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      adj unnecessary
      Charlie gave him a look that made words superfluous.
      It seems superfluous to make further comment.
      Check for verbs. Be sure each bullet in your "professional experience" section starts with a verb or an adverb preceding a verb. Delete redundant or superfluous words.
      I admire the fact that there aren't any superfluous words in his writing, and yet at the same time he is able to pack the story with incredible, specific detail.
      Maintaining bases in the Philippines seems like superfluous for them since Japan at that time does not have qualms about the US bases present in their country.
      adj not socially suitable and polite
      Leaving aside the legal ramifications, that's quite unseemly, in my opinion.
      Like contempt of race or sex, contempt of disability is unseemly.
      It actually dates from victorian times, when it was seen as unseemly and unwomanly for women to be wearing clothing that was too much like a man's.
      It is also considered unseemly to discipline another person's child in public.
      David Cameron has been told that the government could be acting unlawfully in its unseemly haste to abolish the Agricultural Wages Board (AWB).
      Compare improper, seemly, and unbecoming.
      n[CU] fake ¶ the crime of copying official documents, money etc
      Forgery is the process of making, adapting, or imitating objects, statistics, or documents with the intent to deceive or earn profit by selling the forged item.
      Copies, studio replicas, and reproductions are not considered forgeries, though they may later become forgeries through knowing and willful misrepresentations.
      Misrepresentation is a concept in the contract law of England and some other Commonwealth countries, referring to a false statement of fact made by one party to another party, which has the effect of inducing that party into the contract.
      Forging money or currency is more often called counterfeiting.
      But consumer goods may also be counterfeits if they are not manufactured or produced by the designated manufacture or producer given on the label or flagged by the trademark symbol.
      When the object forged is a record or document it is often called a false document.
      This usage of "forgery" does not derive from metalwork done at a forge, but it has a parallel history.
      It's not uncommon to see a spike in forgeries and frauds after an artist's death.
      adj friendly and easy to talk to, pleasant, approachable
      The meeting was certainly pleasant. I must say that the group was very affable, particularly given that they all were held hostage in our elevator for nearly a quarter hour.
      Neil Armstrong, a practical, affable and humble man, personified such a dream for a generation.
      I was not allowed into Georgia. Danny looked dismayed, but I was confident of the affable nature of the Turkish people.
      Well-read and an affable personality, Ansari was among the front runners in the race for the Presidential election next week.
      He also paints a portrait of Cromwell as a very open-handed, generous, affable host, a man with whom it was wonderful to have a conversation.
      v[I] keep company
      n[C] the wife or husband of a ruler
      Bob Hawke consorted with the rich: Packer, Bondy and others.
      Dowson also consorted with prostitutes on a not infrequent basis.
      Of course, the short answer to ending violence is a consorted effort to ending racism and poverty.
      A consort of instruments was a phrase used in England during the 16th and 17th centuries to indicate an instrumental ensemble.
      A prince consort is the husband of a queen regnant who is not himself a king in his own right.
      King consort (also Emperor consort) is an alternative title to the more usual "prince consort" - which is a position given in some monarchies to the husband of a reigning queen.
      A queen consort (also empress consort) is the wife of a reigning king (or emperor).
      The viceregal consort of Canada is the spouse of the serving governor general of Canada, assisting the viceroy with ceremonial and charitable work, accompanying him or her to official state occasions, and occasionally undertaking philanthropic work of their own.
      Princess consort is an official title or an informal designation normally accorded to the wife of a sovereign prince.
      v[IT] temporarily end sth such as a formal meeting or trial, suspend
      A typical defended traffic offence case usually costs around the $4,000 mark if it goes straight to a hearing. Add about $1,200 more if it goes through a contest mention, and add another two or three thousand if you want to use expert witnesses. Add even more if you need to adjourn the hearing date.
      Contest means to not agree. As an example, you say I ran into your car. I say I did not. That means we have a contested fact situation.
      In criminal law, a mention is a date when a case can only proceed if the defendant pleads guilty. If he or she wishes to challenge any of the charges or allegations, they should transfer the case to a later date ('adjourn' the case) for a contest mention.
      The hearing was adjourned until 29 th October.
      The case has been adjourned to Sept. 14, 2011, with the court setting a tentative date of Jan.
      In the Legislative Council the convention is that a Bill is adjourned for a minimum of a week before it is brought on for debate.
      The legislature has adjourned its regular session.
      The tribunal adjourned the proceeding of the case until Thursday.
      n[C] a violent storm
      By 1975, the Whitlam government was rocked by a tempest of inflation and scandal.
      The Tempest is a play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written in 1610–11, and thought by many critics to be the last play that Shakespeare wrote alone.
      Tempest in a teapot (American English), or storm in a teacup (British English), is an idiom meaning a small event that has been exaggerated out of proportion.
