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      n[C] a song of praise to God
      A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of praise, adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a deity or deities, or to a prominent figure or personification.
      Although most familiar to speakers of English in the context of Christian churches, hymns are also a fixture of other world religions, especially on the Indian subcontinent.
      Hymns also survive from antiquity, especially from Egyptian and Greek cultures.
      Some of the oldest surviving examples of notated music are hymns with Greek texts.
      The word hymn derives from Greek ὕμνος (hymnos), which means "a song of praise".
      "The Cop and the Anthem" is a December 1904 short story by the United States author O. Henry.
      If you describe a film, book, or speech as a hymn to something, you mean that it praises or celebrates that thing.
      If two or more people are singing from the same hymn book/sheet, you mean that they understand each other and are thinking about something in the same way.
      v[T] show off
      "Well we said goodbye at the door so as not to flaunt our new love," said Phoebe.
      Chandler's father is more of a "if you've got it flaunt it" kind of... father.
      "There's a tribe in Papua New Guinea where when a hunter flaunts his success to the rest of the village, they kill him and drive away evil spirits with a drum made of his skin," said Sheldon.
      "Out of deference to them, let's not flaunt our happy relationship," said Amy.
      Monica was flaunting her tan in a little black dress.
      The rich flaunted their wealth while the poor starved on the streets.
      He has displayed fortitude, courage, truth, honour, courtesy, and earned a high reputation. Yet he remains humble and does not flaunt his rank in an expensive exterior or display any sense of superiority.
      Compare flaunt and parade.
      n[C] sb employed to drive a passenger motor vehicle, esp a luxury vehicle such as a large sedan or limousine
      also a verb
      Originally, such drivers were often personal employees of the vehicle owner, but now in many cases specialist chauffeur service companies or individual drivers provide both driver and vehicle for hire, although there are service companies that just provide the driver.
      The term chauffeur comes from the French term for stoker because the earliest automobiles, like their railroad and sea vessel counterparts, were steam-powered and required the driver to stoke the engine.
      Only the very wealthy could afford the first automobiles, and they generally employed chauffeurs rather than driving themselves.
      A 1906 article in The New York Times reported that "...the chauffeur problem to-day is one of the most serious that the automobilist has to deal with.", and complained that "...young men of no particular ability, who have been earning from $10 to $12 a week, are suddenly elevated to salaried positions paying from $25 to $50..." and recommended the re-training of existing coach drivers.
      In many places (or at times in the past), proper physical presence is presented by the chauffeur at all times.
      This usually includes a well-groomed individual, conservatively dressed in a clean and crisply pressed black or dark suit or tuxedo, dress shirt, and appropriately matching tie, with black leather gloves and freshly polished matching footwear.
      When Miss Daisy wrecks her car, her son, Boolie, hires Hoke Coleburn, an African American chauffeur who drove for a local judge until he recently died.
      He appears as Mr. Oscar, an apparent businessman chauffeured in a white limousine.
      Parents chauffeured their kids only to out-of-town events like a class visit to the Northwest Mounted Police Museum in North Battleford.
      v[I] interfere
      "Oh, honey, I'm sorry." "Well you should be, this is all your fault! You meddled in our relationship!"
      Phoebe is going to say "Yes" to David. See, that's what happens when you meddle in people's lives!
      Oooooooh! Meddler! Meddler!
      Well, if you hadn't meddled to start with, then I wouldn't have had to go in there and meddle myself. Now, no matter how much we meddle, we will never be able to un-meddle the thing that you meddled up - in the first place!
      I've come here to apologize. I think I may have let my feelings for Charlie nterfere with the interview process.
      My equations, someone's tampered with my equations.
      "A spring wedding?" "It's up to you, dear. We don't want to meddle." "If you don't want to meddle, then why are you meddling?"
      v[T] put one image on top of another so that both can be partly seen ¶ combine two systems, ideas, opinions etc so that one influences the other
      In graphics, superimposition is the placement of an image or video on top of an already-existing image or video, usually to add to the overall image effect, but also sometimes to conceal something (such as when a different face is superimposed over the original face in a photograph).
      This technique is used in cartography to produce photomaps by superimposing grid lines, contour lines and other linear or textual mapping features over aerial photographs.
      Superimposition during sound recording and reproduction (commonly called overdubbing) is the process of adding new sounds over existing without completely erasing or masking the existing sounds.
      The flash went off automatically because the UPS man was in the shade. It creates the effect that he is superimposed on the backdrop but I swear to god: no photoshop.
      In television, a caption is information superimposed over a picture, usually at the top or bottom of the screen, describing what is being shown.
