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      n[C] a stupid person
      Moron is a term once used in psychology to denote mild intellectual disability.
      The term was closely tied with the American eugenics movement.
      Once the term became popularized, it fell out of use by the psychological community, as it was used more commonly as an insult than as a psychological term.
      "Moron" was coined in 1910 by psychologist Henry H. Goddard from the Ancient Greek word μωρός (moros), which meant "dull", and used to describe a person with a mental age in adulthood of between 8 and 12 on the Binet scale.
      It was once applied to people with an IQ of 51–70, being superior in one degree to "imbecile" (IQ of 26–50) and superior in two degrees to "idiot" (IQ of 0–25).
      The word moron, along with others including, "idiotic", "imbecilic", "stupid", and "feeble-minded", was formerly considered a valid descriptor in the psychological community, but it is now deprecated in use by psychologists.
      v[IT] change the sound of your voice ¶ move from one key to another in a piece of music ¶ change the form of a radio signal ¶ affect sth so that it becomes more regular, slower, etc
      In beautiful modulated tones, in a deep voice, solemn and impressive, he called upon all assembled to witness the ceremony that was about to take place.
      Modulation is the essential part of the art. Without it there is little music, for a piece derives its true beauty not from the large number of fixed modes which it embraces but rather from the subtle fabric of its modulation.
      A modem (modulator-demodulator) is a device that modulates signals to encode digital information and demodulates signals to decode the transmitted information.
      In telecommunications and signal processing, frequency modulation (FM) conveys information over a carrier wave by varying its instantaneous frequency.
      Amplitude modulation (AM) is a technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a radio carrier wave.
      AM works by varying the strength of the transmitted signal in relation to the information being sent.
      In other words, you may have to modulate the pedal pressure slightly using the tire noise, the forces on your body and the balance of the car for feedback.
      In fact I think your heart rate is modulated by thyroid, I am sure I have read that.
      Compare adjust, modulate, moderate, regulate, and temper.
      adj happening as a result of sth
      Consequent to the release of water from the reservoirs, farmers in the districts of Mysore, Mandya, Hassan have taken to picketing, gherao and even threatened to seize, the dam.
      Gherao, meaning "encirclement," is a word originally from Hindi. It denotes a tactic used by labour activists and union leaders in India. Usually, a group of people would surround a politician or a government building until their demands are met, or answers given.
      The growth of electricity supply consequent upon the invention of the turbine created a demand, not only for larger generating units, but also for higher transmission voltages in order that more extensive areas might be economically served.
      For many this will mean loss of job, consequent loss of home and all the other disastrous financial and social consquences which flow from the loss of a driving licence.
      The potential savings in fuel costs are substantial, as is the consequent reduction in emissions, potentially saving up to 16 percent per tonne-mile.
      n[C] a guard at a gate or other point of passage
      A sentry box is a small shelter with an open front in which a sentry or person on guard duty may stand to be sheltered from the weather.
      A sentry guarding a base for example would guard a specific point of entry.
      A sentinel would guard the entire installation with much greater freedom of movement and ability to challenge.
      Standing orders are also different.
      The US military generally uses MPs and doesn't call them sentinels.
      Orders to Sentry is the official title of a set of rules governing sentry (guard or watch) duty in the United States Armed Forces.
      The General Orders for Sentries are quite similar between the U.S. Navy and U.S. Marine Corps. The General Orders for the U.S. Navy and U.S. Marines are as follows:
      To take charge of this post and all government property in view.
      To walk my post in a military manner, keeping always on the alert and observing everything that takes place within sight or hearing.
      To report all violations of orders I am instructed to enforce.
      To repeat all calls from posts more distant from the guardhouse (or the Quarterdeck) than my own.
      To quit my post only when properly relieved.
      To talk to no one except in the line of duty.
      To give the alarm in case of fire or disorder.
      To call the Corporal of the Guard or Officer of the Deck in any case not covered by instructions.
