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      v[IT] stop being a group, or make sth do this
      Wall said because Quebec and Ontario are stonewalling any serious efforts for Senate reform, the unelected upper house should be disbanded.
      In the fall of 1959, the Canadian government announced that starting in the fall of 1962 the Sabre squadrons of the Air Division would be re-equipped with CF-104 Starfighters and the CF-100 squadrons would be disbanded.
      The video of Indonesian security forces' violent disbanding of the peaceful Papuan People's Congress in October 2011 was easily accessible on the internet within days of the event and broadcast by Al Jazeera to an international audience.
      Concerns are being raised as the Canadian Sodium Working Group (SWG) was disbanded by the Minister of Health in December 2010 some of its responsibilities transferred to the newly formed Food Regulatory Advisory Committee, who have strong ties to the food industry.
      n[U] a focus of public attention
      Limelight (also known as Drummond light or calcium light) is a type of stage lighting once used in theatres and music halls.
      An intense illumination is created when an oxyhydrogen flame is directed at a cylinder of quicklime (calcium oxide), which can be heated to 2,572 °C (4,662 °F) before melting.
      A homemade limelight made by heating calcium hydroxide (slaked lime) in a stove burner. It is not as bright as a real limelight.
      They had kept the relationship out of the limelight for several months before it became public.
      There is no way on earth I would want to be in the limelight or related to someone of such a high profile.
      This individual is compelled to be in the limelight at all times.
      Andy Murray is a shy man, happier away from the limelight than in it.
      But in 1937 when King Edward, her uncle, abdicated over his affair with the divorced American, Mrs Wallis Simpson, her father was suddenly thrust into the limelight, and was crowned King George VI.
      Ever since she came into the limelight, she has impressed so many of us.
      Compare limelight and spotlight.
      v[T] reveal, disclose
      Unless required by law, we commit not to divulge any information provided.
      In 1966, two baby brothers, identical twins Bruce and Brian Reimer, underwent a routine circumcision in hospital; but the operation went horribly wrong for Bruce and he lost his penis.
      The distraught parents consulted John Money, who advocated gender reassignment.
      The parents agreed and Bruce's testicles were removed at 21 months.
      His parents were instructed to raise him as a girl and not to divulge details of his reassignment to anyone.
      He is reluctant to divulge too much about his "formula".
      I knew a lot, I just didn't divulge it.
      I can't divulge the names of my clients.
      n[U] a poor condition of health caused by a lack of food or a lack of the right type of food
      Malnutrition or malnourishment is a condition that results from eating a diet in which nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.
      It may involve calories, protein, carbohydrates, vitamins or minerals.
      Not enough nutrients is called undernutrition while too much is called overnutrition.
      Malnutrition is often used specifically to refer to undernutrition where there is not enough calories, protein or micronutrients.
      Extreme undernourishment, known as starvation, may have symptoms that include: a short height, thin body, very poor energy levels, and swollen legs and abdomen. People also often get infections and are frequently cold.
      Within hours, Nurse Next Door had assigned a caregiver to stay with him in his house.
      Joe was suffering from dementia, thrush, malnutrition, dehydration and bedsores.
      Within a few weeks, the physical problems had gone away, and he had gained eight pounds.
      An anorexic person, with protruding ribs and resembling a skeleton, often has to be hospitalized for malnutrition and forced to eat.
      Compare malcontent, malformed, malfunction, malodorous, malpractice, and maltreat.
      adj unbelievable or unimaginable
      I can't imagine him coming back to play out his entry-level NHL contract for less than $1 million. This extension takes him up to the summer right before the 2014 Sochi Winter Games, and it is inconceivable that he would leave Russia to return to the NHL at that time.
      It is inconceivable that Bush would not have remembered such an event.
      It's not inconceivable that we will have a specific Android version of the magazine available in future.
      I know that not having milk is inconceivable to most but I just don't drink it that much (my instant coffee only needs water).
