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      adj relating to birth
      Adult salmon return to their natal stream for reproduction.
      Prenatal is used to describe things relating to the medical care of women during pregnancy.
      Postnatal means relating to the period of time immediately after a baby has been born.
      Postpartum depression (PPD), also called postnatal depression, is a type of clinical depression which can affect women after childbirth.
      Symptoms may include sadness, low energy, changes in sleeping and eating patterns, reduced desire for sex, crying episodes, anxiety, and irritability.
      Natal is a region in South Africa.
      Natal (Brazilian Portuguese: [na'taw], Christmas) is the capital and largest city of Rio Grande do Norte, a northeastern state in Brazil.
      n[C] an opening, crack, or V-shaped indentation
      Compare cleft, cleave, cleavage, fissure, furrow, gap, and slit.
      Cleft lip (cheiloschisis) and cleft palate (palatoschisis), which can also occur together as cleft lip and palate, are variations of a type of clefting congenital deformity caused by abnormal facial development during gestation.
      A cleft is a fissure or opening—a gap. It is the non-fusion of the body's natural structures that form before birth.
      A cleft lip or palate can be successfully treated with surgery, especially so if conducted soon after birth or in early childhood.
      Approximately 1 in 700 children born have a cleft lip or a cleft palate or both.
      The terms cleft chin, chin cleft, dimple chin, or chin dimple, refer to a dimple on the chin. It is a Y-shaped fissure on the chin with an underlying bony peculiarity.
      The pudendal cleft (also called the cleft of Venus, pudendal fissure, pudendal cleavage, pudendal slit, urogenital cleft, vulvar slit, rima vulvae, or rima pudendi) is a part of the vulva, the furrow at the base of the mons pubis where it divides to form the labia majora.
      The labia majora (singular: labium majus) are two prominent longitudinal cutaneous folds that extend downward and backward from the mons pubis to the perineum.
      The labia majora is homologous to the male scrotum.
      Camel toe or cameltoe is a slang term that refers to the outline of a woman's labia majora, as seen through tightly fitting clothes.
      In men, the equivalent to "camel toe" is male organs showing through clothes at the crotch, which has been referred to as a "moose knuckle".
      In human anatomy, and in mammals in general, the mons pubis (also known simply as the mons, and known specifically in females as the mons Venus or mons veneris), is a rounded mass of fatty tissue found over the pubic symphysis of the pubic bones.
      adj involving death or violence in a shocking way
      While fishing with her father, and her friend Terry, they make a grisly discovery. May Lynn, a girl their age, has been killed and dumped into the river with a sewing machine tied around her ankle to weigh her down.
      It was only when he stood accused of two brutal, grisly murders that he realized that he was the hapless victim of racism.
      The witnesses painted a grisly picture of an attacker wearing a headlamp who continued to shoot his victims.
      The orders to commit the grisly crime allegedly came from Lazcano, who originally wanted the bodies to be left in a town's central square.
      Compre ghastly, grisly, grotesque, and gruesome.
      adj no longer existing or working
      Through a mail-in program, the company recycles your defunct awards or re-engraves and donates them to nonprofit organizations.
      It was published in 1990 in the now defunct literary journal' Modern Short Stories'.
      Sharper Image is an American product brand, formerly associated with a defunct retail company, now licensed for use on consumer electronics and gift products.
      With the Soviet Union defunct, the U.S. no longer should be securing access to Middle Eastern oil for the Europeans and the Japanese, who are, unlike the U.S., both dependent on the region's oil and should now start to pay the military and economic costs of protecting access to it.
      I knew the publisher (now defunct) was never going to do anything for an audio or ebook format.
      v[I] recover or recoup
      When someone recuperates, they recover their health or strength after they have been ill or injured.
      If someone recuperates costs, expenses, etc, they get back money that they have spent or lost in business.
      Compare recuperate, rehabilitate, resilient and reimburse.
      With his family at his side, Darryl was able to fully recuperate from a severe medical crisis.
      She was hospitalized briefly and sent home to recuperate.
      He sacrifices his health in order to make money. Then he sacrifices money to recuperate his health. And then he is so anxious about the future that he does not enjoy the present.
      HTC is making a series of strategic shifts, from the way it releases devices to the way it markets them as it looks to recuperate its losses.
      n[C] a heavy fall of rain
      All of us were caught in a very heavy downpour.
      Many people have been sent to safer areas following the heavy downpour.
      Part of the way up, the skies open up into a torrential downpour.
