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      n[C] a plant such as a bean plant that has seeds in a pod
      A legume is a plant in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae), or the fruit or seed of such a plant.
      Legumes are grown agriculturally, primarily for their food grain seed (e.g., beans and lentils, or generally pulse), for livestock forage and silage, and as soil-enhancing green manure.
      Legumes are notable in that most of them have symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in structures called root nodules.
      Well-known legumes include alfalfa, clover, peas, beans, lentils, lupins, mesquite, carob, soybeans, peanuts, tamarind, and the woody climbing vine wisteria.
      A legume fruit is a simple dry fruit that develops from a simple carpel and usually dehisces (opens along a seam) on two sides.
      A common name for this type of fruit is a pod, although the term "pod" is also applied to a few other fruit types, such as that of vanilla (a capsule) and of radish (a silique).
      adj happy and satisfied with your life
      I sat on the platform with the visitors and felt felt quite happy and contented.
      Sandler's private life appears to be happy and contented.
      We could see the change in him clearly, he became grateful and contented.
      I believe happy idleness is a purposeful pathway to a contented life.
      When they took their wedding vows they were determined to lead a contented life together.
      v[T] make sth start, esp an official process ¶ persuade sb do sth bad or violent
      They are trying to instigate a plan for Google to alter the search rankings of results to make pirate related results less popular.
      Nokia once tried to instigate a new term, asking people to refer to some of its handsets as 'multimedia computers'.
      The biggest poll on the carbon tax issue I've seen was instigated by Alan Jones.
      In 2010, France made the choice to breath new life into its colonial policy. This led her to instigate a regime change in the Ivory Coast and Libya, and to aim for the same result in Syria.
      It was instigated by Howard and the coalition and too many of us got sucked in by it.
      adj having developed particular abilities and ways of behaving at a much younger age than usual
      Sheldon Cooper is a precocious child who abounds in energy and creativity.
      I was a precocious child. My parents thought boarding school would do me good so they sent me to one when I was seven.
      Gabriele, showing a precocious talent and a marked predilection for scientific study, joined in the meetings as he was growing up.
      Franklin, as a precocious teenager, quickly became an ardent champion of the so-called New Learning exemplified by the empiricism and materialism of thinkers such as Francis Bacon, John Locke, and Isaac Newton.
      Seventy-four years ago, a precocious young actor named Orson Welles caused panic with a radio adaptation of H.G. Wells' "The War of the Worlds".
      n[C] a sign that sth will happen soon
      I know I sound like a harbinger of doom, but I am a realist.
      In many ways they were canaries in the coal mine and a harbinger of what was to come and become more apparent.
      The issue is between the ex-spouses, not between the children and their other parent. Parents should not have their children be the harbinger of bad news.
      Their successful tour was a harbinger for a successful rugby future for New Zealand.
      I received a notice in the mail that I had been selected for inclusion in a "Who's Who" -type directory.
      Now, I no longer remember which one it was, but at the time I was convinced that it was a harbinger of an extremely successful career.
      adj free of bias and self-interest
      Disinterested and uninterested share a confused and confusing history.
      Disinterested was originally used to mean "not interested, indifferent"; uninterested in its earliest use meant "impartial."
      By various developmental twists, disinterested is now used in both senses.
      Uninterested is used mainly in the sense "not interested, indifferent."
      It is occasionally used to mean "not having a personal or property interest."
      Many object to the use of disinterested to mean "not interested, indifferent."
      They insist that disinterested can mean only "impartial": A disinterested observer is the best judge of behavior.
      However, both senses are well established in all varieties of English, and the sense intended is almost always clear from the context.
      Although I could negotiate the sale, I prefer having a a disinterested party negotiate for me.
      This is because the vice president can hardly be considered a disinterested party - if his or her boss is forced out of office he or she is next in line for the top job!
      Arbitration is the process of bringing a business dispute before a disinterested third party for resolution.
      v[T] hate sth or sb very much
      I detest the Taliban but when the USSR needed our support to defeat them we sided with the Taliban.
      I detest the whole Region restrictions you get on DVDs.
      There are no words to adequately describe how vehemently I detest this show, but your article perfectly sums up the reasons why.
      He was a boy with strong impulses, and he detested the idea of trifling with them.
      It had been said Hall's summary was inspired by a quotation found in a 1770 Voltaire letter to an Abbot le Riche, in which he was reported to have said, "I detest what you write, but I would give my life to make it possible for you to continue to write."