      Living without smoke is inconceivable for many people in developing countries.
      n[C] a small part of sth that still exists after the rest of it has stopped existing, trace ¶ a very small amount of a feeling or quality
      In India, that game - a vestige of British colonial roots - is cricket.
      Bitter war had devoured the last vestige of peace in Rhodesia.
      For two or three miles at a time I saw no vestige of a track.
      We were happy to see a vestige of civilization in the form of a roadside rest stop.
      The section 107 court remains in the statute as a vestige of the ignominious past of federal colonization and domination of reserve life.
      But if we have retained any vestige of common sense, surely we must admit that we have tried to impose upon the League a task which it was beyond its powers to fulfil.
      They are losing every vestige of credibility.
      Vestigiality refers to genetically determined structures or attributes that have apparently lost most or all of their ancestral function in a given species, but have been retained through evolution.
      n[C] a long stick with a wide flat blade at one end, used for rowing a boat
      An oar is an implement used for water-borne propulsion.
      Oars have a flat blade at one end.
      Oarsmen grasp the oar at the other end.
      The difference between oars and paddles are that paddles are held by the paddler, and are not connected with the vessel.
      Oars generally are connected to the vessel by means of rowlocks or tholes which transmit the applied force to the boat.
      Oarsmen generally face the stern of the vessel, reach as far as they can towards the stern, and insert the blade of their oar in the water.
      As they lean back, towards the vessel's bow, the blade of their oars sweeps the water towards the stern, providing forward thrust.
      For thousands of years vessels were powered either by sails, or the mechanical work of oarsmen, or paddlers.
      Some ancient vessels were propelled by either oars or sail, depending on the speed and direction of the wind.
      adj rough, harsh, or grating in sound
      "Who is she?" he said, in a low, hoarse voice.
      Still, clearly suffering with a hoarse voice, and taking sips of water in between questions, Page discussed various topics, beginning with how he gets really excited about the things that Google can do to seriously change the world, citing Search and Books as prime examples.
      Sjogren Syndrome: The immune system goes after glands that make moisture, such as tears and saliva. Dry eyes and mouth, trouble swallowing, no sense of taste, hoarse voice, cavities, joint swelling, and swollen glands.
      My voice seems getting better, still hoarse, but more easily be heard.
      I'm still a little hoarse, but I'm here and I'm happy about that.
      Xavier's voice is still raspy and hoarse.
      v[I] come into a country in order to live there permanently
      I immigrated to Canada as a QSW and landed in Montreal in October 2008.
      Most were second- or third-generation German-Americans whose forefathers had immigrated from the Reich.
      I immigrated here over 10 years ago and embraced the living standard some of you seem to take for granted.
      After their expulsion from Spain and Portugal, they immigrated in large numbers to Holland.
      His ancestors were the Arabian immigrated into China during the Tang and Song dynasties (618-1279).
      n[C] a list of all the books and articles used in preparing a piece of writing ¶ a list of books on a particular subject
      A bibliography is a list of sources, usually placed at the end of a document, that you consulted or cited in creating the document.
      In Microsoft Office Word 2007, you can automatically generate a bibliography based on the source information that you provide for the document.
      What is an annotated bibliography and how do I write one?
      The OWL Purdue Online Writing Lab is a resource suggested by the Fanshawe Library. This site has a good overview of annotated bibliographies.
      An annotated bibliography, first, has a APA-style bibliographic reference of the paper you have chosen to review. Then, a paragraph or a few paragraphs of information follow.
      Professor Michael Keefer of Guelph University, Ontario, provides an extensive bibliography on the issue of Electoral Fraud.
      n[UC] the process of digesting food, or the ability to digest food
      Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.
      Digestion is a form of catabolism that is often divided into two processes based on how food is broken down: mechanical and chemical digestion.
      The term mechanical digestion refers to the physical breakdown of large pieces of food into smaller pieces which can subsequently be accessed by digestive enzymes.