      This labyrinth of laws will be superimposed on existing laws such as ERISA statutes and anti-discrimination laws.
      adj perfect
      In keeping with our worldwide reputation for impeccable service, full concierge service is available to accommodate all of your travel, tour and entertainment needs.
      He's a master at the craft, his timing is impeccable, and every nuance is calculated to perfection.
      She has an impeccable sense of dressing and styling.
      A knighthood or damehood would go only to those with an impeccable record of conduct and conspicuous achievement.
      From the start, his extraordinary athleticism, expressive grace, impeccable timing, endless inventiveness and genius for hard work set Chaplin apart. In 1910 he made his first trip to America, with Fred Karno's Speechless Comedians.
      Thank you for the wonderful afternoon you gave us last Sunday by your impeccable manners, attention to detail, superb food and above all your ability to make everything run so smoothly while maintaining your good humour and smile!
      n[U] the crime that covers some of the more extreme acts against one's sovereign or nation
      Historically, treason also covered the murder of specific social superiors, such as the murder of a husband by his wife or that of a master by his servant.
      Treason against the king was known as high treason and treason against a lesser superior was petty treason.
      A person who commits treason is known in law as a traitor.
      Oran's Dictionary of the Law (1983) defines treason as "...[a]...citizen's actions to help a foreign government overthrow, make war against, or seriously injure the [parent nation]."
      In many nations, it is also often considered treason to attempt or conspire to overthrow the government, even if no foreign country is aiding or involved by such an endeavor.
      Dreyfus who was arrested for treason on 15 October 1894. On 5 January 1895, Dreyfus was summarily convicted in a secret court martial, publicly stripped of his army rank, and sentenced to life imprisonment on Devil's Island in French Guiana.
      v[T] make sb feel annoyed or worried
      A vexed problem or question is very difficult and causes people a lot of trouble.
      Other chapters concentrate on the vexed question of racial and cultural discrimination.
      Lo has also explored the vexed issue of human rights, and the West's criticism of China.
      In the time of this king, the Island was vexed by the ills of a famine and a plague.
      I was the one who was vexed with the oppressions in the name of caste in Hinduism.
      v[T] support from below, as with props, girders, or masonry ¶ give strength or support to sth and to help it succeed
      The dollar bloc, already underpinned by the strength of the U.S. economy, has been extended further by dollarization and regional free trade pacts.
      These articles are underpinned by a wealth of additional material, both editorial and graphic.
      It was a direct strike at the economic underpinning of the British Empire.
      Some countries have written HIV policies that affirm the rights of persons living with HIV including their right to work and not be discriminated against. However, these policies are usually not underpinned by legislation.
      A girder is a support beam used in construction. It is the main horizontal support of a structure which supports smaller beams.
      adj not told or revealed ¶ too many or too much to be counted, measured etc (used for emphasis)
      He is the author of Traditional Foods and Your Best Medicine and The Untold Story of Milk.
      After enduring a devastating civil war that took place from 1991 to 2002 at a cost of over 50,000 lives and the recruitment of untold numbers of child soldiers, the country has gradually been resurrecting itself.
      This fool has done untold damage to our society, our culture and our standing within the global community.
      It spends untold millions of dollars to train and equip elite Navy SEALs.
      It is a well-known fact that drugs cause untold misery and ruin lives.
      The Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 and the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, which brought untold suffering to the people of these countries and the loss of thousands of lives, can surely be counted as being among the worst natural disasters since 2000.
      n[C] a small yellow songbird that people often keep as a pet
      I have personally only seen this condition on small birds such as Budgies and Canaries and it is probably rare in larger parrot family members.
      Tom sets out to capture and eat a sleeping canary. Jerry is walking out, preparing for a new day, when he spots Tom tiptoeing to the canary.
      Even though the cat was well fed, he chose to go after the canary in the cage.
      Your presentation must have gone well. You look like the cat that swallowed the canary.
      A canary in a coal mine is an early warning of danger.
      If someone sings like a canary, they tell everything they know about a crime or wrongdoing to the police or authorities.
      n[U] the use of computers and machines instead of people to do a job
      Google has previously used the automation of its system as a defence in a case brought against it by the competition regulator over misleading advertising appearing in search results.
      The main ways to reduce milking time in dairies are use of automation and how to deal with slow milking cows.
      For technicians and engineers facing the challenges of growing complexity of automation and IT-systems and industry globalisation, ATS offers a unique education program called ATS World-Wide Training Certification.
      The network between the two firewalls in Figure 5 forms a so-called demilitarized zone (DMZ). Firewalls form the borders towards the corporate network and the automation system network.
      The processor is aimed at applications in audio, motor control, industrial automation and automotive.
