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      v[I] agree or approve
      also a noun
      His Excellency was pleased to give, in Her Majesty's name, the royal assent to the following bills...
      The new guy nods his assent.
      Further, I have obtained the assent of the Prime Minister and of my colleagues in the Cabinet.
      Held in accordance with the legislation assented to by the Governor General of Australia in 1987, the referendum permitted the electors of Norfolk Island to decide for themselves how their interests would be most effectively served.
      On July 9, 1900, Queen Victoria assented to the British Act of Parliament that brought the Australian Constitution into being.
      The executor, not having assented to the bequest, sells the subject of it.
      n[U] the state of being the same as each other or as everything else
      Without the uniformity of a device that everyone shares, file-sharing becomes really quite difficult and frustrating.
      The tradition of two fiddles and the uniformity of just one instrument is an aesthetic that south west Donegal musicians' ears are very familiar with.
      According to Reijer Hooykaas (1963), Lyell's uniformitarianism is a family of four related propositions, not a single idea:
      Uniformity of law – the laws of nature are constant across time and space.
      Uniformity of methodology – the appropriate hypotheses for explaining the geological past are those with analogy today.
      Uniformity of kind – past and present causes are all of the same kind, have the same energy, and produce the same effects.
      Uniformity of degree – geological circumstances have remained the same over time.
      adj strong and sturdy ¶ dependable, firm and loyal
      n[C] a ~ supporter
      Grinspoon have been a stalwart of the Australian music industry for quite some time.
      A woman with three teenage sons, a stalwart of our community, was dying of cancer.
      Let's hope he can build on this season and become a stalwart in central defense for us over the next 7-8 seasons.
      We are a stalwart and stouthearted people, and never more so than in hard times.
      She's been such a stalwart for the festival from day one.
      Buffett is a stalwart supporter of President Obama and has raised a great deal of money toward his re-election.
      Limon was a stalwart member of the London Bach Choir.
      While the women in Saudi Arabia, a stalwart ally of the United States, don't have the right to vote in elections or drive cars, Iranian women run the universities, scientific institutes and even governmental positions.
      Compare stalwart and stout.
      adj very hot, boiling ¶ very exciting
      To sizzle means to make a sound like food cooking in hot fat.
      The bacon is sizzling in the pan.
      When the sun is high in the lunar sky, our satellites sizzling surface, hotter than boiling water, throws infrared rays in our direction.
      In July, Hong Kong is characterized by sizzling days and humid nights.
      In the sizzling summer heat I've been thinking about igloos.
      Monica and Chandler had been enjoying a sizzling romance after he proposed to her last year.
      v[IT] say sth that interrupts sb else who is speaking
      Host of Breakfast TV, Bismark Brown quickly interjected, "But how do you expel the founder?"
      "Excuse me, Chief Saab," he interjected, "there is one profession which is even better".
      On hearing this in the court, Howard interjected, saying: "That's right judge."
      Darla interjected, telling Spike that accepting Dracula as their new leader was a good way to move on after the loss of Angelus.
      Compare barge and interject.
      adj without considering
      For example, if an employer has tendered an irrevocable bid in writing for a project before Budget Day, the employer will be considered to have committed in writing to the project irrespective of whether the bid has been accepted before Budget Day.
      New pages must be supplied for all affected pages, irrespective of whether the changes are for adding or deleting matter.
      These people had decided to buy this item irrespective of the fact that it was looted.
      Need is need - irrespective of race, culture or place. An underfed child in Broadmeadows is just as hungry irrespective of whether she is Aboriginal or not Aboriginal.
      Any of us, irrespective of age , gender or background, can be affected at some point in our life from depression.
      Compare irrespective of, in spite of, and regardless of.
      v[IT] grow again, or make sth grow again ¶ cause a person or an institution to reform or improve, esp morally or spiritually
      A lizard can regenerate its tail.
      The liver is the only human organ that can regenerate itself.
      Tissue regenerates after skin is scratched.
      If the woodland is left alone, it will regenerate itself in a few years.