      In chemical digestion, enzymes break down food into the small molecules the body can use.
      In the human digestive system, food enters the mouth and mechanical digestion of the food starts by the action of mastication (chewing), a form of mechanical digestion, and the wetting contact of saliva.
      Saliva, a liquid secreted by the salivary glands, contains salivary amylase, an enzyme which starts the digestion of starch in the food; the saliva also contains mucus, which lubricates the food, and hydrogen carbonate, which provides the ideal conditions of pH (alkaline) for amylase to work.
      n[U] an attractive shiny appearance ¶ a very special, admirable and attractive quality
      With proper upkeep of your hair, your long hair can flow with lustre and health.
      The roots, stalks, branches, and leaves, flowers and fruits with luster and color, all are fresh and shining.
      The third film in the franchise has lost a bit of its luster.
      Terrific. Reminding the reader that gold lost its luster as an investment, never matching those highs of 1980, is not the kind of investigative reporting that wins Pulitzer Prizes.
      The China growth story has lost its luster in recent months as the booming Asian giant has been faced with formidable headwinds from revitalizing domestic growth and troubles in Europe, along with a potential real estate bubble brewing in the background.
      adj crazy, insane, or very stupid
      also a noun
      If you refer to a group of people as the lunatic fringe, you mean that they are very extreme in their opinions or behavior.
      The whole GOP was pandering to the Tea Party fanatics and throwing millions of dollars at the lunatic fringe.
      The Republican Party itself also known as the GOP, which stands for "Grand Old Party."
      The Tea Party is an American populist political movement. Most people say it is conservative and libertarian.
      A lunatic asylum was a place where mentally disturbed people used to be locked up.
      The first hospital to be built in Nova Scotia was the Mount Hope Hospital in 1858, also referred to as a lunatic asylum.
      A semi-official tract called the Praerogativa regis distinguished between the "natural born idiot" and the "lunatic".
      The latter term was applied to those with periods of mental disorder; deriving from either Roman mythology describing people "moonstruck" by the goddess Luna or theories of an influence of the moon.
      n[U] the desire to hurt sb or be unkind to them
      We may feel the malice of our fellowman, resulting in painful shootings in the heart, from the hatred and criticism that comes.
      Shahryar shook his head, marvelling with extreme marvel, and with the fire of wrath flaming up from his heart, he cried, "Indeed, the malice of woman is mighty!"
      The cottage is haunted by the malice of the Dark, causing Will great strain, but Bran is unaffected.
      I have not written the above with malice.
      Mr. Weldon certainly bore no malice.
      There's no malice, no vicious intent.
      Malice aforethought was the "premeditation" or "predetermination" (with malice) that was required as an element of some crimes in some jurisdictions, and a unique element for first-degree or aggravated murder in a few.
      He appeared in the Supreme Court on 24 th October, 1865 charged with having "feloniously and with malice aforethought killed and murdered Sarah and George Johnson".
      Compare malice, malicious, and vicious.
      n[C] sb who catches wild animals, esp for their fur
      The Hudson's Bay Company was one such business. They traded commodities such as rifles, pistols, knives, food, frying pans, pots, and blankets for furs from trappers and Native Americans.
      Trappers and mountain men were the first European men to cross the Great Plains to the Rocky Mountains in search of fur.
      Beaver was one of the main animals of interest to the trappers as the fur wore well in coats and hats.
      A hard life as a fur trapper in the Rocky Mountains had left him with a lean, muscular body.
      The trails that trappers used to get through the mountains were later used by settlers heading west.
      An ushanka (Russian: уша́нка; "ear hat"), or trooper hat, is a Russian fur cap with ear flaps that can be tied up to the crown of the cap, or fastened at the chin to protect the ears, jaw and lower chin from the cold.