      We're not talking a slight drizzle - it was a torrential downpour.
      Hard Rain (also known as The Flood) is a 1998 American/British action thriller film.
      At the Beach, it's raining cats and dogs as the gang arrives. Chandler and Monica are taking shelter under Rachel's hat.
      n[C] a small axe with a short handle
      A hatchet is a single-handed striking tool with a sharp blade on one side used to cut and split wood, and a hammer head on the other side.
      Hatchets may also be used for hewing when making flattened surfaces on logs; when the hatchet head is optimized for this purpose it is called a broadaxe.
      Burying the hatchet has become a phrase meaning to make peace, due to the Native American tradition of hiding or putting away a tomahawk when a peace agreement was made.
      To do a hatchet job on someone or something means to say or write something mentioning many bad things about them, which harms their reputation.
      In the context of the Watergate scandal, the term hatchet man was used to refer to a trusted and particularly orthodox subordinate tasked by his employer with destroying a political opponent by any means necessary.
      Charles Colson was known as a hatchet man for President Richard Nixon, as was H.R. Haldeman, who proudly described himself as "Richard Nixon's 'son of a bitch'".
      This use of the term has since become commonplace for anyone who is tasked with conducting distasteful, illegal, or unfair "dirty work" to protect the reputation or power of their employer.
      v[T] scold sharply
      It is the height of hypocrasy for Germans to berate the southern states for over-spending when that spending is the only thing that has allowed Germany's economy to grow.
      Andrews you are a disgrace! 12 years of nothing and you have the cheek to berate the current government. Have you ever apologised to Dr Haneef for detrimentally influencing his case?
      This woman raced over and started to berate me for "catching ducks". She then proceeded to inform me that ducks are almost extinct and that the few ponds in city parks are the only places they have left to go.
      Frasier is shocked after he hears his father being berated by his new bully of a boss.
      If teams and players aren't being berated for a failure to win, they're simply forgotten.
      n[s] the beginning of sth, esp sth bad
      Beginning in 2008 after the onset of a severe recession, the U.S. Treasury Department bought billions of dollars of stock in scores of private banks in a move designed to stem panic and stabilize financial institutions.
      California's budget deficit peaked at $42 billion in 2009, after the onset of the global financial crisis.
      In 2008, before the onset of the global financial crisis, a median of 45% of those Pew surveyed in 14 countries named the U.S. as the world's leading economic power, while just 22% nominated China.
      Symptoms include sudden onset of severe, watery diarrhoea, sometimes with vomiting.
      I am 70 and have been diagnosed as having early onset of Alzheimer's Disease.
      adj difficult to do or needing a lot of effort
      Elizabeth and Philip were on tour in a remote part of Kenya when George VI died in his sleep at Sandringham on 6th February, 1952. The onerous task of informing her of her father's death and her own consequent accession to the throne fell upon her husband.
      As a father, you owe your child/children the onerous task of being the provider of their needs as well as supporting them to develop an emotional balance.
      I remember that the study of optical crystallography at university was an onerous task, with complex math and terminology.
      The drafting of a new constitution is an onerous task and no doubt those charged with the work will consult widely.
      n[U] the ability of sth to stretch and go back to its usual length or size ¶ the ability to change when the situation changes
      This is because as we age, our skin loses elasticity and collagen, and doesn't 'bounce back' into shape.
      In physics, elasticity is the tendency of solid materials to return to their original shape after being deformed.
      In economics, elasticity is the measurement of how responsive an economic variable is to a change in another. It gives answers to questions such as:
      "If I lower the price of my product, how much more will I sell?"
      "If I raise the price of one good, how will that affect sales of this other good?"
      "If the market price of a product goes down, how much will that affect the amount that firms will be willing to supply to the market?
      In cloud computing, elasticity is defined as the degree to which a system is able to adapt to workload changes by provisioning and deprovisioning resources in an autonomic manner, such that at each point in time the available resources match the current demand as closely as possible.
      adj connected with seeing, hearing and understanding ¶ having or showing the ability to see or understand things quickly, esp things that are not obvious
      Cathy Hamilton's article is coherent, perceptive, fair and well written.
      This powerful, prophetic, perceptive and provocative book should be a bestseller.
      The Cabinet paper of 17 March, 1948, titled the Report on Ceylon, is a very perceptive and analytical document.
      Women are really very perceptive. They can send and receive plenty of subtle communication which men mostly ignore.