      The Marshall Plan sought to regenerate the shattered Europe of 1947.
      It will be made out of glass and steel, in April of next year as part of its on-going project to regenerate the city.
      Compare regenerate, renaissance, and resurrection.
      adj firmly established, deep-seated
      It is also ingrained in the company's very culture.
      The State's role in fostering this diversity was ingrained in the text of the Constitution.
      Food is so firmly ingrained into the culture that it's almost impossible not to think about it on, say, an hourly basis.
      It has become such an ingrained part of our day to day life.
      Geeks have an ingrained sense of fairness, probably related to the fact that in IT, structure and consistency is critical.
      v[I] behave in a way that shows that you think you are more important or more intelligent than other people
      His oceanic ego and condescending attitude towards the president was uncalled for.
      I feel manipulated and condescended to.
      He is the personification of the BBC - arrogant, condescending , and unwilling to accept any criticism.
      Please drop the air of superiority, and condescending attitude towards the people who pay for the food on your plate and the palatial bungalows in which you live.
      Compare condescend and patronize.
      n[C] a place providing support for the foot in climbing or standing ¶ a position from which you can start to make progress and achieve your aims
      This week, Microsoft is releasing Windows 8 and the Surface tablet, two technologies that it hopes will give it a foothold in the mobile market.
      But asteroid impacts may have helped life get a foothold on our planet as well, scientists say.
      The new initiative will help establish a strong foothold in the international ICT market and earn foreign currency, the minister said.
      While professional soccer is still struggling to find a firm foothold in the United States, in the 1970s the North American Soccer League marked the brave first attempt to introduce the game to American sports fans.
      Compare foothold, footrest, and footwear.
      adj irresponsible
      If someone in a position of responsibility is negligent, they do not do something which they ought to do.
      A government who failed to do so would be fatally negligent.
      Negligent driving is having other distractions or agendas above being safely on the road.A critical element of involuntary manslaughter is that the negligent act or failure to perform a legal duty caused someone's death.
      The High Court found that the doctor was negligent in failing to disclose the risk.
      Courts began to allow plaintiffs to recover for emotional distress resulting from negligent physical injuries to not only themselves, but other persons with whom they had a special relationship, like a relative.
      A negligent manner or way of dressing is careless, but in a pleasantly relaxed way.
      adj not moving or not able to move ¶ not energetic or interesting ¶ not chemically reactive
      She lay completely inert on her bed; I thought she must be dead.
      He only knew it was inevitable - inevitable, however long he lay inert.
      Richard Dawkins, in order to explain how life can appear spontaneously from inert matter, posits the intervention of aliens.
      Worse than slow. He was inert, making no visible progress at all.
      A robot labled 5# waited nearby, inert.
      Neon and argon are inert gases.
      Compare inert and inertia.
      adj enjoying playing tricks and annoying people ¶ causing trouble, malicious
      As time progressed he turned into a rather chubby mischievous little boy.
      Susan Mayer rocks back and forth on her chair like a mischievous child.
      "A very country-rock, as opposed to country-pop song, I like to mix it up a bit sometimes!" she says with a mischievous smile.
      Steve's "mischievous sense of humour" came to the fore. He decided Apple needed to find an enemy to take pot shots at. Jobs knew this would be a good way of getting the tech industry's attention while Apple worked on its new products.
      The Federation of Student Islamic Societies called the survey mischievous.
      Fair thinkers will call your article unconvincing and mischievous .
      I think these rumours are mischievous.
      n[U] the colorful clothing worn by a jester
      adj of many different types of people or things
      The word motley is described in the Oxford English Dictionary as a cognate with medley, although the unrelated mottled has also contributed to the meaning.
      The word originated in England between the 14th and 17th centuries and referred to a woolen fabric of mixed colors. It was the characteristic dress of the professional fool.
      The pub mixes Inglenook fireplaces, wooden panelling and a motley collection of historic photos.
