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      n[C] a tiny drop
      In meteorology, a cloud is a visible mass of liquid droplets or frozen crystals made of water or various chemicals suspended in the atmosphere above the surface of a planetary body.
      These suspended particles are also known as aerosols and are studied in the cloud physics branch of meteorology.
      Water vapour condenses around these particles and turns into water droplets.
      Chemicals called pheromones in the female's tripline silk help the male locate and identify her burrow. Well before mating, the male spins a small silk sperm web, onto which he deposits a droplet of sperm from his abdominal genital pore.
      Influenza travels in the droplets of water in the air you exhale, which then are breathed in by others passing through the same space as you did.
      Of course, if you cough, droplets can settle on food which someone else might eat and they may get the flu that way, but the main way is airborne from person to person.
      These microbes become airborne in tiny droplets of mists or aerosols and spread to workers.
      n[C] a phrase or a fixed expression that has a figurative meaning (sometimes literal)
      There are thousands of idioms, and they occur frequently in all languages.
      It is estimated that there are at least twenty-five thousand idiomatic expressions in the English language.
      The following sentences contain idioms.
      She is pulling my leg. - to pull someone's leg means to trick them by telling them something untrue.
      When will you drop them a line? - to drop someone a line means to send a note to or call someone.
      You should keep an eye out for that. - to keep an eye out for something means to maintain awareness of it so that you notice it as it occurs.
      I can't keep my head above water. - to keep one's head above water means to manage a situation.
      It's raining cats and dogs. - to rain cats and dogs means to rain very heavily (a downpour).
      Oh no! You spilled the beans! - to spill the beans means to let out a secret.
      Why are you feeling blue? - to feel blue means to feel sad.
      That jacket costs an arm and a leg. – an arm and a leg means something is very expensive.
      It is not rocket science. – not rocket science means something is not difficult.
      Put a cork in it. - put a cork in it is an impolite way to say, "shut up!" (another idiom), be quiet, and stop talking.
      I'm screwed. - to be screwed means that one is doomed, is in big trouble, or has really messed up.
      The devil is in the details.
      The early bird gets the worm.
      break a leg: meaning good luck in a performance/presentation etc. This common idiom comes from belief in superstitions.
      v[T] make sb calmer or less angry by giving them what they want, placate
      This week, Huawei testified before a US House committee on intelligence in Washington to try to appease them.
      In order to change a boat's name, a traditional ceremony is used to appease the gods of the seas.
      Like many Arab states, Jordan has used government subsidies to appease the masses with cheap food and fuel, only to court unrest when the cash runs out.
      Masks and costumes were worn in an attempt to mimic the evil spirits or appease them.
      Appeasement in a political context is a diplomatic policy of making political or material concessions to an enemy power in order to avoid conflict. The term is most often applied to the foreign policy of the British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain towards Nazi Germany between 1937 and 1939.
      adj light and thin ¶ not strong or well-made ¶ weak, not convincing
      Flimsy cotton and lace may not be strong enough to pull your breasts up.
      At Pak Dede's fried tofu stall Bang Cep loudly berated him for his lateness in paying his dues, slamming his ring encrusted hand on the flimsy wooden stall to emphasis the point. Eyes downcast, Pak Dede muttered an apology, promising to pay in full, with interest, the next day.
      Slanting short tables, flimsy plastic stools, empty noodle soup bowls and lipstick stained tissue papers - these are a few signs that you should be looking out for at every street corner in Vietnam.
      The charges were not pursued since they were based on flimsy evidence planted by false witnesses.
      The injuries or the flimsy excuse of a goalie don't make up for the loss.
      He's quick to pick a fight for flimsy reasons.
      n[C] animals such as frogs that can live both on land and in water
      Amphibians are ectothermic (cold-blooded), tetrapod (having four feet, legs) vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
      Amphibians typically start out as larvae living in water, but some species have developed behavioural adaptations to bypass this.
      The young generally undergo metamorphosis from larva with gills to an adult air-breathing form with lungs.
      Amphibians use their skin as a secondary respiratory surface and some small terrestrial salamanders and frogs lack lungs and rely entirely on their skin.
      An amphibious aircraft or amphibian is an aircraft that can take off and land on both land and water.
      An amphibious vehicle (or simply amphibian), is a vehicle that is a means of transport, viable on land as well as on (or under) water.
      A hovercraft, also known as an air-cushion vehicle or ACV, is a craft capable of travelling over land, water, mud or ice and other surfaces.
      n[U] the state of feeling or seeming calm
      Rachel starts to lose her composure.
      Ross recovers his composure and starts typing.
      In 1961, he has gained a reputation as a broadcaster known for his poise and composure.
      In most of his fights, Fedor has danced lightly on his feet, judging his range and his opponent with the composure of a chess master.