      To salute all officers and all colors and standards not cased. (Both terms, "colors" and "standards", refer to the national ensign.)
      To be especially watchful at night and during the time for challenging, to challenge all persons on or near my post, and to allow no one to pass without proper authority.
      Compare scout, sentinel and sentry.
      n[C] a simultaneous discharge of a number of missiles, or the missiles thus discharged ¶ a bursting forth of many things together
      also a verb
      In sport, if someone volleys the ball, they hit it before it touches the ground.
      He volleyed the ball into the net.
      He hit most of the winning volleys.
      A volley of gunfire is a lot of bullets that travel through the air at the same time.
      This sudden volley and grenades was too much for the attackers.
      Cook raised the Union Jack. Amid volleys of gunfire, he claimed the eastern half of the continent for King George III.
      I'm afraid your proposal was met with a volley of criticisms.
      Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net.
      The great sand is perfect for beach volleyball or just a leisurely stroll.
      v[T] praise highly
      This embarrassingly bad internal Microsoft video extolling the virtues of Vista in the enterprise has been linked all over the place today. It epitomizes Microsoft's culture and institutional bad taste.
      In 1884 an immigration handbook in Yiddish was circulated in parts of Eastern Europe. It extolled the virtues of settlement in Manitoba, the Canadian province that today borders Saskatchewan on the east.
      Apart from parading a few young black people from Africa, who extolled the virtues of' development', there was little contribution from the Majority World.
      He extolled the virtues of union members as "wealth creators for this country."
      I see countless posts extolling 'free' care in countries that have socialized medicine.
      adj mysterious and difficult to understand
      The Cryptic era is an informal term that refers to the earliest geologic evolution of the Earth and Moon.
      This time is cryptic because very little geological evidence has survived from this time.
      In Sherlock Holmes' story "The Adventure of the Dancing Men", a man reports that his wife, Elsie, became upset when she received several cryptic notes with figures of dancing men on them.
      Cryptic crosswords are crossword puzzles in which each clue is a word puzzle in and of itself.
      I'm tired of the cryptic error messages often shown on the browser and the fact that some major websites like ESPN show messages like "the playback of this video is not authorized on this device" or whatever.
      adj full of strong feeling and emotion, fervent
      Prime Minister Bob Hawke made an impassioned plea for the Malaysian government to spare the Australians from being executed.
      The queen makes one last impassioned defence of her son and of her right to keep him in sanctuary.
      I was very impressed with McCain's impassioned speech about the need to cut election spending.
      Glendon Harris, the Mayor of Montego Bay, Jamaica's second largest city, has issued an impassioned appeal to criminals operating in his city, to cease and desist from their criminal ways.
      She appeared on television to make an impassioned plea for help.
      adj outdated
      Compared with modern satellite dishes, ordinary TV aerials look positively antiquated.
      In a digital age, buying and listening to vinyl records may appear antiquated, and to some even a little pretentious.
      The idea that a student could complete three years of law school entirely in a classroom through exam based courses will seem quaint and antiquated.
      No doubt this model is a major improvement over the antiquated system of dry textbooks and teachers delivering lectures to a broad, bored audience.
      They are hindering technological as well as social progress in the defense of their antiquated business models.
      n[C] a device borne across the shoulders of animals or humans, for example to harness draught animals together, or to assist humans
      also a verb
      A yoke is a wooden beam normally used between a pair of oxen or other animals to enable them to pull together on a load when working in pairs, as oxen usually do; some yokes are fitted to individual animals.
      A pair of oxen may be called a yoke of oxen, and yoke is also a verb, as in "to yoke a pair of oxen".
      Other animals that may be yoked include horses, mules, donkeys, and water buffalo.
      A carrying pole, also called a shoulder pole, or a milkmaid's yoke, is a yoke of wood or bamboo, used by people to carry a load.
      A triple tree ("triple clamp" (US) or "yoke" (UK)) attaches the fork tubes to the frame via steering head bearings, which allow the fork assembly to pivot from side to side, and therefore steer the motorcycle.
