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      n[UC] all the animals that live in a particular area
      Fauna is all of the animal life of any particular region or time. The corresponding term for plants is flora.
      Flora, fauna and other forms of life such as fungi are collectively referred to as biota.
      Zoologists and paleontologists use fauna to refer to a typical collection of animals found in a specific time or place, e.g. the "Sonoran Desert fauna" or the "Burgess Shale fauna".
      Paleontologists sometimes refer to a sequence of faunal stages, which is a series of rocks all containing similar fossils.
      "Fauna" comes from the Latin names of what name Fauna, a Roman goddess of earth and fertility, the Roman god Faunus, and the related forest spirits called Fauns. All three words are cognates of the name of the Greek god Pan, and panis is the Greek equivalent of fauna.
      Research has shown the flora and fauna of this region was identical to the Rift Valley in Africa at the same time.
      I knew the flora and fauna here as well as I knew the names of my sons.
      n[U] state of forgetting or being forgotten
      Then I'd take you home, slip off your little black dress and just pile-drive you into oblivion.
      Most men try the old-school method of drinking themselves into oblivion, which results in a false bravado.
      Why are middle class families being taxed into oblivion while the big oil companies receive about $4.4 billion in specialized tax breaks a year from the federal government?
      We're spending ourselves to oblivion - we haven't seen a comparable level of spending since the Roosevelt era.
      Death is a river that ends in oblivion.
      v[T] provide evidence that proves sth, validate
      Will I be qualified for presumptive agent orange exposure or only Vietnam Veterans? I've had Parkinson's disease since I was 48. I have copies of Specials Orders that substantiate the above statement.
      You may be asked to provide documents to substantiate this.
      I have told you before to substantiate your case with evidence.
      The allegations of abuse were substantiated by detailed witness statements.
      The chief accusation currently being levelled against the Iranian regime is that its agents are supporting and arming Shiite militias inside Iraq to attack US troops - a charge that has yet to be substantiated with concrete evidence.
      n[C] sth that you use to cook or eat with
      A kitchen utensil is a hand-held, typically small tool or utensil that is used in the kitchen, for food-related functions.
      A cooking utensil is a utensil used in the kitchen for cooking.
      Food preparation utensils are a specific type of kitchen utensil, designed for use in the preparation of food.
      Cutlery refers to any hand implement used in preparing, serving, and especially eating food in the Western world.
      Cutlery is more usually known as silverware or flatware in the United States, where cutlery usually means knives and related cutting instruments.
      To facilitate this (sauté), the ingredients are rapidly moved around in the pan, either by the use of a utensil, or by repeatedly jerking the pan itself.
      Finger food is food meant to be eaten directly using the hands, in contrast to food eaten with a knife and fork, chopsticks, or other utensils In some cultures.
      Table setting (laying a table) or place setting refers to the way to set a table with tableware - such as eating utensils and dishes for serving and eating.
      Yeah. Utensils and plates for one. And can you read the order back to me? Ugh, Ugh, Ugh, Ugh, Ugh, Ugh, Ugh, great, oh, ugh, yeah, ok. Thanks, bye.
      Williams Sonoma is an American company that sells specialty cooking utensils and and other housewares, along with a variety of foods including gourmet coffees.
      n[CU] a traditional story, usu about animals,that teaches a moral lesson
      Fable is a literary genre: a succinct fictional story, in prose or verse, that features animals, mythical creatures, plants, inanimate objects, or forces of nature that are anthropomorphized (given human qualities, such as verbal communication) and that illustrates or leads to an interpretation of a moral lesson (a "moral"), which may at the end be added explicitly as a pithy maxim.
      A fable differs from a parable in that the latter excludes animals, plants, inanimate objects, and forces of nature as actors that assume speech or other powers of humankind.
      Usage has not always been so clearly distinguished.
      Aesop was a fabulist or story teller credited with a number of fables now collectively known as Aesop's Fables.
      Jean de La Fontaine's fables provided a model for subsequent fabulists across Europe and numerous alternative versions in France,and in French regional languages.
      Ivan Andreyevich Krylov was Russia's best known fabulist. While many of his earlier fables were loosely based on Aesop's and La Fontaine's,later fables were original work,often satirizing the incompetent bureaucracy that was stifling social progress in his time.
      n[C] a mill that converts the energy of wind into rotational energy by means of vanes called sails or blades
      Centuries ago, windmills usually were used to mill grain, pump water, or both.