      And it was only after he recovered his composure and became clear headed once again, that he saw the need to recant on his previously agreed positions.
      n[U] strong religious belief and behavior
      The word piety comes from the Latin word pietas, the noun form of the adjective pius (which means "devout" or "good").
      Piety in modern English usage can refer to a way to win the favour or forgiveness of a god.
      Piety in a historical context implied high morality.
      Piety now often refers to great devotion to one's own religion but may not have a modern moral association.
      The piety of many of these men was deep, and we learned much from them.
      In the thirteenth century the piety of Louis IX (St. Louis) helped to give impetus to the construction of religious buildings across France.
      adj behaving or done in a way that is morally good and right
      For Muslims, it means the path to Allah and a virtuous life, based on the edicts of the Prophet Mohammed set out in the Koran.
      They live a virtuous life of sacrifice, without material possessions or emotional attachments, following the Jedi code which requires them to develop their wisdom and insight.
      However, a new academic study suggests women are inherently no more virtuous than men. It's just that, in the past, they have lacked the confidence or opportunity to stray.
      The terms virtuous circle and vicious circle (also referred to as virtuous cycle and vicious cycle) refer to complex chains of events which reinforce themselves through a feedback loop.
      A virtuous circle has favorable results, while a vicious circle has detrimental results.
      I'm tired of running to the gas station to use the bathroom. The guy makes me buy a Gatorade every time. A vicious circle.
      The Gatorade Company, Inc. is a manufacturer of sports-themed beverage and food products, built around its signature line of sports drinks.
      Compare evil, vicious, virtuous, and wicked.
      n[U] an act, often a crime, involving unjustified threats to make a gain or cause loss to another unless a demand is met
      also a verb
      Blackmail is coercion involving threats of physical harm, threat of criminal prosecution, or threats for the purposes of taking the person's money or property.
      Blackmail originally meant payments rendered by settlers in the Counties of England bordering Scotland to chieftains and the like in the Scottish Lowlands, in exchange for protection from Scottish thieves and marauders into England.
      Blackmail may also be considered a form of extortion. Some US states distinguish the offenses by requiring that blackmail be in writing.
      In some jurisdictions, the offence of blackmail is often carried out during the act of robbery. This occurs when an offender makes a threat of immediate violence towards someone in order to make a gain as part of a theft.
      Section 87(3) provides that a person guilty of blackmail is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to level 4 imprisonment (15 years maximum).
      Nuclear blackmail is a form of nuclear strategy in which an aggressor uses the threat of use of nuclear weapons to force an adversary to perform some action or make some concessions.
      Webcam blackmail is a crime where an online attacker lures victims into taking off their clothes on camera and, usually secretly, allowing them to record a video.
      Netanyahu is blackmailing the west, threatening to "crash" their currencies and destroy their economies.
      n[U] feelings of anger and surprise because you feel insulted or unfairly treated
      I'd be just as poor and just as happy, but without the indignation of being abused, assaulted, etc.
      I was in a coffee shop one day and a man ordering coffees to go said to the barista 'and don't be niggardly with the cream'. He was immediately brought to task by another man in the queue who claimed to find his language offensive and then whipped the coffee shop patrons into a frenzy of righteous indignation. I intervened and pointed out that niggardly and nigger did not mean the same thing and come from different linguistic routes.
      "I can't offer you a penny over twenty dollars for such a substandard piece of equipment," said Jimmy. The stall owner seemed to swell with indignation.
      "This is too much!" he said, angrily rising again. He fairly choked with indignation.
      "I should, perhaps, have held my tongue, and let you fall into his trap?" Miss Linton regarded her sister-in-law with indignation.
      adj combining well to form a strong well-organized unit
      Indeed, a healthy economy and a cohesive and united society, not a divided multicultural society, is what is needed for our defence.
      We have been a cohesive unit, working efficiently to try to improve the co-op.
      The topics will be taught as a cohesive whole.
      Those arrested on the 29th of April 2011 were not a cohesive group and they did not have cohesive aims.
      A sense of belonging is an essential cornerstone to support a cohesive society.
      A cohesive team needs clear vision and values.
      Good social media marketing relies on a cohesive strategy, process, tools and governance.
      v[T] make sth become twisted and caught in a rope, net etc ¶ involve sb/oneself in difficulties or complicated circumstances
      Birds get entangled in fishing nets, and contaminants can weaken eggs and reduce reproductive success.
      They become entangled in a quarrel and this leads to the two challenging each other to a duel.
      An attorney is entangled in a web of national politics when a reporter friend accidentally records the murder of a senator.
      It is entangled with local party politics and we have to play accordingly.
      Quantum entanglement is a physical phenomenon that occurs when pairs or groups of particles are generated or interact in ways such that the quantum state of each particle cannot be described independently—instead, a quantum state may be given for the system as a whole.