      They are way smarter and more perceptive than we often give them credit.
      n[C] proverb
      An adage is a short, usually philosophical, but memorable saying which holds some important fact of experience that is considered true by many people, or that has gained some credibility through its long memetic use.
      It often involves a planning failure such as "don't count your chickens before they hatch" or "don't burn your bridges".
      Adages may be interesting observations, practical or ethical guidelines, or skeptical comments on life.
      Some adages are products of folk wisdom that attempt to summarize some form of basic truth; these are generally known as proverbs or bywords.
      An adage that describes a general rule of conduct is a "maxim".
      A pithy expression that has not necessarily gained credit through long use, but is distinguished by particular depth or good style is an aphorism, while one distinguished by wit or irony is an epigram.
      Through overuse, an adage may become a cliché or truism, or be described as an "old saw."
      Adages coined in modernity are often given proper names and called "laws" in imitation of physical laws, or "principles".
      Some adages, such as Murphy's Law, are first formulated informally and given proper names later, while others, such as the Peter Principle, have proper names in their initial formulation; it might be argued that the latter sort does not represent "true" adages, but the two types are often difficult to distinguish.
      adj additional
      Mr President, I ask a supplementary question.
      Two months later, on his return from the winter trip overseas, Holt introduced a supplementary budget.
      The scheme is administered by the Health Service Executive as part of the Supplementary Welfare Allowance Scheme.
      Under the supplementary vote system, Londoners are allowed to cast a first and second preference vote.
      The supplementary information section of the paper reveals how they processed the satellite data.
      adj ≠selfish
      While research shows men who display bravery for altruistic reasons are attractive as heroes to women, the daredevils grossly overestimate their appeal to females.
      It is a casino and nobody builds a casino for altruistic reasons, but developers these days like to provide a 'total experience'.
      Their motives are pure, altruistic, and well-meaning.
      Evolutionary psychology has shown us that human nature is logically both selfish and altruistic.
      The most likely mechanisms for the development of altruistic behavior are kin selection (promotion of one's genes by improving the survival of close relatives) and reciprocal altruism (scratch my back and I'll scratch yours.)
      Never commit an altruistic act if you're looking for thanks.
      n[U] the linear distance around the edge of a closed curve or circular object
      The circumference of a circle is of special importance in geometry and trigonometry.
      Informally "circumference" may also refer to the edge itself rather than to the length of the edge.
      Circumference is a special case of perimeter: the perimeter is the length around any closed figure, but conventionally "perimeter" is typically used in reference to a polygon while "circumference" typically refers to a continuously differentiable curve.
      The circumference of a circle relates to one of the most important mathematical constants in all of mathematics. This constant, pi.
      It is called Lake Ita, and is about seven miles in circumference.
      v[IT] laugh at or mock sb/sth
      also a noun
      In parliament blokes have been called every name under the sun. They are attacked for their dancing styles, weight, beliefs and even reading abilities.
      They have been called Hitler, scumbags, liars and much more. They are hooted and jeered at when they speak and I have even heard the odd gorilla grunt.
      I was taunted and jeered at by older students most days.
      Spectators at the Wembley Arena shouted abuse and jeered at the players.
      When attempting to sing, the Salvation Army choir would often be drowned out by the jeers of a surly mob.
      In some of the towns crowds flocked to jeer at them.
      Benitez took charge of Chelsea for the first time on Sunday and was jeered by a section of fans before the 0-0 draw at home to Manchester City.
      n[C] a logarithmic unit used to express the ratio between two values of a physical quantity
      The decibel (dB) is a logarithmic unit used to express the ratio between two values of a physical quantity, often power or intensity.
      One of these quantities is often a reference value, and in this case the decibel can be used to express the absolute level of the physical quantity, as in the case of sound pressure.
      The number of decibels is ten times the logarithm to base 10 of the ratio of two power quantities, or of the ratio of the squares of two field amplitude quantities.
      One decibel is one tenth of one bel, named in honor of Alexander Graham Bell.
      The bel is seldom used without the deci- prefix.
      The definition of the decibel is based on the measurement of power in telephony of the early 20th century in the Bell System in the United States.
      Today, the unit is used for a wide variety of measurements in science and engineering, most prominently in acoustics, electronics, and control theory.
      In electronics, the gains of amplifiers, attenuation of signals, and signal-to-noise ratios are often expressed in decibels.