      A yoke, alternatively known as a control column is a device used for piloting some fixed-wing aircraft.
      The pilot uses the yoke to control the attitude of the plane, usually in both pitch and roll.
      The yoke has connotations of subservience and toiling; in some ancient cultures it was traditional to force a vanquished enemy to pass beneath a symbolic yoke of spears or swords.
      The yoke may be a metaphor for something oppressive or burdensome.
      The yoke of something is something that restricts your freedom, making life difficult etc.
      If two or more people or things are yoked together, they are forced to be closely linked with each other.
      Beauty is forever yoked to youth in our culture.
      n[U] a technique that uses sound propagation to navigate, communicate with or detect objects
      Sonar (originally an acronym for SOund Navigation And Ranging) is a technique that uses sound propagation (usually underwater, as in submarine navigation) to navigate, communicate with or detect objects on or under the surface of the water, such as other vessels.
      Two types of technology share the name "sonar": passive sonar is essentially listening for the sound made by vessels; active sonar is emitting pulses of sounds and listening for echoes.
      Sonar may be used as a means of acoustic location and of measurement of the echo characteristics of "targets" in the water.
      Acoustic location in air was used before the introduction of radar.
      Sonar may also be used in air for robot navigation, and SODAR (an upward looking in-air sonar) is used for atmospheric investigations.
      The term sonar is also used for the equipment used to generate and receive the sound.
      The acoustic frequencies used in sonar systems vary from very low (infrasonic) to extremely high (ultrasonic).
      The study of underwater sound is known as underwater acoustics or hydroacoustics.
      Recording of active SONAR pings.
      The term RADAR was coined in 1940 by the United States Navy as an acronym for RAdio Detection And Ranging.
      adj ≠stiff
      Lightweight, supple and very comfortable race shoes.
      The meat was tender and pink, supple and delicious.
      With the onset of winter and the colder weather in the southern hemisphere, skin needs and deserves a little extra help to remain smooth and supple.
      I like the slight tightening sensation I feel after applying and I noticed results very soon after I started using the product, the skin around my eyes appears firmer but not dry, actually more supple and youthful.
      I feel rejuvenated; my body is more supple and my medication requirements are reduced.
      Compare elastic, flexible, supple, and suttle.
      n[C] a wealthy and powerful businessperson
      A business magnate (or industrialist) refers to an entrepreneur of great influence, importance, or standing in a particular enterprise or field of business.
      The term characteristically refers to a wealthy entrepreneur or investor who controls through personal business ownership or dominant shareholding position a firm or industry whose goods, products, or services are widely consumed.
      Such individuals may also be called czars, moguls, tycoons, taipans, barons, or oligarchs.
      Christian Grey was a business tycoon.
      Howard Hughes was a major American aviation and film tycoon during the 20th century.
      Taikun (大君), a Japanese term of Chinese extraction, is the origin of the English word "tycoon".
      Letter of Abraham Lincoln to "Taikun" Tokugawa Iemochi, announcing the departure of Townsend Harris. 14 November 1861.
      v[T] add a liquid to dried food ¶ provide with a new structure
      Depending on its manufacturing conditions, tomato paste can be the basis for making ketchup or reconstituted tomato juice.
      According to USAID, the typical average amounts of major nutrients in the unreconstituted nonfat dry milk are (by weight) 36% protein, 52% carbohydrates (predominantly lactose), calcium 1.3%, potassium 1.8%.
      Powdered milk or dried milk is a manufactured dairy product made by evaporating milk to dryness.
      Under these reforms, the Council was reconstituted as a body elected by the members of both Houses of Parliament voting as a single electoral college (in place of the earlier system of appointments by the Governor).
      In 1974, it was reconstituted as a joint venture between the U.S. and Japan under the name of Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF).
      The crisis resulting from the end of the speculative cotton boom led to the liquidation of Bank of Bombay in 1868. It was however reconstituted in the same year.