      Tangled is a 2010 American computer animated musical fantasy-comedy film produced by Walt Disney Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures.
      n[UC] extreme or abnormal enthusiasm, craze ¶ a severe mental condition
      By the mid-2000s, the mania for replication had led to entire banks being synthesised - so-called structured investment vehicles or SIVs were unregulated financial androids that would in effect take deposits and lend out the money, by buying mortgage bonds.
      Mania is the mood of an abnormally elevated arousal energy level.
      Bibliomania can be a symptom of obsessive–compulsive disorder which involves the collecting or even hoarding of books to the point where social relations or health are damaged.
      Dipsomania is a historical term describing a medical condition involving an uncontrollable craving for alcohol.
      Egomania is also known as an obsessive preoccupation with one's self and applies to someone who follows their own ungoverned impulses and is possessed by delusions of personal greatness and feels a lack of appreciation.
      Kleptomania is the inability to refrain from the urge to steal items and is done for reasons other than personal use or financial gain.
      Megalomania is a psychopathological condition characterized by delusional fantasies of power, relevance, omnipotence, and by inflated self-esteem.
      Hypersexuality is a clinical diagnosis used by mental healthcare researchers and providers to describe extremely frequent or suddenly increased sexual urges or sexual activity. Other, mostly historical, names include Don Juanism, the Messalina complex, and nymphomania.
      A maniac is a mad person who is violent and dangerous.
      adj angry and unwilling to talk
      "Sheldon, it's 2:00 in the morning." "Why does everybody keep telling me what time it is?" "Everybody?" "You, the president to the university, his wife, their sullen teenage daughter."
      As a teenager, Tracy was moody and sullen, and longed for independence.
      It was about four months later when I finally saw Linda again. The giddy smile was gone, replaced with a sullen face, a droopy posture and a big sigh when I said hello and asked where she'd been.
      In most cultures (including our own), sunlight is equated with happiness, and a bright, sunny day is still one of the best antidote to a sullen mood.
      Rachel closes the door in his face. Ross walks sullenly back to the couch and sits down. A moment of silence ensues.
      A sullen sky or sea is dark and looks as if bad weather is coming.
      Compare cloudy, dismal, gloomy, and overcast.
      adj thorough and complete; comprehensive
      It is not possible to provide an exhaustive list.
      This is not meant as an exhaustive list of all security-related bugs.
      After carrying out an exhaustive search for an alternative, the Department selected Manhattan, Kansas as its preferred location.
      Treasury commissioned an $80,000 study into this myth and after an exhaustive study they found that "direct payments made to households by the Australian government in early 2009 - the Tax Bonus for Working Australians - had no discernible effect on consumption, at least of non-durables."
      This article will review common causes of low back pain in the pediatric population. It is not meant to be an exhaustive review and will not review acute trauma.
      Many months ago, we did discuss in exhaustive detail tweaking the system for better governance.
      adj without any doubt or possibility of being changed, certain
      A categorical statement is a clear statement that something is definitely true or false.
      If for example you say 'It is undeniable that...', you are making a categorical statement (not recommended).
      A bar/pie chart is a way of summarising a set of categorical data.
      The Categorical Imperative is the central concept in Kant’s ethics. It refers to the "supreme principle of morality", from which all our moral duties are derived.
      The basic principle of morality is an imperative because it commands certain courses of action. It is a categorical imperative because it commands unconditionally, quite independently of the particular ends and desires of the moral agent.
      An imperative is a command (e.g. "shut the door!"). Kant thinks that imperatives may be expressed in terms of there being some action that one 'ought' to do.
      v[IT] give off ¶ become known ¶ happen
      If a plant transpires, it lets water pass from its surface into the air.
      If it transpires that something has happened, this previously secret or unknown fact becomes known.
      It transpired that this was the son of the lady in the bed by the window.
      Later, it transpired that the US soldiers in his Platoon "threw candy out of a Stryker vehicle as they drove through a village and shot children who came running to pick up the sweets."
      Still, it is not clear exactly what transpired to quicken and give life to Frankenstein's assembly of dead tissue.
      Do keep in touch and let me know what transpires.
      His version of what transpired was quite negative on Perry.
      Compare perspire and transpire.
      v[T] tell sb severely that they have done sth wrong
      After breakfast I admonished the absentees of yesterday with some effect.
      Men have authority over women because Allah has made the one superior to the other, and because they spend their wealth to maintain them. Good women are obedient. As for those from whom you fear disobedience, admonish them and send them to their beds apart (stop having sexual relations with them), and beat them.
      Uncannily though, the Qur'an asserts itself that the infidels of Mecca knew that Muhammad had copied the Qur'an from various sources, especially from the Jewish Scriptures; and that was why Allah had to admonish the polytheists for calling Muhammad a copy-cat.
      His attempted suicide is patiently admonished by his care nurse.