      The majority of modern windmills take the form of wind turbines used to generate electricity, or windpumps used to pump water, either for land drainage or to extract groundwater.
      Gears inside a windmill convey power from the rotary motion of the sails to a mechanical device.
      A wind turbine is a windmill-like structure specifically developed to generate electricity. They can be seen as the next step in the development of the windmill.
      A group of wind turbines in Zhangjiakou, China
      A pinwheel is a children's toy that spins when blown.
      A prayer wheel is a cylindrical wheel (Tibetan: འཁོར་) on a spindle made from metal, wood, stone, leather or coarse cotton.
      "Which do I like?" "Yeah, you know for dating, general merriment, taking back to your windmill..."
      It is here that their series of famous adventures begin, starting with Don Quixote's attack on windmills that he believes to be ferocious giants.
      Moulin Rouge (French for Red Mill or windmill) is a traditional cabaret built in 1889.
      n[C] disaster
      The Irish Potato Famine is also known as "The Great Calamity".
      It is a matter of a few years before the U. S. reaches a social calamity.
      Does anyone think that we won't find the technology to get off earth before we meet with a major calamity that'll wipe us out, or at least backslide us into the caveman world again?
      With 100,000 buildings damaged or destroyed; roads and railways washed away; common utilities dislocated; and, above all, 40,000 lives lost and double that number injured, it was an unprecedented calamity and an un-matched challenge to citizenry and public services.
      He'll get into the job market and find it is as easy to get a job in English as it is in French. That is a calamity in terms of the French language in Quebec.
      In August, it hit 25 per cent, or one quarter of the working population - a calamity for countless Greek families.
      It is an easy thing for one whose foot is on the outside of calamity to give advice and to rebuke the sufferer.
      adj very determined
      After that, Blues toiled as they tried to break down Blackpool, but they were met with a blockade of Blackpool players. Blackpool defended with a dogged determination, and Blues lacked the creative spark.
      It was courage, faith, endurance and a dogged determination to surmount all obstacles that built this bridge.
      Justin Bieber, whose concert film Never Say Never also charted the dogged determination of a youth born to be a star.
      Peter O'Kane wasn't a perfect human being, but he was a great warrior, blessed with steely courage and dogged determination, a great leader who inspired everyone around him.
      John Griffith "Jack" London (born John Griffith Chaney, January 12, 1876 – November 22, 1916) was an American author, journalist, and social activist.
      Some of his most famous works include The Call of the Wild and White Fang, both set in the Klondike Gold Rush, as well as the short stories "To Build a Fire", "An Odyssey of the North", and "Love of Life".
      Compare dogged, headstrong, and stubborn.
      adj appearing unfriendly or threatening
      The Australian Outback is often portrayed as a hostile and forbidding place full of dangerous creatures.
      Living on the edge of a dry and forbidding land, and isolated from the rest of the world, most Australians took comfort in the knowledge that they were a dominion of the British Empire.
      This forbidding landscape was once spanned by trade routes, and the city was founded in the 12 th century with a view to taxing the caravans that crossed the desert into India.
      My first impression as I gazed upon this stark, forbidding landscape was - "How can one exist in this place?"
      You can no longer read the insignia of the British regiments of the old East India Company but their bones - those of all 16,000 of them - still lie somewhere amid the dark earth and scree of the most forbidding mountains in Afghanistan.
      We sailed past the island's rather dark and forbidding cliffs.
      Despite the forbidding conditions, scientists have found certain fish and other animals to exist in the oceans' deepest regions.
      adj mandatory, obligatory, required
      Compulsory education refers to a period of education that is required of persons, imposed by law.
      Mathematics should be compulsory for all students staying on at school after the age of 16, regardless of what subjects they are studying at.
      Hughes returned to Australia on 31 July 1916, and began advocating compulsory military service to lift recruitment numbers.
      Diabetic foot problems and diabetic neuropathy should be made a compulsory part of medical curriculum; more medical professionals should be trained in quality wound care management; and research should be encouraged for developing cheaper and better wound care products and therapeutic footwear.
      The process of compulsory acquisition of land is now more transparent and will be managed by the Commission.