      My proposal is to reconstitute a new New Zealand Broadcasting Corporation, headquartered probably in Auckland.
      I would summarily sack everyone and reconstitute the board afresh with a clear mandate.
      adj distant physically or emotionally
      Very critical time right now. If you feel yourself reaching for that phone, you go shoe shopping, you get your butt in a bubble bath. You want her back you have to start acting aloof. She needs to know that you are not needy.
      Right. So, what you have to do is, you have to accidentally run into her on purpose. And then act aloof.
      My God! Chandler, we said be 'aloof' not 'a doof'.
      Maybe because you used to be aloof, or that you're really sarcastic, or that, you know, you joke around all the time. Or that you take off your clothes and you throw them on the couch.
      The orphan Indian girl generally kept aloof from the rest, and seemed so lonely and companionless.
      If someone stays aloof from something, they do not become involved with it.
      Back in the 19th century the wealthy chose to remain aloof from the great unwashed by creating pleasure domes high on the hill of Casa Loma.
      Casa Loma (Spanish for Hill House) is a Gothic Revival style house and gardens in midtown Toronto, Ontario, Canada, that is now a museum and landmark.
      The great unwashed is the people who are poor and have not been educated.
      adj generous toward visitors and guests ¶ providing the conditions that sth needs to exist in a place
      In general, Armenians are polite and hospitable people who live in close knit communities.
      I need to find a location that's more hospitable than the mean streets of Pasadena. Like Enid, Oklahoma.
      The hotels here have hospitable staff and 24 hour reception to meet your requirements.
      The weather may well have grown more hospitable to mosquitoes during that time.
      "May/might/could well" is used to say that something is likely to happen or is likely to be true.
      Actually it's both of us. Apparently my sperm have low motility and you have an inhospitable environment.
      adj underground ¶ hidden, secret
      I hurried down the concrete stairs into the stale subterranean warmth and was greeted with the electric light of the station.
      Alongside the Iguaz Falls, the Amazon River, Halong Bay in Vietnam, South Africa's Mesa Mountain, the subterranean river in Puerto Princesa, Phillipines, Jeju Island in South Corea and Komodo, Indonesia also made the cut.
      An adventurous geology professor mounts an expedition that descends into a subterranean world of luminous rocks, antediluvian forests, and fantastic marine life -- a living past that holds the secrets to the origins of human existence.
      This Park offers different activities surrounded by an exuberant jungle and a subterranean world known as magical and sacred in the Mayan culture.
      Compare submarine and subterranean.
      v[IT] change into stone ¶ frighten sb greatly, esp so that they are unable to move or speak
      In geology, petrifaction or petrification is the process by which organic material is converted into stone through the replacement of the original material and the filling of the original pore spaces with minerals.
      Petrified wood is a common result of this process, but all organisms, from bacteria to vertebrates, can be petrified.
      Petrified wood (from the Greek root petro meaning "rock" or "stone"; literally "wood turned into stone") is the name given to a special type of fossilized remains of terrestrial vegetation.
      The petrifying image of Medusa makes an instantly recognizable feature in popular culture.
      At first I was afraid I was petrified; Thinking I couldn't live without you by my side... "I Will Survive" is a hit song first performed by American singer Gloria Gaynor, released in October 1978.
      Rachel is petrified of swings: I was 4 years old and I was on the swing and then all of a sudden my hair got tangled in the chain. And to get me out my mom had to cut a big chunk of my hair! And it was uneven for weeks!
      Ross was petrified with fear when he saw the spider.
      adj tasting good enough to eat or drink ¶  pleasant or acceptable
      There is a long way to go before gay marriage will be palatable for the entire UK population.
      Lord of All is written in the tradition of a Medieval Romance but palatable to the modern reader.
      I'm given to understand that when you have something awkward to discuss with someone, it's more palatable to preface it with banal chitchat.
      I've been thinking about Dr. Greene's efforts to make science palatable for the masses.
