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      adj still existing in spite of being very old, surviving
      Sanskrit is one of the oldest languages extant in the world today.
      A small bat-roost is extant in the cave, which appears to consist entirely of the common fruit-bat.
      Some parts of the roads and forts built by Mir Jumla are still extant.
      He also wrote a book on mathematics which is not extant.
      Compare existent and extant.
      n[U] the systematic study of people and cultures
      Gerhard Friedrich Müller developed the concept of ethnography as a separate discipline whilst participating in the Second Kamchatka Expedition (1733–43) as a professor of history and geography.
      Her dissertation, an ethnography of Asian American independent rock musicians, deploys the methods of ethnomusicology and digital humanities to explore the complex interrelationships between popular music and geography in transnational contexts.
      She implemented methods of digital ethnography to map musicians' social networks.
      "A Space on the Side of the Road" is without a doubt one of the best examples of the new ethnography.
      This is a virtual ethnography of Twitter conducted by three students at Emerson College for a course called Studies in Digital Media and Culture.
      In this experiential sport ethnography, I examined the experience of former NCAA college tennis players competing on the International Tennis Federation (ITF) Men's Pro Futures Tour, the entry level of professional tennis.
      n[UC] the act or an instance of leaking
      Your pelvic floor muscles tighten to prevent the leakage of urine when you cough, sneeze, laugh and move.
      The memoir was published 3 years before the leakage of Hamoodur Rahman Commission Report.
      To reduce sensitive data leakage , officials, employees and contractors must only have access to information necessary to do their jobs.
      The thinning out of the US and other NATO forces from Afghanistan is likely to lead to a transfer of large quantities of arms and ammunition of different kinds to the Afghan security forces by the departing US forces. There are dangers of the leakage of many of these into the hands of the Afghan and Pakistani Taliban, the Haqqani Network, Al Qaeda, the LET and other Pakistani jihadi organisations.
      n[C] sth in which a person excels, strong point
      In fencing, forte (from the Romance root meaning "strong") is "the strong part" of the blade – the one third closest to the hilt.
      In music, dynamics normally refers to the volume of a sound or note.
      The two basic dynamic indications in music are: p or piano, meaning "soft"; f or forte, meaning "loud".
      I'm a Brit, US geography is not my forte.
      Singing is not my forte. I try my best to go it, btu I'm not a great singer.
      Nash may have size, but physicality is not his forte.
      n[UC] beginning, start ¶ graduation
      Since the commencement of the US military presence in Iraq, hundreds of thousands of Iraqis have been killed, maimed or displaced.
      Another gentleman, who had great influence in the commencement of the Revolution, was Doctor Jonathan Mayhew.
      A commencement speech or commencement address is a speech given to graduating students, generally at a university, generally in the US, although the term is also used for secondary education institutions
      All they had to do was sit in the same stadium, smile proudly, and not talk about the divorce. But nooo, they got into a huge fight in the middle of the commencement address. Bishop Tutu actually had to stop and shush them.
      Ground control to Major Tom! Commencing countdown... engines... on!
      adj required by rule, law or custom
      According to law military service is obligatory.
      By a law passed in 1868 attendance at school is obligatory on all children between the ages of 6 and 12 years.
      By the law of Moses it became obligatory upon the brother of a man dying childless to take his widow as wife.
      When a Muslim becomes capable, hajj becomes obligatory upon him.
      When applying for certain jobs, a CRB check is required by law and, in other circumstances, your employer may ask you to undertake one even though it is not obligatory.
      Compare customary, compulsory, mandatory, obligatory, and optional.
      n[C] a quality or feature that is noticeable but not obvious
      I'm surprised no one else has mentioned the religious overtones of this song.
      Of those, more than half of the stories with political overtones involved Mitt Romney and his Mormon faith.
      Sheldon thinks that the word 'fornication' has judgmental overtones.
      The conflict's already increasing sectarian overtones suggest any power vacuum could usher in renewed violence.
      adj full of people, animals etc that are all moving around
      From art shops to schools, Chicago is teeming with places to find and buy artwork from a variety of artists, sculptors, jewelers and photographers, often for less than $100.
      Our physical world is clearly teeming with patterns and regularities.