      Gradle is a project automation tool that builds upon the concepts of Apache Ant and Apache Maven and introduces a Groovy-based domain-specific language (DSL) instead of the more traditional XML form of declaring the project configuration.
      X10 is a protocol for communication among electronic devices used for home automation.
      v[I] scrape or grope about frantically
      also a noun
      If someone scrabbles, they try to find or do something very quickly, usually by moving their hands or feet in an uncontrolled way.
      If an animal scrabbles, it moves its feet quickly against a surface.
      Striding down Mozart Street, I scrabbled for my mobile.
      Snakes are quite common, especially in late winter and spring, near the south coast and in damp swampy areas. The heavy footfalls of a walker are usually enough to frighten them away before they are seen. Don't scrabble about in thick undergrowth for firewood, take special care with small children and wear sturdy shoes and thick socks.
      Accordingly, historians scrabble around to assemble a financial picture from a scattering of incomplete and limited shreds of evidence, and many of the conclusions they reach have an air of educated guesswork about them.
      Oh-oh-oh, and by the way, Y-O-U-apostrophe-R-E means "you're," Y-O-U-R means "your!"
      Oh, oh, and hey-hey-hey, those little spelling tips will come in handy when you're at home on Saturday nights playing Scrabble with Monica!
      Scrabble is a word game in which two to four players score points by placing tiles, each bearing a single letter, onto a gameboard which is divided into a 15×15 grid of squares.
      The name Scrabble is a trademark of Hasbro, Inc. in the United States and Canada and has been sold by Hasbro's Parker Brothers division since 1999.
      adj tiny
      n[C] a word formed by adding a ~ affix
      Tasmania's diminutive size makes it possible to see much of the island in a few days.
      Hobbits are a fictional, diminutive, humanoid race who inhabit the lands of Middle-earth in J. R. R. Tolkien’s fiction.
      In language structure, a diminutive, or diminutive form, is a formation of a word used to convey a slight degree of the root meaning, smallness of the object or quality named, encapsulation, intimacy, or endearment.
      In language structure, a diminutive or diminutive form is a formation of a word used to convey a slight degree of the root meaning.
      Diminutives are often used for the purpose of expressing affection.
      In many languages, the meaning of diminution can be translated "tiny" or "wee", and diminutives are used frequently when speaking to small children; adult people sometimes use diminutives when they express extreme tenderness and intimacy by behaving and talking like children.
      In many languages, formation of diminutives by adding suffixes is a productive part of the language.
      An affix (in modern sense) is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word.
      Affixes may be derivational, like English -ness and pre-, or inflectional, like English plural -s and past tense -ed.
      In linguistics, a suffix (also sometimes called a postfix or ending or (especially in older literature) affix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.
      Common examples are case endings, which indicate the grammatical case of nouns or adjectives, and verb endings, which form the conjugation of verbs.
      n[C] a place where ships are built or repaired
      Shipyards and dockyards are places where ships are repaired and built. These can be yachts, military vessels, cruise liners or other cargo or passenger ships.
      Dockyards are sometimes more associated with maintenance and basing activities than shipyards, which are sometimes associated more with initial construction.
      The terms are routinely used interchangeably, in part because the evolution of dockyards and shipyards has often caused them to change or merge roles.
      Shipyards are constructed nearby the sea or tidal rivers to allow easy access for their ships.
      In the United Kingdom, for example, shipyards were established on the River Thames (King Henry VIII founded yards at Woolwich and Deptford in 1512 and 1513 respectively), River Mersey, River Tees, River Tyne, River Wear and River Clyde – the latter growing to be the World's pre-eminent shipbuilding centre.
      n[C] a fight, esp one that is away from the main fighting in a war ¶ a short argument
      also a verb
      In online play and computer skirmish, they have access to two of the Allied side's infantry: the Rocket Soldier and Tanya, a commando capable of easily killing infantry and destroying structures.
      The regiment's skirmishes in North Carolina had not amounted to war.
      Skirmishers are infantry or cavalry soldiers stationed ahead or alongside a larger body of friendly troops. They are usually placed in a skirmish line to harass the enemy.
      Compare scout and skirmish.
      The league and the union have had a series of skirmishes.
      adj countless, endless
      Cooper's classic novel has been republished innumerable times, translated into several languages, and has inspired countless theatre, television, film, and comic book renditions.
      There were innumerable other examples.
      The two, one old and one young are sitting around a fire at night. The sky is black, the stars innumerable. The grandfather clears his throat and begins...
      Twitter, Facebook, Linked-in, and innumerable ways to text message now link individuals and groups.
      World history has innumerable examples of ruthless dictators.
      A few weeks ago, at a major intersection in Central London I started to cross the road when the green man flashed up at the lights.