      François-Marie Arouet, known by his nom de plume Voltaire (伏尔泰), was a French Enlightenment writer, historian, and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of expression, and separation of church and state.
      adj ≠brave, courageous
      They cheat because they're too cowardly to admit to their spouse/significant other that they're not in love with them anymore.
      They were both far too cowardly to serve in the Army or Marines.
      Macdonald had burnt down an old house on the Guys' property and had vandalised and sprayed highly offensive graffiti on Scott and Kylee's new home.
      In his summing up, Macdonald's own lawyer, Greg King, referred to these events: "He did that dreadful, shameless, shameful thing and wrote dreadful things on the outside. It was gutless and cowardly."
      We have two mains characters in the story: Dorothy and the Cowardly Lion.
      Not even the cowardly lion from the Wizard of Oz was as craven as these two leaders.
      n[UC] behavior that is not honest, professional, or socially acceptable
      In 2006, after being accused of financial impropriety , he split with his business partner in a long, acrimonious legal battle.
      Being transparent with your financial records also protects you from potential accusations of impropriety.
      Do'nt forget UCHG recently sacked a doctor for sexual impropriety and misconduct.
      Others are focused on his accusations of sexual impropriety and still feel Michael was a paedophile who was allowed to walk free.
      n[C] last/family name
      A surname is a name added to a given name.
      In many cases, a surname is a family name and many dictionaries define "surname" as a synonym of "family name".
      In the western hemisphere, it is commonly synonymous with "last name", since it is usually placed at the end of a person's given name.
      In most Hispanophone and Lusophone countries, two or more last names (or surnames) may be used.
      In China, Hungary, Japan, Korea, Madagascar, Vietnam, parts of India and in many other East Asian countries, the family name is placed before a person's given name.
      Monica and Ross's surname is Gellar.
      adj direct and honest
      Waller has long been one of my heroes. An intelligent, forthright and courageous man who did his duty to the very end.
      Thank you, Mr. Speaker. Albertans are honest, forthright, and upfront.
      I decided to go with my gut and be honest and forthright.
      Sir Alex Ferguson was forthright in his views on a number of other subjects during his Q&A.
      I found Alistair a splendid fellow and thoroughly enjoyed his candour and forthright manner.
      Compare blunt, candid, forthright, frank, and outspoken.
      n[C] sb chosen to settle a dispute
      An arbitral tribunal (or arbitration tribunal) is a panel of one or more adjudicators which is convened and sits to resolve a dispute by way of arbitration.
      The tribunal may consist of a sole arbitrator, or there may be two or more arbitrators, which might include either a chairman or an umpire.
      In some legal systems, an arbitration clause which provides for two (or any other even number) of arbitrators is understood to imply that the appointed arbitrators will select an additional arbitrator as a chairman of the tribunal, to avoid deadlock arising.
      Different legal systems differ as to how many arbitrators should constitute the tribunal if there is no agreement.
      Arbitral tribunals are usually constituted (appointed) in two types of proceedings:
      Ad hoc arbitration proceedings are those in which the arbitrators are appointed by the parties without a supervising institution.
      Institutional arbitration proceedings are those in which the arbitrators are appointed under the supervision of professional bodies providing arbitration services.
      adj having too much detail or decoration ¶ not easily satisfied, having very high standards or very fixed standards about particular things
      If, as a photographer, I had to stop every time and enter a name for every photo I took, I wouldn't use my camera very much. I like that it's very immediate and not fussy.
      Leonard, what are you and Professor Fussyface up to tonight?
      Cats are very fussy about water, if his water is near his food bowl or litter tray he may associate this with being dirty.
      Remember that young children and fussy eaters may eat most of their food as snacks rather than meals.
      These can add up and provide children with energy and nutrients for normal growth and development.
      Avoid mealtime battles with a fussy eater.
      If a food isn't eaten after a reasonable period of time, take it away and re-offer it later.
      A fussy baby cries easily.
      (Emma cries) Ok, someone is getting a little fussy, I think it's time for bed.
      She was really really fussy for the first 4 months or so.
      v[T] pour liquid or melted fat over food that is cooking ¶ sew loosely with large running stitches
      Baste the chicken halfway through cooking.
      The flavor really pops if you baste the potato with more butter or chicken stock a few times while baking.
      The meat turns over on the rotisserie for two to eight hours, the natural juices baste the meat as it turns and the charcoal releases a subtle aroma which absorbs into the meat.