      Francis Lewis High is one of a number of New York City public schools teeming with students despite the system's overall drop in enrollment.
      Since that time her resolve for democracy and development for the teeming millions of Bangladesh has become firmly entrenched.
      He mentioned creating more jobs for the teeming unemployed youth.
      The capital city of this island nation is a teeming metropolis that seems to be swelling in population and size with each passing day.
      We run to our hut through the teeming rain (very heavy rain).
      n[U] musical instruments that you hit, such as drums
      A percussion instrument is a musical instrument that is sounded by being struck or scraped by a beater (including attached or enclosed beaters or rattles); struck, scraped or rubbed by hand; or struck against another similar instrument.
      The percussion family is believed to include the oldest musical instruments, following the human voice.
      The percussion section of an orchestra most commonly contains instruments such as timpani, snare drum, bass drum, cymbals, triangle and tambourine.
      However, the section can also contain non-percussive instruments, such as whistles and sirens, or a blown conch shell.
      Percussion instruments are most commonly divided into two classes: Pitched percussion instruments, which produce notes with an identifiable pitch, and unpitched percussion instruments, which produce notes or sounds without an identifiable pitch.
      Percussion is commonly referred to as "the backbone" or "the heartbeat" of a musical ensemble, often working in close collaboration with bass instruments, when present.
      In jazz and other popular music ensembles, the pianist, bassist, drummer and sometimes the guitarist are referred to as the rhythm section.
      Compare brass, percussion, strings, and woodwind.
      adj without comfort, plain and without decoration, severe
      If you describe something as austere, you approve of its plain and simple appearance.
      An austere way of life is very simple and has few things to make it comfortable or enjoyable.
      Someone who is austere is very strict and serious.
      She lived to make noise and your austere lifestyle couldn't handle it.
      Hollande won French presidency campaigning against austerity. Now he promises on Sept 28 the "most austere budget in 30 years".
      He was difficult to approach, much more austere and distant than Merah.
      In these austere times, when countries are teetering on the edge of default and government departments are having to make huge budget cuts, it is hardly surprising that Iter has struggled to get funding to cover its dramatically rising costs.
      Social life in wartime England was dour and austere.
      Even though he lives in a big house at Kandahar specially constructed for him by the Taliban very near the house of Mulla Mohammad Omar, the Amir of the Taliban, he leads an austere life.
      The drills, called Austere Challenge 12, are designed to improve defence systems and co-operation between the forces and would be the largest ever held by the two countries.
      n[CU] dried straw, reeds, etc
      v[IT] cover a roof with ~
      Thatching is the craft of building a roof with dry vegetation such as straw, water reed, sedge (Cladium mariscus), rushes, or heather, layering the vegetation so as to shed water away from the inner roof.
      Thatch is still employed by builders in developing countries, usually with low-cost, local vegetation.
      By contrast in some developed countries it is now the choice of affluent people who desire a rustic look for their home, would like a more ecologically friendly roof, or who have purchased an originally thatched abode.
      In some equatorial countries, thatch is the prevalent local material for roofs, and often walls.
      With a thatch of thick hair, and his mother's almond eyes, baby Michael Brian has just survived the world's worst statistics on neonatal and maternal mortality.
      He has a thatch of white hair, is smiley yet stern, and looks you in the eye, touches you on the arm, and swears more than you'd expect.
      You can refer to someone's hair as their thatch of hair, especially when it is very thick and untidy.
      n[C] sb who believes in helping poor people, esp by giving them money
      Philanthropy (from Greek φιλανθρωπία) etymologically means "love of humanity" in the sense of caring, nourishing, developing and enhancing "what it is to be human" on both the benefactors' (by identifying and exercising their values in giving and volunteering) and beneficiaries' (by benefiting) parts.
      The most conventional modern definition is "private initiatives, for public good, focusing on quality of life".
      Instances of philanthropy commonly overlap with instances of charity, though not all charity is philanthropy, or vice versa.
      The difference commonly cited is that charity relieves the pains of social problems, whereas philanthropy attempts to solve those problems at their root causes (the difference between giving a hungry man a fish, and teaching him how to fish for himself).
      A person who practices philanthropy is called a philanthropist.