      A compulsory purchase order (CPO) is a legal function in the United Kingdom and Ireland that allows certain bodies which need to obtain land or property to do so without the consent of the owner.
      Great article. It should be compulsory reading for everyone of voting age.
      Compare compulsive and compulsory.
      n[C] sb who has been given an important prize or honor
      In English, the word laureate has come to signify eminence or association with literary awards or military glory. It is also used for winners of the Nobel Prize and the Gandhi Peace Award.
      In ancient Greece, the laurel was sacred to Apollo and as such sprigs of it were fashioned into a crown or wreath of honor for poets and heroes.
      This symbolism has been widespread ever since. "Laureate letters" in old times meant the dispatches announcing a victory; and the epithet was given, even officially by universities, to distinguished poets.
      Aged 57 at the time of the announcement, he was the 109th recipient of the award and the first ever resident of mainland China to receive it—Chinese-born Gao Xingjian, a citizen of France, having been named the 2012 laureate.
      Each recipient, or "laureate", receives a gold medal, a diploma, and a sum of money, which is decided by the Nobel Foundation, yearly.
      A poet laureate (plural: poets laureate) is a poet officially appointed by a government or conferring institution, who is often expected to compose poems for special events and occasions.
      v[T] plan sth cleverly or deceitfully ¶ manage to do sth in spite of difficulties
      Joe's romance with the revolutionary Graciela seems a little contrived, and unlikely.
      It is television and much of it is contrived.
      This advantage contrived by the banks meant that conditions for compensation could only be determined by the banks that offered compensation even though the compensation was only token.
      If you contrive an event or situation, you succeed in making it happen, often by tricking someone.
      Engineers went back to their drawing-boards, team leaders contrived to get more funds, and the work slowly pushed on.
      Despite great obstacles, she contrived to have regular singing lessons with Dr Hutchinson, whose tuition and influence was invaluable
      adj clever at deceiving people ¶ ingenious ¶ attractive, cute
      Someone who is cunning uses their intelligence to get what they want, especially by tricking or cheating people. (=crafty)
      "Well, Todd's even more cunning than we thought," said Sheldon.
      "Eve, I have a cunning plan," says God, "I shall create Man for you."
      Smaller, more agile and, some say, more cunning than lions or tigers, leopards were considered to be among the deadliest animals in the world by big game hunters.
      I thought this was a cunning way of showing how right I was and how wrong he was.
      Amy's a cunning little vixen.
      v[T] justify ¶ clear sb/sth of blame or suspicion
      If you vindicate someone or something, you prove that them are right, or that something they said, did, or decided was right.
      Gandhiji started the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1920 as a measure to vindicate the wrongs done to Punjab and to pave a way for the Indian resentment against this act of the British.
      Are you keen to make a success of a project or a job? Are you trying to vindicate the faith that someone else has shown in you by giving you an opportunity?
      The decision to include Rachel in the team was completely vindicated when she scored three goals.
      David Cameron, the British prime minister, said he believed NATO's decision to intervene in Libya had been vindicated.
      Drake tried for months to resolve the matter amicably, and he now looks forward to being vindicated in court.
      n[U] the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe
      Physical cosmology is the scholarly and scientific study of the origin, evolution, large-scale structures and dynamics, and ultimate fate of the universe, as well as the scientific laws that govern these realities.
      Religious or mythological cosmology is a body of beliefs based on mythological, religious, and esoteric literature and traditions of creation and eschatology.
      Physical cosmology is studied by scientists, such as astronomers and physicists, as well as philosophers, such as metaphysicians, philosophers of physics, and philosophers of space and time.
      Cosmology differs from astronomy in that the former is concerned with the Universe as a whole while the latter deals with individual celestial objects.
      Modern physical cosmology is dominated by the Big Bang theory, which attempts to bring together observational astronomy and particle physics.
      Compare astronomy, astrology, and cosmology.
      n[U] ≠optimism
      Pessimism is the tendency to emphasize or think of the bad part of a situation rather than the good part, or the feeling that bad things are more likely to happen than good things.
      The pessimism of the period is well illustrated in the saying that was popular at the time: media vita in mortua sumus - in the middle of life, we are in death.
      The Pessimism of the 80's: Uncertainty and Injustice
      The worst management types practice doubt and pessimism.
      If we write off our dreams as an impossibility, then the pessimism and self-doubt can make even small triumphs and achievements appear futile.