      One of the earliest occurrences in print of the modern version is in 1815, where Britain's Lord Chancellor Thurlow, sometime during his tenure of 1783–1792, is quoted as referring to a popular uprising on the Isle of Man as a "tempest in a teapot".
      Also Lord North, Prime Minister of Great Britain, is credited for popularizing this phrase as characterizing the outbreak of American colonists against the tax on tea.
      adv until this time
      The benefits of eating a sulfur-rich diet have heretofore been withheld from the general public.
      I hereby declare, on oath, that I absolutely and entirely renounce and abjure all allegiance and fidelity to any foreign prince, potentate, state, or sovereignty, of whom or which I have heretofore been a subject or citizen; that I will support and defend the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America against all enemies, foreign and domestic...
      The Church of Ireland doth, as heretofore , accept and unfeignedly believe all the Canonical Scriptures of the Old and New Testament, as given by inspiration of God, and containing all things necessary to salvation; and doth continue to profess the faith of Christ as professed by the Primitive Church.
      Modern virus detection techniques are much more cost effective than heretofore.
      In the middle of the 14th century, as a heretofore unknown menace stalks Eurasia from the China Sea to the sleepy fishing villages of coastal Portugal producing suffering and death on a scale that, even after two world wars and twenty-seven million AIDS deaths worldwide, remains astonishing.
      Compare heretofore and hitherto.
      n[C] a temporary stay
      also a verb
      This pen was owned by Henry Lawson and used by him during his sojourn in Leeton from 1916-17.
      In Manila, to which he returned after his sojourn in America, Moynihan lived in the suburbs in a heavily fortified house with a swimming pool.
      She returned to Edmonton in 2008 after a brief sojourn in Toronto, and now lives there with her husband.
      Moses, during his long sojourn in the wilderness, never doubted the near presence of a mighty God.
      My first overseas trip was a two-year sojourn in Italy in the 1950's.
      For the ten days he sojourned in the mangrove where he not only had to contend with mosquitoes and other dangerous reptiles but was also manhandled by his captors some of whom were younger than his children.
      adj dirty and unpleasant ¶ involving immoral or dishonest behavior
      Okay, fine. I'll admit, there are dark, sordid little corners of the Internet where the name Wolowizard is whispered in hushed tones.
      The sordid details cited in the complaint also involve the Kardashian bi/gay sexcapades members with actor Charlie Sheen using a needle of steroids, a voodoo doll for Satanic rituals and cocaine.
      This whole sordid affair could be the subject of the next "Underbelly" series.
      The Iranians can not ignore the sordid history of CIA sponsored false flag operations in their country, such as Operation Ajax - the 1956 coup against the democratically elected Mossadegh for nationalising the Iranian oil industry, masterminded by Kermit Roosevelt, grandson of US President Theodore Roosevelt.
      False flag (or black flag) describes covert operations designed to deceive in such a way that the operations appear as though they are being carried out by entities, groups, or nations other than those who actually planned and executed them.
      Compare filthy, foul, mean, sordid, and squalid, and wretched.
      n[C] a kind of lizard that can change its color to match the colors around it
      The approximately 180 species of chameleon come in a range of colours, and many species have the ability to change colours.
      Different chameleon species are able to vary their colouration and pattern through combinations of pink, blue, red, orange, green, black, brown, light blue, yellow, turquoise, and purple.
      The police superintendent Otchumyelov is walking across the market square wearing a new overcoat and carrying a parcel under his arm... (A Chameleon, by Anton Chekhov)
      What do you mean? I can do anything, I'm a chameleon! Huh?
      It displays a few girls dancing around and Joey fills most of the screen, he puts something blue on his lips and smacks them saying "Ichiban... Lipstick For Men."
      He really is a chameleon.
      n[UC] a thick oily substance that you put on sore or injured skin
      An ointment is a homogeneous, viscous, semi-solid preparation, most commonly a greasy, thick oil (oil 80% - water 20%) with a high viscosity, that is intended for external application to the skin or mucous membranes.
      Ointments have a water number that defines the maximum amount of water that it can contain.
      They are used as emollients or for the application of active ingredients to the skin for protective, therapeutic, or prophylactic purposes and where a degree of occlusion is desired.
      Ointments are used topically on a variety of body surfaces. These include the skin and the mucous membranes of the eye (an eye ointment), chest, vulva, anus, and nose.
      An ointment may or may not be medicated.
      Ointments are usually very moisturizing, and good for dry skin.
      The vehicle of an ointment is known as the ointment base. The choice of a base depends upon the clinical indication for the ointment.
      A fly in the ointment is the only thing that spoils something and prevents it from being successful.
      A topical medication is a medication that is applied to body surfaces such as the skin or mucous membranes to treat ailments via a large range of classes including but not limited to creams, foams, gels, lotions, and ointments.