      Trapper hats are "a sort of hybrid between the aviator cap and the ushanka—they combine the style of the former with the furriness of the latter".
      prefix relating to computers and the Internet
      Internet-related prefixes include e-, i-, cyber-, info-, techno- and net-, which are prefixed to a wide range of existing words to form new, Internet-related flavors of existing concepts.
      Cyber- is a prefix derived from "cybernetic," which comes from the Greek adjective κυβερνητικός meaning skilled in steering or governing.
      It is a common term used for Information Technology (IT), Computers and Internet.
      It is also used in the terms cybersex, cyberspace, cyberpunk, cyberhomes and cyberhate, but has been largely surpassed by e-.
      Cyberspace is "the notional environment in which communication over computer networks occurs."
      Cybersex, also called computer sex, Internet sex, netsex, mudsex, TinySex and, colloquially, cybering or conversex is a virtual sex encounter in which two or more people connected remotely via computer network send each other sexually explicit messages describing a sexual experience.
      Cyberpunk is a subgenre of science fiction in a future setting, noted for its focus on "high tech and low life".
      Cyberpunk plots often center on a conflict among artificial intelligences, and megacorporations, and tend to be set in a future Earth.
      v[T] train an animal to live with or work for humans, tame
      The dog was the first domesticated animal.
      The term "domestic dog" is generally used for both of the domesticated and feral varieties.
      The single-humped Arabian camel has been domesticated for more than 5,000 years.
      The vast majority of domesticated animals have wild ancestors with three particular social behaviour traits. These are that the wild ancestors have a dominance hierarchy, they live in herds and the herds do not occupy exclusive territories.
      These conditions were agreeable for the seniors and made it possible for them to domesticate the technology.
      Most of the African continent has no animals suitable for domestication - eg, lions, hippopotamus, various members of the deer family. None of them can be domesticated.
      adj usual or repeated
      In conflict of laws, habitual residence is the standard used to determine the law which should be applied to determine a given legal dispute.
      It's pretty tricky to work at a relationship with a habitual liar.
      To cite an example, the punishment meted out to a habitual offender will not be the same as to that of a one time offender.
      As far as I know, Mirza Tahir was a habitual criminal.
      Not only is he a habitual criminal, he's also profiting massively from his illegal activities.
      adj having no worries or problems
      Trudging onward and upward, we passed children playing, women with long, black plaits snaking down their backs and farm animals including sheep, pigs, alpacas and chickens. Life looked simple and carefree.
      That car was a little piece of me on the road. Joyful, carefree, bold, with heaps of get-up-and-go (Initiation of action motivated by energy and ambition).
      All my friends thought I would be single, carefree and childfree forever.
      He seemed relaxed though not as carefree as before.
      At 11 years old, he should have been living a carefree life and looking forward to the summer holidays.
      v[T] damage or injure sth badly by crushing or twisting it
      A mangle (as it is called in the United Kingdom) or wringer (as it is called in the United States) is a mechanical laundry aid consisting of two rollers in a sturdy frame, connected by cogs and, in its home version, powered by a hand crank or electrically.
      While the appliance was originally used to wring water from wet laundry, today mangles are used to press or flatten sheets, tablecloths, kitchen towels, or clothing and other laundry.
      My sweater got mangled in the washing machine.
      The orchestra had mangled Bach's music, again.
      果壳中的宇宙 (The Universe in a Nutshell) is a mangled translation.
      If Jill Goodacre offers you gum, you take it. If she offers you mangled animal carcass, you take it.
      "Nestlé Toll House?!" "Agh, you Americans always butcher the French language."
      In compiler construction, name mangling (also called name decoration) is a technique used to solve various problems caused by the need to resolve unique names for programming entities in many modern programming languages.
      C++ compilers are the most widespread users of name mangling. The first C++ compilers were implemented as translators to C source code, which would then be compiled by a C compiler to object code; because of this, symbol names had to conform to C identifier rules.