      With our fingers crossed, our motley crew (joined by a videographer, and our London-based BD Manager, Vinay Nair) made an early start from Mumbai to drive 3 hours to Pune.
      People wearing a motley assortment of Victorian costumes can be seen making their way to a football pitch at its western end.
      v[T] injure sb seriously, causing permanent damage to their body
      Mutilation or maiming is an act of physical injury that degrades the appearance or function of any living body.
      "Thousands more are wounded, maimed for life, and suffering from mental breakdowns," Mohamad pointed out.
      Much blood has been shed and countless innocent people have been maimed or killed.
      Monsanto (US) was maker of Agent Orange contaminated with dioxin. 80 million litres were sprayed on forests and farmland during the US/Australian war on Vietnam, from 1961 to 1971. Vietnam estimates 400,000 people were killed or maimed, and 500,000 children born with birth defects.
      But when you give a feast, invite the poor, the maimed, the lame, the blind. And you will be blessed, because they can not repay you; for you shall be repaid at the resurrection of the just.
      adj not able to be touched or measured, and difficult to describe or explain ¶ having no physical existence
      Some of intangible cultural heritage has been acknowledged by UNESCO as part of The World's Intangible Cultural Heritage, including saman dance; the traditional musical instrument angklung; batik; keris and wayang.
      Stella makes a good point about the intangible benefits of buying over renting.
      In the last year, I have lost a lot of intangible things that made me who I was -- my self-belief, my self-esteem, my positive outlook, faith in my future and myself.
      Intangible properties or assets are things that a company has, such as a good reputation and respect, that are not real objects but are valuable to the company.
      It's important to establish the value of the intangible assets of the business - especially goodwill.
      Unclaimed intangible property generally includes but is not limited to insurance policies, returned stocks and bonds, bank deposits, unpaid wages, and pension benefits.
      v[T] surround sb/sth on all sides ¶ trouble constantly ¶ threaten
      The project has been beset by a string of scandals including most recently Melbourne Water wrongly charging consumers $230 million for the operation of the plant, even though it is yet to be finished.
      Investors have been beset by a range of worries, including figures released Thursday indicating that Europe has again slipped into recession, the possibility of a contraction in the U.S. due to the fiscal cliff, and slow growth in China.
      His campaign was beset by a series of gaffes, including the publication of a secretly taped talk to mega-donors in which he insulted the 47 per cent of Americans who don't pay income taxes.
      Originally scheduled for a release in the Q3 of 2012, RIM's BlackBerry 10 update has been beset by a factor of issues ranging from the technical, chipset delays and BES integration issues, to the political, with boardroom reshuffles and the exit of its two founding executives, Jim Balsillie and Mike Lazaridis.
      adj owing money or gratitude to sb
      Worth $100, Sheldon give Howard $12 to cover the difference from his wedding gift of $88 so that he will not be indebted to him.
      European countries have pledged hundreds of billions of dollars to aid indebted neighbors that run into trouble.
      I am indebted to Captain (now Major) Greer, of the 2nd Battalion.
      I am, along with many others, eternally indebted to you.
      n[UC] a belief that disagrees with the official principles of a religion ¶ a belief or an opinion that disagrees strongly with what most people believe
      Heresy is any provocative belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs. A heretic is a proponent of such claims or beliefs.
      Heresy is distinct from both apostasy, which is the explicit renunciation of one's religion, principles or cause, and blasphemy, which is irreverence toward religion.
      The term is usually used to refer to violations of important religious teachings, but is used also of views strongly opposed to any generally accepted ideas.
      Galileo Galilei was brought before the Inquisition for heresy, but abjured his views and was sentenced to house arrest, under which he spent the rest of his life.
      Deviations from these recommendations were considered heresy and could quite possibly result in malpractice.
      This post will be considered heresy by some, but I think it has to be talked about.
      adj likely to break or fall apart, shaky
      Fiona was imprisoned on the top floor of a rickety old tower.
      Half the subjects met the interviewer in the middle of a broad, sturdy concrete bridge, half in the middle of a rickety wooden bridge above a deep gorge.