      Unlike other countries on this list, Syria's pessimism is rooted in the violent conflicts currently gripping the nation.
      In the past year, Syrians have had little reason to be optimistic, as the government's response to popular protests that began in March 2011 has been exceptionally violent.
      adj consisting of many different types of people or things
      Small- and medium-sized enterprises are such a heterogeneous group that we should take care not to generalize: we should understand each organization's stakeholders individually.
      He advocates the study and re-interpretation of Islamic texts, and emphasizes the heterogeneous nature of Western Muslims.
      Near-Earth objects (NEOs) comprise a heterogeneous population of objects from a variety of sources ranging from long-period comets to the main asteroid belt.
      Our nation is multicultural, heterogeneous, and diverse.
      For a heterogeneous society like Nigeria, federalism looks like an ideal way to accommodate our diversity without crushing our individuality.
      Compare homogeneous, homosexual, heterosexual, and heterogeneous.
      adj relating to the sense of touch
      Braille is a tactile writing system used by the blind and the visually impaired. Braille is named after its creator, Frenchman Louis Braille, who lost his eyesight due to a childhood accident.
      Braille was based on a tactile military code called night writing, developed by Charles Barbier in response to Napoleon's demand for a means for soldiers to communicate silently at night and without light.
      While there's hardly any tactile feedback from the Touch Cover, typing on it is still incredibly easy.
      The use of ultrasonic vibrations is a new technique for delivering tactile sensations to the user.
      "When you open the box of an iPhone or iPad, we want that tactile experience to set the tone for how you perceive the product," Jobs said.
      Something such as fabric which is tactile is pleasant or interesting to touch.
      A tactile person likes to touch people, for example when talking to them.
      adj having an important, esp bad, effect on future events
      Drawing on his knowledge of those sources, as well as his years as an attorney in public and private practice, Farmer reconstructs the truth of what happened on that fateful day.
      See The Fateful Night and How Did Jesus Christ Die?
      President Truman of the United States made the fateful decision to use the atomic bomb.
      On that fateful morning, the South Saskatchewan River ran high from the spring runoff out of the Rocky Mountains.
      The Titanic was conceived at a dinner party in a London mansion one fateful evening in 1907. There two men met, Bruce Ismay, who was Chairman of White Star Lines, and Lord James Pirrie who was Chairman of Harland and Wolff.
      And then came a fateful moment. Pandora's box opened.
      Yet five centuries after the Indians' fateful meeting with Columbus, elements of their culture endure - in the genetic heritage of modern Antilleans, in the persistence of Tano words and in isolated communities where people carry on traditional methods of architecture, farming, fishing and healing.
      adj calm and peaceful, undisturbed ¶ easily excited or irritated
      The placid waters of this lake are ideal for boating.
      We drove to Thirlmere, a long, placid lake that is used as a reservoir; it is fringed with woods, and lies at the foot of Helvellyn, close to the pretty village of Grasmere.
      I refer to that most respectable and antique institution, the Committee on Revolutionary Claims. For thirty years it has been without business. For thirty long years the placid surface of that parliamentary sea has been without one single ripple.
      Leona Lewis has admitted she is not as quiet and placid as people think - especially not when behind the wheel of a car.
      Often he retired to the deep solitude of the mountains, and amid their solemn and tremendous scenery would brood over the remembrance of times past, and resign himself to the luxury of grief.
      On his return from these little excursions he was always more placid and contented.
      A sweet tranquillity, which arose almost to happiness, was diffused over his mind, and his manners were more than usually benevolent.
      n[U] the mathematical study of change
      Calculus has two major branches, differential calculus (concerning rates of change and slopes of curves), and integral calculus (concerning accumulation of quantities and the areas under and between curves).
      These two branches are related to each other by the fundamental theorem of calculus.
      Both branches make use of the fundamental notions of convergence of infinite sequences and infinite series to a well-defined limit.
      Generally, modern calculus is considered to have been developed in the 17th century by Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz.
      Today, calculus has widespread uses in science, engineering and economics and can solve many problems that algebra alone cannot.
      Calculus is a part of modern mathematics education.
      A course in calculus is a gateway to other, more advanced courses in mathematics devoted to the study of functions and limits, broadly called mathematical analysis.
