and the lack of suffering.
      Classical utilitarianism's two most influential contributors are Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill. Bentham, who takes happiness as the measure for utility, says, "it is the greatest happiness of the greatest number that is the measure of right and wrong".
      Do I need to quote Spock's dying words to you? The needs of the many, outweigh the need of the few, or the one.
      If you paraphrase someone or paraphrase something that they have said or written, you express what they have said or written in a different way.
      I seriously doubt that Mr. Turner is a utilitarian.
      v[I] move towards or be attracted to sb/sth
      Anyone into vintage clothing, accessories and textiles would love this show. I tended to gravitate towards the utilitarian and military items.
      Most Australians in town tend to gravitate to the bar at some time during their stay.
      Little research has examined the popular belief that individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are more likely than the general population to gravitate toward science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields.
      Women notice when a man is passionate about something, and they will gravitate towards him because it makes him seem much more attractive than any of the other guys vying for their attention.
      If one person or thing is vying with another for something, the people or things are competing for it.
      The recent tough actions from Japanese government and right-wing politicians are likely to make the situation even worse in the coming months, some commentators say. Meanwhile, Chinese consumers have gravitated to other brands. GM and Ford reported record high monthly sales figures in China in October.
      n[C] a person,organization, or country that owes money
      Some of these fees can be added to the amount owed by the debtor.
      Although it has been 4 years since the debtor has lived at this address, the debtor has managed to evade discovery.
      The US is the biggest debtor nation in the history of the world. With all of this debt, if anyone holding IRAs or 401k's thinks they will actually see any of this money back at the end of the day, they will be sadly mistaken.
      An Individual Retirement Account or IRA, is a form of "individual retirement plan", provided by many financial institutions, that provides tax advantages for retirement savings in the United States.
      Garnishment of wages or bank accounts. This is a way of getting money that is owed to the debtor before it is paid to the debtor.
      An individual can not file under chapter 11 or any other chapter if, during the preceding 180 days, a prior bankruptcy petition was dismissed due to the debtor's willful failure to appear before the court or comply with orders of the court, or was voluntarily (done with one's consent) dismissed after creditors sought relief from the bankruptcy court to recover property upon which they hold liens.
      Relief is a generic term for all types of benefits which an order or judgment of court can give a party to a lawsuit, including money award, injunction, return of property, property title, alimony, and dozens of other possibilities.
      n[UC] illusion of seeing or hearing sth when no such thing is actually present ¶ sth that is seen or heard when it is not really there
      A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimulus that has qualities of real perception.
      Hallucinations are vivid, substantial, and located in external objective space.
      They are distinguished from the related phenomena of dreaming, which does not involve wakefulness; illusion, which involves distorted or misinterpreted real perception; imagery, which does not mimic real perception and is under voluntary control; and pseudohallucination, which does not mimic real perception, but is not under voluntary control.
      Hallucinations also differ from "delusional perceptions", in which a correctly sensed and interpreted stimulus (i.e., a real perception) is given some additional (and typically absurd) significance.
      A mild form of hallucination is known as a disturbance, and can occur in most of the senses above. These may be things like seeing movement in peripheral vision, or hearing faint noises and/or voices.
      Auditory hallucinations are very common in schizophrenia. They may be benevolent (telling the patient good things about themselves) or malicious, cursing the patient etc.
      Auditory hallucinations of the malicious type are frequently heard, for example people talking about the patient behind his/her back.
      John hesitated, then let out a breath. "I had a hallucination."
      v[T] legally force sb to leave the house they are living in
      Uh, he said that he wasn't gonna apologize because you guys are living here illegally, so instead what he's gonna do is have you evicted.
      You-you got us evicted?!
      Just a sandwich? Look, I am 30 years old, ok? I'm gonna be divorced twice and I just got evicted! That sandwich was the only good thing going on in my life!
      "Enforced the eviction" means that the Sheriff visited the unit to evict the tenant.