      A change in voltage by a factor of 10 results in a change in power by a factor of 100 and corresponds to a 20 dB change. (10 to the power of 20/10)
      adj incapable of being penetrated or affected
      Surfaces below the work area shall be covered with drop sheets of polyethylene or other suitable material that is impervious to asbestos.
      Whilst the glazed finish on glazed ceramic tiles is impervious to water, if there is a leak or excess moisture, the tile may become wet from behind or underneath.
      No arrow, spear or silver bullet can bring him down. He is impervious to criticism; he listens to no-one and learns nothing.
      Science is impervious to political beliefs and ideology.
      It seems not even vice-chancellors are impervious to the worldwide pop sensation that is Gangnam Style - the infectious chart-topping hit from South Korean artist PSY.
      Compare impervious and porous.
      adj harmful or poisonous, toxic
      Gorse is a noxious weed that dominates native vegetation, harbours pests such as rabbits and foxes and reduces property values.
      The gizmo under the women's right arm measures the noxious fumes she is exposed to while cooking.
      Boone, 30, is accused of attempted murder and administering a noxious substance on three men.
      Another type of pollution is the release of noxious gases, such as sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and chemical vapors.
      Pain-sensing nerves are specialised cells which respond to noxious stimuli, such as acid or heat.
      Compare noxious and obnoxious.
      n[C] a wild plant with heart-shaped leaves that are covered in hairs which sting
      v[T] annoy sb
      Nettle is part of the English name of many plants with stinging hairs, particularly those of the genus Urtica.
      It is also part of the name of plants which resemble Urtica species in appearance but do not have stinging hairs.
      The Sea Nettle is a species of jellyfish occurring particularly in Atlantic ocean.
      The term "sea nettle" is also used for a related species, Chrysaora fuscescens.
      She was carrying it disdainfully by the corner between her finger and thumb; her face wore a nettled look.
      Everything she said on the ride had nettled him.
      n[C] mark or stain that spoils the beauty or perfection of sb/sth ¶ defect, fault or flaw
      v[T] spoil the appearance of sth ¶ spoil sb's reputation or career
      At times, sunspots are rare and the sun appears almost without blemish.
      It is true that no mortal being is without blemish.
      Random work methods lacking continuity are a blemish on the coach and become a burden on the shoulders of players working with him/her.
      African black soap contains antibacterial properties that aid in the prevention of acne and blemishes.
      Unfortunately, Champollion's expedition was blemished by instances of unchecked looting.
      Finding auto loans for people with blemished credit takes effort, but if you keep trying, you may finally find a loan to get you going.
      adj making sb feel less angry or hostile
      She is very pretty and has a disarming smile which flashes across her face every now and again.
      The man is a charmer, and he is disarming.
      "It most certainly has," he replies with disarming honesty.
      With disarming candour she once explained she was never married and that her mother was "naturally concerned" at her choosing to be a solo mum.
      v[T] make sb lose confidence, hope and energy
      I agree that more research must be done, but it is disheartening to see it dismissed so readily.
      It is disheartening to peruse freelance sites and see postings for people willing to pay ghostwriters a mere 3-5K for an entire book.
      Similarly do not be disheartened by your defeats because the difference between winning and losing can be due to one of a hundred tiny factors.
      It's the visceral fat, inside your torso wrapping your organs in fat. It's also the most dangerous to your health. So if you start exercising do not be disheartened by your waistline not reducing to zero quickly, you are still doing yourself good.
      If you are undergoing difficulties, do not get disheartened.
      Compare discourage, dishearten, and dispirit.
      v[T] cause to experience shame, humiliation, or wounded pride
      Personally, when I was experiencing excessive facial and body hair, I was mortified.
      Everyone turns to check me out. I was mortified.
      I'd personally be mortified if my boyfriend read my emails or texts. I have some very long, stupid, embarassing, private, hilarious and inappropriate conversations with my friends via email.
      "The meeting, sir," he said. It then became clear to me that the NIH ID card I had about my neck closely resembled some type of Department of Defence ID.
      Ordinarily, I would have gone with it. Hey, invited to a Pentagon meeting? I'm in! But I figured that that was not the day I should be messing with the US military.
      "Uh, I think you got the wrong guy," I said, indicating the big "NIH" on my ID. He was mortified, of course, and let me go on my way.
      The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is a biomedical research facility primarily located in Bethesda, Maryland.
      Mortification of the flesh is the institutional expiatory act of a person or group's penance for atonement of sins and path to sanctity. The term is primarily used in religious and spiritual contexts.