      Others have set sail for Bangladesh, Thailand and Malaysia on rickety boats, two of which have reportedly capsized.
      He sent me up rickety stairs to the third floor. Rooms for four people.
      Sean moved to the rickety table that served as a desk and sat down in the camp chair behind it.
      adj passed from one generation to following generations ¶ holding a position by inheritance
      A quality or illness that is hereditary is passed from a parent to a child before the child is born.
      Most likely, joint degeneration develops from a combination of hereditary , constitutional and environmental causes.
      A hereditary position, rank, or title can be passed from an older to a younger person in the same family, usually when the older one dies.
      Hereditary peers form part of the Peerage in the United Kingdom. There are over eight hundred peers who hold titles that may be inherited.
      The peerage is a legal system of largely hereditary titles in the United Kingdom, which is constituted by the ranks of British nobility and is part of the British honours system.
      Writing in 1776, Tom Paine, a Briton whose life we would do better to celebrate, warned the American revolutionaries that if they accepted a hereditary monarchy: "Such an unwise, unjust, unnatural compact might in the next succession put them under the government of a rogue or a fool."
      adj run-down
      A dilapidated building, vehicle etc is old and in very bad condition.
      In the town there are beautiful pre-Soviet buildings, but they're dilapidated and many are boarded up.
      The mosque is now in a dilapidated condition and cracks have developed on walls and domes.
      The whole area is in a fairly dilapidated state.
      I'm looking for a scruffy old bloke driving a dilapidated old four-wheel drive.
      n[CU] funny play for the theatre based on unlikely situations and events ¶ a ridiculous or meaningless situation or action
      In theatre, a farce is a comedy that aims at entertaining the audience through situations that are highly exaggerated, extravagant, and thus improbable.
      I've just sat through the Chicago Mayor elections and what a complete farce!
      Their carbon reduction policy is a total farce (and based on an outright lie).
      Its ex-head, Burhan Ghalioun, branded the conference a "farce" and a "mockery."
      The debate degenerated into farce when opposing speakers started shouting at each other.
      adj happening immediately
      Feedback from users was nearly instantaneous.
      It's fantastic to have almost instantaneous communication with our fans across these media platforms.
      The speedometer of a car tells us the instantaneous velocity of the car; that is, it shows the velocity at that instant of time.
      I can ask a question and get an instantaneous response.
      By my listening habits, I mean that I require instantaneous access (which precludes CD) to previously unimaginably large quantities of diverse music, most of which I will listen to only once.
      Compare instantaneous, miscellaneous, simultaneous, and spontaneous.
      n[C] sb who speaks several languages fluently ¶ a specialist in linguistics
      Avram Noam Chomsky is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, logician, political commentator, social justice activist, and anarcho-syndicalist advocate.
      He has spent most of his career at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), where he is currently Professor Emeritus, and has authored over 100 books.
      He has been described as a prominent cultural figure, and was voted the "world's top public intellectual" in a 2005 poll.
      Zhou Youguang (Chou Yu-kuang; Chinese: 周有光) is the art-name of Zhou Yaoping (Chinese: 周耀平) who is a Chinese linguist, often credited as the "father of (Hanyu) Pinyin", the official romanization for Mandarin in the People's Republic of China.
      Robert Hans van Gulik (Chinese: 髙羅佩) was an orientalist, diplomat, musician (of the guqin), and writer, best known for the Judge Dee historical mysteries, the protagonist of which he borrowed from the 18th-century Chinese detective novel Dee Goong An.
      My Fair Lady depicts misogynistic and arrogant phonetics professor Henry Higgins as he wagers that he can take flower girl Eliza Doolittle and turn her Cockney accent into a proper English one, thereby making her presentable in high society.
      Audrey Hepburn spent her childhood between Belgium, England and the Netherlands, including German-occupied Arnhem during the Second World War.
      Audrey's travels were made easier by her wide knowledge of languages; besides being naturally bilingual in English and Dutch, she also was fluent in French, Italian, Spanish, and German.