      In computer networking, a mangled or invalid packet is a packet — especially IP packet — that either lacks order or self-coherence, or contains code aimed to confuse or disrupt computers, firewalls, routers, or any service present on the network.
      Compare entangle, mangle and tangle.
      adj not easily controlled or dealt with; hard to manage
      Only a small fraction of patients with intractable chronic headache treated with opioids experience long-term pain reduction or functional improvement.
      The view that America's apparently intractable racial problem should be solved by removing blacks from this country and resettling them elsewhere - "colonization" or "repatriation" - was not a new one.
      Rape subverts female choice, the core of the ubiquitous mechanism of sexual selection. This subversion, which violates her deepest, unconscious, most intractable desires, is experienced by the woman as unparalleled psychological trauma.
      The two issues have proved to be among the most intractable in healthcare.
      This course considers the growing phenomena of interethnic and intractable conflict in the global community.
      n[UC] a low-cost type of paint made from slaked lime and chalk
      also a verb
      Whitewash, or calcimine, kalsomine, calsomine, or lime paint is a low-cost type of paint made from slaked lime (calcium hydroxide) and chalk (whiting).
      The walls of the towns are made of stone. They have established postal relays at intervals, which are all plastered and whitewashed.
      But for the next four-and-a-half months, those turbulent waters will witness a vision of peace, not war, as the U.S. Navy hospital ship, the USNS Mercy, with its hulking whitewashed lines and large red cross painted on the stern, arrives in Indonesia, the Philippines, Vietnam, and Cambodia.
      She's like whitewashed tombs, which look beautiful on the outside but on the inside are full of dead men's bones and everything unclean.
      A whitewash is a report or examination of events that hides the true facts about something so that the person who is responsible will not be punished (=cover-up).
      If you say that people whitewash something, you are accusing them of hiding the unpleasant facts or truth about it in order to make it acceptable (=cover up).
      A whitewash is an occasion in sport when one player or team defeats an opponent easily, without the opponent getting any points, goals etc.
      If you whitewash an opponent, you defeat them completely, especially while preventing them from scoring any points.
      Compare awash, backwash, brainwash, carwash, hogwash, mouthwash, and whitewash.
      n[U] careful attention, esp in order to notice possible danger
      A Wolf found great difficulty in getting at the sheep owing to the vigilance of the shepherd and his dogs.
      Anxiety appears to activate the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, which enhances the vigilance of individuals to anticipated hazards.
      ssistant Warden, Management Services, Rob Campney said as a result of the vigilance of staff, three packages were seized in the recreational yard, at the medium-security prison, on Oct. 28.
      In this case, the vigilance of parents played a key role in ensuring that the school was made aware of its data protection responsibilities.
      Before I knew it, he was flashing a knife and we started fighting. He wounded me but with the help of people in the area, we overpowered him and handed him over to the office of a vigilance group in the area.
      Compare surveillance and vigilance.
      n[U] a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses
      The millets are a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses, widely grown around the world as cereal crops or grains for both human food and fodder.
      Millets, like sorghum, are predominantly starchy. The protein content is comparable to that of wheat and maize.
      Pearl and little millet are higher in fat.
      The bran layers of millets are good sources of B-complex vitamins.
      However, millets also feature high fiber content and poor digestibility of nutrients, which severely limit their value in nutrition.
      n[U] sand, mud, etc carried by flowing water and left at the mouth of a river, in a harbour, etc
      v[I] become filled with ~
      Silt may occur as a soil or as sediment mixed in suspension with water (also known as a suspended load) in a body of water such as a river.
      Silt may also exist as soil deposited at the bottom of a water body.
      Chongming Island lies against the northern shore of the Yangtze River and is an alluvial island formed by silt carried along the river.
      It is the third largest island in Greater China after Taiwan and Hainan Island.
      Nile silt or Nile mud is a ceramic paste employed widely within Ancient Egyptian pottery manufacture.
      During the annual floods the river deposits its silt on the fields.
      The old harbor silted up years ago.