      Professor Cuthbert Calculus (French: Professeur Tryphon Tournesol, meaning "Professor Tryphon Sunflower"), is a fictional character in The Adventures of Tintin, the comics series by Belgian cartoonist Hergé.
      n[C] a rapidly rotating, generally vertical column of air
      A whirlwind is a weather phenomenon in which a vortex of wind (a vertically oriented rotating column of air) forms due to instabilities and turbulence created by heating and flow (current) gradients.
      Whirlwinds are subdivided into two main types, the great (or major) whirlwinds and the lesser (or minor) whirlwinds. The first category includes tornadoes, waterspouts, and landspouts.
      Other lesser whirlwinds include dust devils, as well as steam devils, snow devils, debris devils, leaf devils, and shear eddies such as the mountainado and eddy whirlwinds.
      A major whirlwind (such as a tornado) is formed from supercell thunderstorms (the most powerful type of thunderstorm) or other powerful storms
      A minor whirlwind is created when local winds start to spin on the ground. This causes a funnel to form.
      You can describe a situation in which a lot of things happen very quickly and are very difficult for someone to control as a whirlwind.
      The last week has been a whirlwind of activity: packing, travelling, conferencing, meeting, eating and more.
      Upon first hearing of the death of someone you love, you may be hit by a whirlwind of emotions: shock, disbelief, anger, even panic.
      v[T] make sth, esp food or drink, by mixing different things ¶ invent an excuse, explanation, story etc
      Last night I concocted a mixture of rice and tuna and scrambled eggs. He ate it up happily.
      Or it could all be a bunch of lies concocted by greedy dudes with dollar signs for eyeballs.
      EES was under tremendous pressure to show a profit in 2000, which led White's retail division to hide $500 million in losses by dubiously shifting it to the wholesale division, leaving its balance sheet with a profit of $105 million - but one only concocted by creative accounting.
      Critics say Hall concocted the name to make the site appear more female-friendly and "safe".
      I refuse to believe that the Bell/Astral merger was entirely concocted in 2012.
      Compare cocktail, coin and concoct.
      adj able to be seen,noticed,or understood
      There is a great deal of 'discernible difference' between a canoe and a kayak.
      Suddenly and for no discernible reason, the head-scarfed younger woman turned and fired a hostile, uncalled-for comment towards my shocked sister who was left shaking in dismay.
      Despite this rise in CO2 concentrations, there was no discernible effect on the rate of change of temperature.
      The general consensus is that, while a low-quality MP3 (128kbps) might be discernible from a lossless file (1,411kbps) file, higher quality MP3s (320kbps) rarely - if ever - are.
      The trend is discernible in We Now Know: Rethinking Cold War History by John Lewis Gaddis (Oxford University Press: Oxford, 1997), the best known historian of the Cold War.
      adj feeling or causing joy
      Chandler runs by the window outside, joyous.
      You know, I mean this is supposed to be a joyous occasion. My sister's graduating from college, nobody thought she would.
      Friends. Family. We are gathered to celebrate here today the joyous union of Ross, and Emily. May the happiness we share with them today be with them always.
      We are gathered here today on this joyous occasion to celebrate the special love that Monica and Chandler share. It is a love based on giving and receiving. As well as having and sharing. And the love that they give and have is shared and received. And through this having and giving and sharing and receiving, we too can share and love and have and receive.
      We will lift our voices in joyous celebration, remembering the one who was born in a manger to die on a cross to be resurrected on the third day, who ascended into heaven and even this day prays for us.
      We are extremely happy to share the joyous moment of 16th anniversary and we have already taken some vigorous steps to turn the Bank into a modern financial entity aiming to consolidate its contribution to the development of the national economy.
      Most people think that since "joyous" and "joyful" are technically the same, using either of them will imply the same meaning to the sentence regardless of its subject or structure.
      Still, there are times when you have to use the right word to give the sentence the "desirable effect" that it is supposed to deliver.
      When you look in the dictionary, you will notice that "joyous" and "joyful" have the same meaning. It might leave you with the impression that there is no difference between the two because both of them are interchangeable.
      "Joyful" is often used to describe a person's feelings of joy or state of happiness.
      "Joyous," on the other hand, is best suited when describing events, things, times, and places.
      Surprisingly, the word "joyous" fits the sentence perfectly when you are referring to the feeling of joy that is experienced by an individual through something that is not directly referring to them.