      Gordon Matthew Thomas Sumner CBE (born 2 October 1951), known on stage as Sting, is an English musician, singer-songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, activist, actor and philanthropist.
      Oprah Gail Winfrey (born January 29, 1954) is an American media proprietor, talk show host, actress, producer, and philanthropist.
      v[I] walk at a leisurely pace, stroll
      also a noun
      During one of our evening walks, we decided to saunter into the nearby church graveyard.
      To find the universal elements enough; to find the air and the water exhilarating; to be refreshed by a morning walk or an evening saunter; to be thrilled by the stars at night; to be elated over a bird's nest or a wildflower in spring - these are some of the rewards of the simple life.
      We had to slow down a million times for livestock to amble across the road and we also had to pause to allow some baboons to saunter off into the bush.
      I hope that all the "cheap patrons who who wish to saunter in with their own wine" avoid your restaurant like the plague.
      I get down on to my knees and inch forward. No one notices me as I stand and saunter over to Abel. He turns his head, smiles and steps away from the fringes of the crowd.
      adj extremely beautiful and peaceful
      An idyll or idyl (from Greek εἰδύλλιον, eidullion, "short poem") is a short poem, descriptive of rustic life.
      This awesome restaurant is best reached by water taxi with a reservation. Superb food in an idyllic setting.
      For business visitors it offers an idyllic place to stay within minutes of numerous banking, finance, insurance and conference centres and is just twenty minutes from international sea and airports, national rail and motorway links.
      Born on 21 September 1957, Kevin Rudd recalls an idyllic childhood, growing up on a 500-acre farm at Eumundi.
      The Kemeny family live on Hilton Head Island, an idyllic spot off South Carolina known for it's beaches and annual wine tasting festival.
      n[UC] a small accident or piece of bad luck that does not have serious results
      "Hi. I seem to have had a slight office mishap. Could you please get the key off the back of the door for me," said Joanna.
      "He switched over to high-energy radiation research, had a little mishap, and now the other guys are uncomfortable sitting next to him," said Leslie.
      "What happened?" "Radiation burns. A little mishap while I was building my own CAT."
      The trip to Quebec was made without mishap.
      But a student, who was in the classroom adjacent to where the mishap occurred, said that even though fumes covered the entire area, they were asked to remain in the class.
      v[T] make sth slightly wet
      "Thank you. Is that one of my cigarettes?" "Yeah, yes it is, I was just moistening the tip."
      After ingestion, the food is mixed with saliva and mucous from the mouth and oesophagus and these secretions thoroughly moisten the food.
      Fountain-pen ink: Moisten the damaged area with tepid water then apply a paste of lemon juice and salt.
      Rinse the stained area with plain water. Use a white rag moistened with water to remove the soap residue and any remaining make-up.
      Make sure the soap does not contain bleach. Use a clean rag moistened by the solution to remove stains on your cloth upholstery.
      v[I] bend low and move back because you are frightened
      That's my real name, I have never cowered behind a protective shroud since I have nothing to hide.
      Much is made about the faith David had in defeating Goliath when all others cowered in fear.
      My rabbits got to the stage where they cowered in the back of their hutches dreading to be picked up so I sat there with them until they came over to me.
      His wife cowered in terror as Forrester raised the hammer before bringing it down inches from her head, Snaresbrook Crown Court heard last Wednesday.
      Compare cower, coward, cringe, and lower.
      adj inclined or indirect
      If the line is oblique, you can rotate it to a straight line.
      The slash (/) is a sign used as a punctuation mark and for various other purposes. It is often called a forward slash, a retronym used to distinguish it from the backslash. It has many other names, for example, oblique stroke.
      Photographs taken at an angle are called oblique photographs.
      If they are taken from a low angle earth surface–aircraft, they are called low oblique and photographs taken from a high angle are called high or steep oblique.
      Even more ominous is the president's oblique reference to America's controversial oil policies.
      An oblique reference to Greece's problems was made by Costa Gavras in his new film Capital, a bitter attack on the world of finance in the guise of a rather disappointing thriller.
      This was a very oblique way of talking about a woman whose fruits are easily taken by others, meaning that she's more loose and promiscuous.
      adj acceptable or able to be agreed on ¶ to one's liking, pleasing
      The work shall be of a material and size mutually agreeable to the government and artist.