      Out of the corner of my eye, I saw something hurtling towards me and sprang backwards just in time.
      A cyclist had jumped the red light and almost knocked me down as he sped across the junction.
      Furious, I shouted after him that he had jumped the lights.
      As a pedestrian, I have encountered this on innumerable occasions.
      adj dull, boring, dreary
      To change the exterior from drab to fab, begin with an honest assessment of what your house looks from the street.
      I find Formula 1 on the whole, quite drab and boring from a spectators point of view.
      I was living in Stratford in East London, which is a very drab and dreary place.
      Who said that the cold winter months have to be drab, boring and uninspired?
      Aston Villa climbed out of the Premier League's bottom three with a drab 0-0 draw at home to Arsenal at Villa Park.
      v[IT] beg
      I implore you to join with me by casting your vote for Mitt Romney, because America desperately needs a better path forward.
      I implore you to reflect on one of the main points of your argument.
      She was terrified by the danger threatening her and implored him to rescue her from her fate.
      Despite the anger that rushed into us at their words, we implored them to aid us in any way they could.
      In the name of our common womanhood, do not, I implore you, make a scandal of me.
      adj pleasantly calm, quiet, and peaceful
      I was instantly blown away by the tranquil beauty of this land in twilight as the sun set casting over pink rippled skies.
      I feel secure, protected and tranquil.
      Travelmarvel's 18 day journey begins with three indulgent nights in romantic Paris and concludes with an exploration of Budapest. In between, cruise the tranquil waters of the Rhine, Main, and Danube rivers from Amsterdam.
      The Japanese Tea Garden is a place of tranquil and serene beauty.
      Many people don't seem to have heard of this tiny island, adjoining Ile de la Cit, and it is a quiet oasis in the heart of Paris, tranquil and peaceful, yet close to all the major sight-seeing you'll want to do.
      adj relating to a woman's periods
      The menstrual cycle is the scientific term for the physiological changes that occur in fertile women and other female primates for the purposes of sexual reproduction.
      Human menstrual cycle is a "monthly" cycle that can vary around an average of about 28 days per cycle.
      The menstrual cycle, under the control of the endocrine system, is necessary for reproduction.
      Menstrual cycles are counted from the first day of menstrual bleeding.
      In the menstrual cycle, changes occur in the female reproductive system as well as other systems (which lead to breast tenderness or mood changes, for example).
      adj acting suddenly without thinking carefully about what might happen because of what you are doing
      Someone who is impulsive does things without considering the possible dangers or problems first.
      Leslie Winkle is a passionate and impulsive woman.
      Look, maybe Rachel didn't move on, you know? I mean maybe that kiss was just an impulsive one-time birthday thing.
      Yeah, I know it sounds crazy, and it's not like me to do something so impulsive, but, Ursula's just so perfect, and we have so much in common.
      That's good, you should be impulsive and you should be romantic. Just... you did it with the wrong person.
      Compare impetuous, impulsive, and spontaneous.
      n[C] a very deep crack in rock,earth,or ice ¶ a big difference between two people, groups, or things
      Looking at the current box-office chart, the huge chasm between top title Skyfall and fourth-placed Here Comes the Boom is remarkable.
      There is a yawning chasm between what the Government spends and what it generates in revenue.
      Yet there seems to be a gaping chasm between what goes on in Canberra and what happens on the ground.
      As you can see, there is a vast chasm between the wants and needs.
      The media continues to overlook the greatest story never told in recent American history: a vast, unbridgeable chasm exists between Washington's Political Aristocracy and Main Street America.
      The drawbridge is down. You cross the chasm and find yourself in a small dungeon room. And in the corner, chained to the wall, you see a bloodied and beaten Santa Claus. He says, ho, ho, help me.
      Compare abyss, canyon, chasm, gorge, and rift.
      v[T] say unpleasant things about sb/sth that show you have no respect for them, decry
      The way to compliment me is not to disparage the entire minority group to which I belong.
      On account of that they do not praise themselves or disparage others.
      So if you want the masses to want to abolish slavery, you need to disparage those who want to keep their slaves.
      This is not intended to disparage any one of the faiths; merely to note the impossibility of verifying their correctness.
      Our client considers that he, and his high religious calling, are held up to ridicule and disparaged by the film.
      n[U] determination to keep trying to achieve sth difficult
      I'm all in favour of hardworking people being reasonably rewarded for their diligence, intelligence and perseverance.
      Success in graduate school requires passion, initiative, tenacity, curiosity, commitment, intelligence and perseverance.
      Employers often require evidence of perseverance and problem solving, so you can use this situation as an example.
      On their journey to education, students must face difficulties with perseverance and resolve.