      Compare edict, eject, evict, and expel.
      n[C] a pair of metal rings connected by a chain and fastened to a sb's wrists or ankles
      also a verb
      A shackle, also known as a gyve, is a U-shaped piece of metal secured with a clevis pin or bolt across the opening, or a hinged metal loop secured with a quick-release locking pin mechanism.
      The term also applies to handcuffs and other similarly conceived restraint devices that function in a similar manner.
      Shackles are the primary connecting link in all manner of rigging systems, from boats and ships to industrial crane rigging, as they allow different rigging subsets to be connected or disconnected quickly.
      A shackle is also the similarly shaped piece of metal used with a locking mechanism in padlocks.
      A carabiner is a variety of shackle used in mountaineering.
      Legcuffs are physical restraints used on the ankles of a person to allow walking only with a restricted stride and to prevent running and effective physical resistance.
      Frequently used alternative terms are leg cuffs, (leg/ankle) shackles, footcuffs, fetters or leg irons. The term "fetter" shares a root with the word "foot".
      Shackle is a nautical unit used for measuring the lengths of the cables and chains (especially anchor chains), equal to 15 fathoms, 90 feet or 27.432 meters.
      She was blindfolded and shackled to a radiator.
      He unbolted the shackles on her feet.
      While in the hospital, Hassan was shackled by all four limbs to the hospital bed.
      When asked whether Germans feel shackled by their past, Schlink said yes.
      n[UC] a liquid or powder used for washing clothes or dishes
      A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with "cleaning properties in dilute solutions."
      These substances are are similar to soap but are more soluble in hard water.
      The term detergent by itself refers specifically to laundry detergent or dish detergent, as opposed to hand soap or other types of cleaning agents.
      Detergents are commonly available as powders or concentrated solutions.
      Dishwashing liquid (BrE: washing-up liquid), known as dishwashing soap and dish soap, is a detergent used to assist in dishwashing.
      It is usually a highly-foaming mixture of surfactants with low skin irritation, and is primarily used for hand washing of glasses, plates, cutlery, and cooking utensils in a sink or bowl.
      Laundry detergent, or washing powder, is a type of detergent (cleaning agent) that is added for cleaning laundry.
      Ross pulls out a huge box of laundry detergent. BERWEISS. It's new, it's German, it's extra-tough.
      I'm not done yet. And I buy laundry detergent, but it's not the one with the easy-pour spout.
      You have hypo-allergenic detergent?
      There was something wrong with that detergent. That was way too bubbly.
      v[T] make beautiful, as by ornamentation, decorate
      A basic dress can be embellished with embroidery, possibly with a tiny pale color in the style.
      A simple gown could be embellished with embroidery, quite possibly using a tiny pale shade inside the layout.
      The Astrology notebook, which is embellished with Swarovski crystals, is very sleek and has an elegance of its own.
      Extravagant levels of consumption helped draw attention to them: private jets, multiple 50,000 square-foot mansions, $25,000 chocolate desserts embellished with gold dust.
      Its basement walls are embellished with a stringcourse of delightfully sculptured terracotta plaques set within parallel bands of ornamental bricks.
      I'm thrilled when she signs a still from the film for me and embellishes it with a little heart.
      Life in Buffalo is boring, so Kenny embellishes his experiences in his regular letters to his two buddies.
      The best thing for me is the way it is written as though you haven't seen the TV shows. This makes it even funnier when he embellishes the anecdotes and downright lies about some of the events!
      Compare belle and embellish.
      n[CU] sleep
      v[I] sleep
      A sleepover, also known as a pajama party or a slumber party, is a party most commonly held by children or teenagers, where a guest or guests are invited to stay overnight at the home of a friend, sometimes to celebrate birthdays or other special events.
      A lock-in is a similar event held in a setting other than a private home, such as a school or church.
      The sleepover is often called a "rite of passage" as a young child, or a teenager, begins to assert independence and to develop social connections outside the immediate family.