      We are admonished to buy green, but seldom asked to buy less or repair what we already have or just do without.
      v[IT] occur at the same time ¶ make two or more things happen or move at the same time or speed
      If you synchronize two activities, processes, or movements, or if you synchronize one activity, process, or movement with another, you cause them to happen at the same time and speed as each other.
      The timing of the gun was precisely synchronized with the turning of the plane's propeller.
      The audio is not synchronized with the video. How do I fix this?
      Synchronized swimming is a hybrid form of swimming, dance and gymnastics, consisting of swimmers (either solos, duets, trios, combos, or teams) performing a synchronized routine of elaborate moves in the water, accompanied by music.
      Synchronized swimming demands advanced water skills, and requires great strength, endurance, flexibility, grace, artistry and precise timing, as well as exceptional breath control when upside down underwater.
      Both USA Synchro and Synchro Canada allow men to compete with women.
      When people synchronize their watches, they make their watches show exactly the same time.
      We'd better synchronize our watches if we all want to be there at the same time.
      v[I] come together in a crowd
      Real smokers tend to congregate in environments where second hand smoke is more prevalent.
      She has been present at every reading corner, and her house is generally flooded with small children who play in her yard. She has asked to begin this Monday, and would like to read "Cinderella" to the children who tend to congregate around her house.
      Unlike most birds, Turkey Vultures have a well-developed sense of smell. They usually forage alone, but sometimes congregate around food sources.
      If those boys are permitted to congregate together and support each other, it becomes actively dangerous.
      Compare aggregate and congregate.
      n[UC] a clear sticky liquid used for covering wood or other surfaces
      v[T] cover sth with ~
      Varnish is a transparent, hard, protective finish or film primarily used in wood finishing but also for other materials.
      Varnish is traditionally a combination of a drying oil, a resin, and a thinner or solvent.
      Varnish finishes are usually glossy but may be designed to produce satin or semi-gloss sheens by the addition of "flatting" agents.
      "You know what, it's my fault really, because the couch is usually where we keep the varnish," said Chandler, turning around and having a paint lid stuck to the back of his pants.
      You work and you work and you work on a boat, and you sand it and you varnish it...
      Compare tarnish, vanish, and varnish.
      v[I] make an error or a mistake
      If you err on the side of something, you show too much of it (usually a good quality).
      If you err on the side of caution, you decide to act in a cautious way, rather than take risks.
      In a close judgment call, I err on the side of caution.
      Perhaps he has a knife, or a gun, or will simply overpower you. When there's no way to know, you err on the side of safety.
      We recommend that the sleeve should go to the base of your thumb (located at the wrist joint). We also recommend that you err on the side of generosity with your sleeve length.
      We have to err on the side of protecting children.
      v[T] criticize sharply
      also a noun
      Both Johnson and President Richard Nixon used the Resolution as a justification for escalated involvement in Indochina. The Resolution was repealed in June of 1970 in a rebuke to the Nixon Administration's illegal bombing campaign Cambodia.
      Her comments drew a sharp rebuke from Lute, the White House adviser.
      Lincoln Alexander's whole life was a rebuke to those who would equate ability with skin colour.
      The Venerable Channa was very conceited and stubborn. He even dared to rebuke the two Chief Disciples. Three times the Buddha admonished him and spoke on the benefits of good friendship, saying that the two Chief Disciples were his great friends.
      The fact that within a comparatively short time McCarthy was rebuked by the Senate and lost virtually all his prestige and power made the Europeans feel that they had heard the truth about America.
      No wonder the McCanns' lawyer was rebuked by the Judge. She had to resort to "below-the-belt" comments because that's all they have left in the tank.
      Compare admonish, approve, rebuke, reprimand, and reprove.
      n[U] a poisonous gas or liquid with a strong unpleasant smell
      Ammonia, or azane, is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3. It is a colorless gas with a characteristic pungent smell.
      Ammonia contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to food and fertilizers.
      Ammonia, either directly or indirectly, is also a building-block for the synthesis of many pharmaceuticals and is used in many commercial cleaning products.
      I make it myself! It's two parts ammonia and one part lemon juice.
      Although in wide use, ammonia is both caustic and hazardous.
      adj spreading or acting gradually and unnoticed but with harmful effects
      Something that is insidious is unpleasant or dangerous and develops gradually without being noticed.
      High-blood pressure is an insidious condition which has few symptoms.
      It is something far more insidious than merely a simple "tax".
      Facebook does something far more insidious than 'not respecting' privacy; it extends surveillance beyond political and commercial activity into the social and personal - and actively cultivates complicity in this.
      This song is from the 1962 movie of the same name that depicts the insidious nature of alcohol addiction in modern life, following the downward spiral of two average Americans who succumb to alcoholism and attempt to deal with their problem.