      Compare balm, lenient, liniment, and ointment.
      adj full of a lot of energy, effort, and enthusiasm, fervent
      Mormons are zealous for God, but their zeal is not based on knowledge.
      The orthodox Turks, zealous for the faith, considered it their sacred duty to extirpate the Egyptian rulers.
      A zealous and hardworking minister, he purchased books and Bibles for his congregation out of his own pocket.
      In May 1789 George Washington wrote: " No one would be more zealous than myself to establish effectual barriers against the horrors of spiritual tyranny, and every species of religious persecution."
      n[C] a mechanical device that allows continuous linear or rotary motion in only one direction while preventing motion in the opposite direction
      v[IT] increase or decrease by increments, or make sth do this
      A ratchet consists of a round gear or linear rack with teeth, and a pivoting, springloaded finger called a pawl that engages the teeth.
      Ratchets are widely used in machinery and tools.
      Though something of a misnomer, "ratchet" is also often used to refer to ratcheting socket wrenches, a common tool with a ratcheting handle.
      The most prevalent form is the ratcheting socket wrench, often called a ratchet.
      A ratchet is a hand tool in which a metal handle is attached to a ratcheting mechanism, which attaches to a socket, which in turn fits onto a type of bolt or nut.
      If a tool or machine ratchets or if you ratchet it, it makes a clicking noise as it operates, because it has a ratchet in it.
      If something ratchets down or is ratcheted down, it decreases by a fixed amount or degree, and seems unlikely to increase again.
      If something ratchets up or is ratcheted up, it increases by a fixed amount or degree, and seems unlikely to decrease again.
      A long-running dispute between residents in the Toro Park area of Salinas and their sewer provider will ratchet up a notch Wednesday when homeowners launch a petition drive to carve out their own public utility.
      Compare hatchet and ratchet.
      adj expensive and luxurious
      The room was gorgeous and opulent, with Christofle silverware and Zwiesel glasses.
      They want to live the opulent, consumer lifestyle like the West.
      God has given opulence to humans and some are more opulent than others.
      The ornate designs and particularly the tiara, remind me of the opulent and elaborate jewels of Gainsborough's portraits of aristocratic ladies in the late 18 th century.
      All you have to do is relax and enjoy the opulent surroundings as you are transported in total luxury and ultimate comfort.
      He owns a private jet, lives an opulent lifestyle and is said to be worth around 200 million.
      Compare abundant, affluent, opulent, and sumptuous.
      n[C] an alphabetical list of terms in a particular domain of knowledge with the definitions for those terms
      A glossary, also known as a vocabulary, or clavis, is an alphabetical list of terms in a particular domain of knowledge with the definitions for those terms.
      Traditionally, a glossary appears at the end of a book and includes terms within that book that are either newly introduced, uncommon, or specialized.
      While glossaries are most commonly associated with non-fiction books, in some cases, fiction novels may come with a glossary for unfamiliar terms.
      A bilingual glossary is a list of terms in one language defined in a second language or glossed by synonyms (or at least near-synonyms) in another language.
      A core glossary is a simple glossary or defining dictionary that enables definition of other concepts, especially for newcomers to a language or field of study.
      It contains a small working vocabulary and definitions for important or frequently encountered concepts, usually including idioms or metaphors useful in a culture.
      adj strange, unexpected, or unsuitable in a particular situation
      I doubt any solution provides as good a coverage or speed as the DART. It is incongruous with the rest of the network, but it serves that particular trip pretty well.
      Freedom is a word that the U.S. administration bands about the airwaves like, McDonalds franchises on prime real estate. Unfortunately torturing as yet innocent people is incongruous with this propaganda.
      The process of continuing to seek improvement is incongruous to having a fixed target.
      Such bloated tournaments are as incongruous as an eight-minute pop song.
      At first glance, it seems incongruous that a free-market thinker would support government guarantees of private contracts.
      Compare incompatible and incongruous.
      v[T] set free, release
      In fact, I already suspect moves are taking place to extricate themselves from that policy.
      He was lying outside the car, he had managed to extricate himself and was lying in a fairly large pool of blood on the road.
      The Vulcan Fire Department was called to the scene to extricate the driver of the car as she was trapped in her vehicle.
      Upon arrival it was determined that two patients had to be extricated from two separate vehicles.
      "We can't do that, that's insane. I mean 'A', he could wake up, and 'B', you know, let's go for it." Monica and Chandler both try to slowly extricate themselves from Ross, but there's a knock on the door that awakens him. "Em-Emily?"
      n[CU] a strange or unusual feature or habit ¶ a feature that only belongs to one particular person, thing, place, etc ¶ the quality of being strange or unusual
      The lack of a written constitution is a peculiarity of the British political system.