      Beginning in the 1990s, commentators wrote about a perceived new trend of parents allowing co-ed sleepovers for teenagers, with both boys and girls staying overnight together.
      While some writers decried the trend, others defended it as a safer alternative to teenage dating outside the house.
      We thought since Phoebe was staying over tonight we'd have kinda> like a slumber party thing.
      Monica and Rachel's, the slumber party continues.
      Gold went into a decline until awakened from its slumber on September 11, 2001.
      n[UC] the act of making sth look bigger than it is ¶ the degree to which sth is able to make things look bigger
      Magnification is the process of enlarging something only in appearance, not in physical size.
      This enlargement is quantified by a calculated number also called "magnification".
      When this number is less than one, it refers to a reduction in size, sometimes called "minification" or "de-magnification".
      Typically, magnification is related to scaling up visuals or images to be able to see more detail, increasing resolution, using microscope, printing techniques, or digital processing.
      In all cases, the magnification of the image does not change the perspective of the image.
      These binoculars have x15 magnification.
      Many things are not discernable to the naked eye and require magnification to become apparent.
      The electron microscope uses a beam of electrons to produce images at high magnifications.
      Magnification of the cells allows us to see them in detail.
      A shot in which the magnification of the objects by the camera's lenses is increased (zoom in) or decreased (zoom out/back).
      n[U] the state of being untidy or not organized
      Monica's wig is in disarray.
      The Eastern Front was in disarray.
      American generals Winder and Chandler were captured and the Americans were thrown into disarray.
      My immune system was not functioning and my nervous system was in complete disarray.
      I'm sure I'm not the only one who's ever lost an afternoon fastidiously rearranging the books in my home, only to find a couple of overlooked paperbacks, which then throw the whole perfectly organised shelving system into total disarray.
      adj full of busy activity
      Yeah, I had a pretty hectic day at work too.
      Some of us missed our lunch due to a hectic schedule on the D-day.
      The park serves as a gorgeous escape from the hectic pace of modern Beijing, with a number of Ming Dynasty attractions.
      December is not busy just in department stores, it is a hectic time in the Family Law courts.
      This has been quite a hectic week!
      A hectic life brings a lot of stress to people.
      adj sticking, adhering
      n[C] follower, supporter
      An adherent of homeopathy has no brain. They have skull water with the memory of a brain.
      Originally an adherent of 4-4-2, he has preferred 4-3-3 since taking over from Rehhagel.
      She's an adherent of Sufism.
      Like Assad, he was an Alawite - an adherent of a branch of Shi'ite Islam in a country that is overwhelmingly Sunni.
      A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam.
      The Quran also talks a great deal about other religions and their adherents.
      n[U] the act or process of disintegrating ¶ the state of being disintegrated
      Unlike the great powers and even the superpowers of the past, the 21st century U.S. has no international peer for this purpose following the disintegration of the former Soviet Union.
      It is a known fact that the disintegration of the Arctic Ice Cap is causing massive changes in weather patterns.
      We are facing economic collapse and social disintegration.
      Another March, another tale Two years after Yahya Khan took charge of it as its military leader, Pakistan teetered on the verge of disintegration.
      Financier George Soros had earlier warned that the Greek situation has pushed the EU to the brink of disintegration.
      n[C] a strong and unreasonable desire to do sth, urge ¶ a legal or other obligation to do sth, coercion
      Although she settled inland, with her family, she had a compulsion to "get back to the ocean".
      I'm a Canadian mom with a compulsion to cook and a serious reading addiction.
      The itch to write and the compulsion to re-write did not leave him, and some of his best work was written in the last 20 years of his life.
      The excitement of adversarial advocacy and the compulsion to overwork were necessities of his life.
      In 1932, the Zionist leader Ze'ev Jabotinsky wrote: "It is very, very sad that Jews are compelled to learn to shoot. But we are compelled and it is useless to argue against the compulsion of historic reality."
      Too often people are coerced to give or act and do so under compulsion.