      The truth, as always, is slightly less palatable.
      adj extremely dangerous or harmful ¶ showing strong negative and bitter feelings
      A poison, disease etc that is virulent is very dangerous and affects people very quickly (≠mild).
      "Haven't seen you in a while. How's it going?" "Oh, other than waiting out the exponential growth period of the virulent organisms trooping through my microvilli into my circulatory system, hunky-dory."
      More than 50,000 Canadians succumbed to this virulent strain of influenza that swept the globe in 1918 and 1919.
      Some new evidence suggests that the most virulent strain of human malaria may have originated in gorillas.
      An outbreak of the less virulent H5N2 strain of bird flu in Taiwan in 2004 led to the culling of hundreds of thousands of fowl.
      The 1862 epidemic represented the most virulent form of the disease and widespread panic was reported in the press.
      The Nazis used propaganda campaigns to promote the party's virulent hatred of Jews.
      v[T] name a list of things one by one, itemize
      I present to you the relationship agreement. A binding covenant that, in its 31 pages, enumerates, iterates and codifies the rights and responsibilities of Sheldon Lee Cooper, here and after known as "the boyfriend," and Amy Farrah Fowler, here and after known as "the girlfriend".
      In addition, the judge must consider a long list of eight separate factors enumerated in the statute when deciding "likely relevance" and "necessity".
      The enumerated powers are a list of items found in Article I, Section 8 of the U.S. Constitution that set forth the authoritative capacity of Congress.
      Well Tony, please enumerate all the health benefits of circumcision that you acknowledge so we're on the same page.
      Compare enumerate, itemize, and iterate.
      n[UC] a very strong irrational fear or hatred of sth
      The fear of snakes is another common phobia which can affect many people.
      The US has a phobia about losing their superpower status.
      Acrophobia or altophobia is an abnormal fear or dread of being at a great height.
      Agoraphobia is an abnormal fear of open or public places.
      Claustrophobia is the fear of being in a small enclosed space.
      Hydrophobia is a great fear of drinking and water, often a sign of rabies.
      Photophobia is an abnormal sensitivity to or intolerance of light.
      Xenophobia means hatred of foreigners.
      v[T] abandon or give up
      All right, then, my so-called friends have forsaken me.
      Why hast thou (have you) forsaken me, O deity whose existence I doubt?
      God has heard your prayers and he will not forsake you.
      The blood of a Muslim may not be legally spilt other than in one of three instances: the married person who commits adultery, a life for a life, and one who forsakes his religion and abandons the community.
      If someone takes a life of your friend or a family member, you take a life of one of their friends or family.
      v[T] cover a chair with material
      Upholstery is the work of providing furniture, especially seats, with padding, springs, webbing, and fabric or leather covers.
      The fibre content of the filling or stuffing used in upholstered furniture, mattresses, box-springs, cushions, chair pads, pot holders, oven mitts, place mats and mattress protectors is not required to be disclosed under the Textile Labelling Act and its Regulations.
      This large room is decorated with lilac panelled walls, purple carpet and corn-coloured upholstered chairs .
      The walls are of glass and marble, with fine upholstered sofas and chairs and Japanese-style lacquered furniture along the walls.
      A holster is a holder for a small gun, which is worn on a belt around someone's waist or on a strap around their shoulder.
      adj too confident and relaxed because you think you can deal with sth easily, even though this may not be true
      I assumed that you wanted candid truth-telling from your employees, but I realize now, you want the mindless nattering of complacent yes-men.
      The whole tenure system is ridiculous. A guaranteed job for life only encourages the faculty to become complacent.
      New Yorkers are growing complacent about safety and evacuation planning and training is the key to the city combating another September 11-style attack or natural disaster, experts said on Wednesday.
      It is dangerous to become complacent with things like this. Just because our generation hasn't experienced doesn't mean that there is a threat that we still need to be vigilant against.
      The citizens of this country must stand up today and not be complacent because we achieved democracy 18 years ago.