      The profuse and long coat of this dog has the peculiarity that if not kept constantly brushed out it twists up into little cords which increase in length as the new hair grows and clings about it.
      It occurs to me that the peculiarity of most things we think of as fragile is how tough they truly are.
      Have you noticed any peculiarities in Monica and Chandler's behavior recently?
      Well, we all have our little peculiarities, don't we?
      adj difficult to carry or manage because of size, shape, weight, or complexity
      In a network consisting entirely of workstations and no server, each computer can be a server and share files between devices. However, the process is unwieldy and notoriously difficult for most users.
      He liked the part, but found the gun too unwieldy to hold - he had broken his wrist a few years earlier, which weakened it a bit.
      Late Apple founder Steve Jobs famously derided the 7-inch screen as unwieldy for tablet applications, saying the devices should come with sandpaper so that users can file down their fingers to use them.
      When it comes to reading, 7-inch tablets edge out their 10-inch brethren.
      The 10-inch form factor is unwieldy in the lap and generally needs to be propped against something to achieve a good reading angle.
      If you wield a weapon, tool, or piece of equipment, you carry and use it.
      adj happening or done in a way that is not planned or organized, random
      The arrangement is clearly haphazard , though some modern Muslim writers make fantastic attempts to show a purposeful arrangement of, the material in the Suras.
      If the amount spent in such haphazard way was invested in public works such as irrigation canals or wells, rural roads, bridges, small dams, water-harvesting projects, massive tree plantation along the coastal belts, and houses for the rural poor, it would have multiplier effect, and transform the economic landscape.
      And in this entirely haphazard fashion a crew was created. This crew went into training on the aircraft they were to fly into combat.
      It's hard to see how this haphazard approach will pan out.
      Really? Just-just casually strew about in that reckless haphazard manner?
      Compare hazard and haphazard.
      n[U] the practice of not drinking alcohol and the belief that it is wrong to do so ¶  moderation or voluntary self-restraint
      A temperance movement is a social movement against the consumption of alcoholic beverages.
      The Temperance movement in the United States was a movement to curb the consumption of alcohol and had a large influence on American politics and society in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
      Temperance has been described as a virtue by religious thinkers, philosophers, and more recently, psychologists, particularly in the positive psychology movement.
      Positive psychology is the branch of psychology that uses scientific understanding and effective intervention to aid in the achievement of a satisfactory life, rather than merely treating mental illness.
      It was one of the cardinal virtues in western thought found in Greek philosophy and Christianity, as well as eastern traditions such as Buddhism and Hinduism.
      Temperance is one of the six virtues in the positive psychology classification, included with wisdom, courage, humanity, justice, and transcendence.
      It is generally characterized as the control over excess, and expressed through characteristics such as chastity, modesty, humility, prudence, self-regulation, forgiveness and mercy; each of these involves restraining an excess of some impulse, such as sexual desire, vanity, or anger.
      Compare tempt and temperance.
      v[T] leave behind, outrun ¶ become larger, more important, etc than sb/sth
      Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev hammered hard that the Soviet Union had outstripped the United States in missile developments.
      Part of the answer lies in the wages of some consumers being outstripped by rising living costs.
      Exports volumes (goods and services) are being outstripped by import volumes.
      Unanticipated and unprecedented demand soon outstripped supply, and parents and children could not find the action figures in toy shops until Christmas 1977.
      By 1913 its grain production had outstripped that of the USA, Canada and Argentina combined by one third.
      During a down turn, supply has outstripped demand, and investors who over-leveraged during the boom phase can find themselves in a spot of trouble.
      n[UC] humiliating, degrading, or abusive treatment
      I have to suffer through the indignity of being looked down on and it bothers me a great deal.
      He described the indignity of having to be 'fed like a baby'.
      Tony Blair and his family suffered the indignity of having to sleep on the floor and eat an Indian takeaway out of foil cartons on their last night in Downing Street, insiders have revealed.
      I gave her treats, a usual reward for having suffered the indignity of a vet visit.
      I have gone through the indignity of wearing disposable nappies, the dreaded catheter, and being turned over by non-professionals because of a shortage of staff at the ICU.
      v[IT] show or say that you are sorry for sth wrong you have done
      It is not too late for Americam people to repent and come to the Lord.
      People need to repent and follow Jesus.
      They made their faces harder than stone and refused to repent.
      We are happy to hear of the repentance of those who have repented and of the guidance of those who have been guided.
      "Wolowitz has informed me of your grand deception. Do you have anything to say for yourself?" "Yes, I feel terrible about it. I will never forgive myself, I don't expect you to, either, and I would really appreciate it if you would leave me with Penny for such an absorbed criticism and repentance."
      Compare regret, remorse, repent, and self-reproach.