      Baste the pleats closed on the sewing machine.
      Tack/hand baste the blanket to the backing around the outside edge.
      v[T] make sb/sth unable to live or work normally
      The principal symptom, for me, is pain and inflammation. I can also get headaches so severe that I vomit, have diarrhea, and become incapacitated.
      King George III was nearly blind and incapacitated by mental illness.
      Participants range from the very physically or mentally incapacitated to those who are only mildly handicapped.
      The numbers claiming disability benefits on the grounds that they are incapacitated by obesity have nearly doubled from 1,100 when Labour came to power to 2,040 last year.
      Under the common law, a power of attorney becomes ineffective if its grantor dies or becomes "incapacitated," meaning unable to grant such a power.
      "Barry, we can't fight you tomorrow. Our engineer is incapacitated." "What's wrong with him?" "He's depressed because he's pathetic and creepy and can't get girls."
      adj having or expressing a strong interest in sad or unpleasant things, esp disease or death ¶ relating to or caused by a disease
      He has a morbid fascination with old ruins and things like that.
      It sounds a tad morose and morbid.
      Paul Cezanne got morbid and started doing still life depictions of human skullbones instead of fruit.
      It was merely to satisfy morbid curiosity to show us the dead Lee Harvey Oswald photo lying on a pathologist's table, with the crude post-mortem stitches lacerating his chest.
      Traffic incident "rubbernecking" - call it morbid curiosity, but most drivers will slow down just to get a glimpse of a crash scene, even when the crash has occurred in the opposite direction of travel or there is plenty of clearance with the travel lane.
      Some of those afflicted with morbid obesity can lack the strength to breathe, or succumb to fatal infections through bedsores formed from long periods of inactivity.
      adj not changing in your attitudes or aims
      We must be steadfast in prayer and in our convictions as followers in Christ.
      He wishes to see whether or not man realizes his true position. Whether he remains honest and steadfast and maintains loyalty and allegiance to the Lord, or loses his head and revolts against his own Creator.
      A Republican got us in these wars, Obama has been steadfast in getting us out.
      In the battle of Uhud, Ali stood steadfast to shield Muhammad when the Muslims had fled from the field.
      He remained steadfast on his proposal of a status for Kashmir outside the constitution but inside the Indian Union.
      In addition, Sara's steadfast commitment to the University of Ottawa's Heart Institute has had an extraordinary impact on the evolution of the Heart Institute, embracing the vision of defeating heart disease in this century.
      Compare steadfast and stubborn.
      n[C] disease illness ¶ a serious problem within a society or organization
      The CDC officially named the malady "chronic fatigue syndrome" in 1988.
      The malignant character of this malady is just as progressive as cancer.
      This unfortunate illness is the most common malady amongst travellers, affecting up to 50% of those who spend two weeks or more in the tropics.
      I suffer from this exact same malady.
      "She popped by to borrow a cup of mad cow disease." "It's hard to make degenerative brain maladies hilarious, and yet somehow, you do it."
      It is difficult for men in high office to avoid the malady of self-delusion.
      In a very short period of time, the sale of sex, a chronic social malady that seemed impossible to eradicate in old China and which seriously damaged the physical and mental health of women and degraded their dignity, disappeared, enabling society to take on a brand-new outlook.
      Compare malady and melody.
      n[CU] an act which shows that you regret sth that you have done, sometimes for religious reasons
      Penance is repentance of sins, as well as the name of the Catholic Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation/Confession.
      The word penance comes from the Latin poenitentia, the same root as penitence, which in English means repentance, the desire to be forgiven, or contrition: in many languages there is only one single word for it.
      Penance and repentance were similar in their original sense.
      After the controversy about the merits of "faith" and "good works" they are seen as conflicting views.
      The Bible is clear that faith holds a first and prominent role in the salvation of every person.
      The Bible makes it clear that there must be a balanced relationship between our faith and its expression in good works.
      In the aftermath of Ruusan, Darovit became the Healing Hermit, devoting himself to helping Ruusan recover from the war as a penance for his own actions.
      Henry II was whipped by the monks of Canterbury as penance for the part he played in the death of St Thomas Becket even though he had been cleared of any involvement in the murder of Thomas Becket.
      Thomas Becket was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1162 until his murder in 1170.
      He is venerated as a saint and martyr by both the Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion.
      He engaged in conflict with Henry II of England over the rights and privileges of the Church and was murdered by followers of the king in Canterbury Cathedral.
      adj done very quickly without much attention to details
      A cursory glance around me confirms that all the other diners have opted for the traditional raclette; which explains the unappetising aroma of smelly feet.