      The Arabs were not at all agreeable to the UNSCOP plan.
      Eating foods that are not agreeable with your body can damage your body's ability to absorb vital vitamins and nutrients and can lead to malnutrition and malabsorption.
      But it is much more agreeable for a government to present only a part of the bill to the people and to resort to inflation for the rest of its expenditures.
      Collaborating (co-operative and assertive) You work with the other person to find a solution that fully satisfies both sides.
      You are ready to defend a stand without being too pushy.
      You are willing to work toward a mutually agreeable solution through negotiation.
      If, in the above circumstances, Treasury and the USPS are unable to negotiate mutually agreeable terms within a commercially reasonable period of time following USPS' proposed date for the issuance of its bonds, then the USPS may proceed with the issuance of such bonds to other purchasers.
      Literature is the most agreeable way of ignoring life.
      adj tall, thin, and not very graceful
      The lanky, 43-year-old Cook is equally outrageous when discussing his own life.
      He settled his lanky frame into a leather chair.
      A tall and lanky man stepped out to greet us and help us with our bags.
      The lanky striker scored eight goals for Renaissance FC before signing a professional contract with AS Nancy (France).
      He leaned his long, lanky body against the wall.
      He rose his head and saw a tall and lanky figure a few steps ahead of him.
      He's now a tall lanky teenager.
      n[C] a whip ¶ sb/sth that causes suffering
      also a verb
      A scourge is a whip or lash, especially a multi-thong type, used to inflict severe corporal punishment or self-mortification on the back.
      The typical scourge has several thongs fastened to a handle; cat o' nine tails: naval thick-rope knotted-end scourge, the army and civil prison versions usually are leather.
      The Muslim community itself is key to defeating the scourge of terrorism.
      Fondly do we hope, fervently do we pray, that this mighty scourge of war may speedily pass away.
      He spoke about the scourge of corruption and Syria's economic stagnation.
      We have made little ground in combatting the scourge of poverty.
      Jesus was publicly scourged, or beaten, with a leather-thonged whip before his crucifixion.
      n[U] the feeling of not being interested in or enthusiastic about anything, indifference
      I am very concerned about the apathy of Canadians regarding the G8 protest and police abuses.
      If you are used to the apathy of Europe, it comes as quite a shock to be in a country where politics is the dominant topic of conversation.
      It just leads to frustration and apathy.
      The February 4th march was a breakthrough against the lethargy, apathy and negligence from Colombia's upper and middle-classes.
      n[U] a dark chemical put on cuts in the skin to prevent infection, chemical symbol I
      Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.
      The name is from Greek ἰοειδής ioeidēs, meaning violet or purple, due to the color of elemental iodine vapor.
      Iodine's relatively high atomic number, low toxicity, and ease of attachment to organic compounds have made it a part of many X-ray contrast materials in modern medicine.
      Iodine is required by higher animals for synthesizing thyroid hormones, which contain the element
      Tincture of iodine or iodine tincture is an antiseptic, it is also called weak iodine solution.
      It is usually 2–7% elemental iodine, along with potassium iodide or sodium iodide, dissolved in a mixture of ethanol and water.
      v[I] refrain from sth ¶ choose not to vote for or against sth
      I have abstained from having sex for 8 years.
      Russell was a dedicated and consistent anti-slavery campaigner. He abstained from confectionery products, because they were made with sugar from the West Indies.
      Britain and France have abstained from voting.
      There were 488 students who voted "yes," 272 who voted "no" and 46 who abstained.
      n[UC] the repetitive variation of some measure about a central value or between two or more different states
      The term 'vibration' is precisely used to describe mechanical oscillation but used as a synonym of 'oscillation' too.
      Familiar examples include a swinging pendulum and alternating current power.
      Oscillations occur not only in mechanical systems but also in dynamic systems in virtually every area of science: for example the beating human heart, business cycles in economics, predator-prey population cycles in ecology, geothermal geysers in geology, vibrating strings in musical instruments, periodic firing of nerve cells in the brain, and the periodic swelling of Cepheid variable stars in astronomy.
      Oscillations are frequent changes between one feeling or attitude and another.
      By curbing and stilling the oscillations of the mind, meditation brings mental peace.