      Even a cursory look at the station any day of the week will show that the parking lot is filled beyond capacity.
      A cursory examination of the App Store and Kickstarter would reveal exactly how wrong that is.
      I've only done some cursory reading on the topic.
      A cursory search on Youtube for police brutality will turn up more than a few hits.
      Here's one I just found with a cursory Google search.
      I came with only cursory knowledge at best of the Darwin bombings during the war.
      n[C] a slight hint or indication
      The future is unwritten. We do not have an inkling of where things are going.
      He said the cast and crew of Miami had an inkling that the crime drama might be coming to an end.
      Having no inkling of the horror that awaited me I took the mirror from her hand and looked up... and it was a moment right from a Hammer film. I had no eyebrows!!
      Again, this is before networking was commonplace or there was any inkling of the Internet going mainstream.
      If you've seen the film Innerspace you'll have some inkling of how nanobots might work.
      adv until now or until a particular time
      The spatial sensibility of the tympanic membrane has hitherto been very little studied.
      Syria' s second city, which has hitherto been relatively quiet, is seen as a critical bellwether between the government and the scattered opposition.
      Years later evidence relating to the crash that had hitherto been suppressed began to surface
      Hitherto, the case is still unresolved and is in legal proceedings.
      v[T] rub metal until it shines ¶ work hard in order to improve sth
      A mirror of burnished gold on her lap, the newly wed bride was braiding her dark long tresses and painting the red spot of good luck at the parting of her hair.
      The Minister's purpose in travelling to Hungary seems to be to burnish his image as a concerned and compassionate politician.
      It was not the first time he had tried to burnish his public image as a caring outdoorsman, or macho man of adventure.
      The right is grasping at straws trying to justify harsh interrogation techniques to burnish the legacy of George W. Bush and Dick Cheney.
      Compare burnish, polish, and tarnish.
      n[C] an aircraft's main body section that holds crew and passengers or cargo
      In single-engine aircraft it will usually contain an engine, although in some amphibious aircraft the single engine is mounted on a pylon attached to the fuselage which in turn is used as a floating hull.
      The fuselage also serves to position control and stabilization surfaces in specific relationships to lifting surfaces, required for aircraft stability and maneuverability.
      Some modern aircraft are constructed with composite materials for major control surfaces, wings, or the entire fuselage such as the Boeing 787.
      "Flying wing" aircraft, such as the Northrop YB-49 Flying Wing and the Northrop B-2 Spirit bomber have no separate fuselage; instead what would be the fuselage is a thickened portion of the wing structure.
      Conversely there have been a small number of aircraft designs which have no separate wing, but use the fuselage to generate lift.
      Examples include National Aeronautics and Space Administration's experimental lifting body designs and the Vought XF5U-1 Flying Flapjack.
      A blended wing body can be considered a mixture of the above. It carries the useful load in a fuselage producing lift.
      One of the earliest aircraft using this design approach is Burnelli CBY-3, which fuselage was airfoil shaped to produce lift.
      n[C] a utensil of wire mesh or closely perforated metal, used for straining or sifting
      also a verb
      A sieve, or sifter, is a device for separating wanted elements from unwanted material or for characterizing the particle size distribution of a sample, typically using a woven screen such as a mesh or net.
      The word "sift" derives from 'sieve'.
      In cooking, a sifter is used to separate and break up clumps in dry ingredients such as flour, as well as to aerate and combine them.
      A strainer is a form of sieve used to separate solids from liquid.
      Hand sieving is a simple technique for separating particles of different sizes.
      A small sieve such as used for sifting flour has very small holes.
      A colander is a bowl-shaped kitchen utensil with holes in it used for draining food such as pasta or rice.
      The perforated nature of the colander allows liquid to drain through while retaining the solids inside. It is sometimes also called a pasta strainer or kitchen sieve.
      A spider (simplified Chinese: 笊篱; traditional Chinese: 笊籬; pinyin: zhàolí) is a type of skimmer used in Asian and Dutch cooking in the form of a wide shallow wire-mesh basket with a long handle, used for removing hot food from a liquid or skimming foam off when making broths.
      The name is derived from the wire pattern, which looks like a spider's web.
      Unlike sieves or strainers, which have fine mesh screens for straining away liquids as food is retrieved, the spider can be used as a strainer for larger pieces of food.