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      as`suage
      ə'sweidʒ
      v[T] make sth less severe
      -
      If you assuage an unpleasant feeling that someone has, you make them feel it less strongly.
      If you assuage a need or desire for something, you satisfy it.
      The French government of the late 18th century attempted to assuage the pain caused by soaring food prices, but ultimately this effort failed.
      Crises of demand could in the past be assuaged by things like colonial expansion and the monetization and privatisation of common assets, but the scope for doing that no longer really exists.
      He also sought to assuage concerns among Jewish voters in the United States about his stance on Israel.
      In an attempt to assuage fears over potential patent trolling, Google has sent letters to standards organizations claiming that it would licence FRAND patents in Motorola's portfolio.
      A patent troll, also called a patent holding company (PHC), patent assertion entity (PAE), and non-practicing entity (NPE) is a person or company who enforces patent rights against accused infringers in an attempt to collect licensing fees, but does not manufacture products or supply services based upon the patents in question, thus engaging in economic rent-seeking.
      Reasonable and non-discriminatory terms (RAND), also known as fair, reasonable, and non-discriminatory terms (FRAND), are a licensing obligation that is often required by standards organizations for members that participate in the standard-setting process.
      Standard-setting organizations are the industry groups that set common standards for a particular industry in order to ensure compatibility and interoperability of devices manufactured by different companies.
      "FRAND" commitments are now 10 times more cited by courts and scholar papers than 10 years ago.
      Compare appease, assuage, calm, pacify, relieve, satisfy, and soothe.
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      im`mo`bile
      i'məubail
      adj not moving ¶ unable to move or walk
      -
      He lay flat on the couch, bitter and immobile.
      He lay there for a while, numb and immobile.
      I was bed ridden and immobile.
      If one segment of the spine is stiff and immobile , your body will have to compensate by hinging through the area directly above and below that segment (causing loading of the structures and injury).
      He will be left completely immobile and unable to stand if we have to remove his splints.
      Compare fixed, immobile, and motionless.
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      sug`ar`y
      'ʃugəri
      adj containing sugar or tasting like sugar
      -
      Weight Watchers President Dave Burwick yesterday announced Weight Watchers' support for New York City's plan to limit the size of sugary drinks sold at food service establishments to 16 ounces or less.
      Go easy on fatty and sugary foods, and watch your portion size at mealtimes and when you're snacking.
      Highly processed, sugary, fatty and salty foods should only make up a very small part of your child's diet.
      Many people don't realize the effect that greasy, fatty, salty, sugary, fried food has on their bodies.
      Language, emotions etc that are sugary are too nice and seem insincere.
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      va`por`ize
      'veipəraiz
      v[IT] convert or be converted into vapor
      -
      At the start, the main hand-gesture is to grasp the leaves up to about 10 cm in height away from the pan and slowly sprinkle the leaves to vaporize the moisture from the leaves.
      Your body is wet and water evaporates from it. The heat necessary to vaporize the water is taken from the body, leaving the body cool.
      My APR-39 was indicating a surface to air missile laser lock on the aircraft. We knew from intel surveillance that it was the French-design Crotale 2000 SAM System. By now, my pucker factor was a 10 and my co-pilot's anal retention dropped to zero. If there was a launch, we would be vaporized. I continued with the emergency calls: "May Day, May Day."
      They love game shows, soap operas, Howard Cosell, and "Dallas". Whenever a network tries to take one of these shows off the air, the aliens threaten to vaporize the planet.
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      col`lu`sion
      kə'lu:ʒən
      n[U] a secret agreement between two or more parties for a fraudulent, illegal, or deceitful purpose
      -
      The police were operating in collusion with the drug dealers.
      The American Dental Association (ADA) muzzles dentists to protect itself against legal liability which has recently been estimated at about 3 trillion dollars. This has the ADA running very scared. Dentists are in collusion with the ADA and the FDA.
      Swapping the identities of Olympic and Titanic was also the opportunity for Morgan, with the collusion of the British government, to quietly ship 8m of gold to the US.
      It led to allegations of collusion between rival bids across the two World Cup campaigns, with Spain and Portugal's 2018 bid team accused of forming an alliance with Qatar 2022, whereby they would support each other in the final vote.
      The level of collusion and corruption between the government and the Murdoch mafia is outrageous. Jeremy Hunt was responsible for policing the Murdoch empire, but in fact he was acting as their partner in crime.
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      ti`rade
      tai'reid
      n[C] a long angry speech of criticism or accusation
      -
      I for one am not happy at being greeted with a tirade of drunken racial abuse every time I politely inform a beggar I don't smoke.
      What my friend got then was a tirade of abuse about the sort of person she was and how she gave decent dog owners a bad name.
      I have read most of the letters appearing in your columns under the name "Mary Lee" and must say that which appears in the Evening Journal contains more rubbish and silly rigmarole than any I have hitherto seen.
      She commences as usual with a tirade against that dreadful creature "man" and says he can not think as woman.
      Later, increasingly agitated, he claimed producers were deliberately highlighting the age gap between himself and his wife, Amanda Holden. He also launched a tirade against one of the cameras tracking his movements.
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      se`clu`sion
      si'klu:ʒən
      n[U] the state of being private and away from other people
      -
      You may enjoy the beach privately and in seclusion.
      Dylan himself now retreated from the spotlight, and when he moved to the seclusion of upstate New York with the other Hawks, Helm rejoined them.
      Hidden in the seclusion of the Bavarian mountains, King Ludwig II built two of his dream castles, Neuschwanstein and Linderhof.
      Without doubt one of the most detached and remote communities in the Seychelles is that of Denis Island; lying 95km north of the main island of Mah, Denis is the epitome of seclusion and romance.
      They stayed at a friend's beach house and enjoyed ten days of peace and seclusion.
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      lon`gi`tude
      'landʒitju:d
      n[CU] the distance east or west of the meridian
      -
      Longitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface.
      It is an angular measurement, usually expressed in degrees and denoted by the Greek letter lambda (λ).
      Points with the same longitude lie in lines running from the North Pole to the South Pole.
      By convention, one of these, the Prime Meridian, which passes through the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, England, was intended to establish the position of zero degrees longitude.
      The longitude of other places was to be measured as the angle east or west from the Prime Meridian, ranging from 0° at the Prime Meridian to +180° eastward and −180° westward.
      A location's north–south position along a meridian is given by its latitude, which is (not quite exactly) the angle between the local vertical and the plane of the Equator.
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      e`nun`ci`a`te
      i'nʌnsieit
      v[IT] say or pronounce clearly ¶ express an idea clearly and exactly
      -
      "How are you? What is new with you?" asked Rachel, patting Monica on the lap, enunciating each word.
      That's what real actors do! Enunciation is the mark of a good actor! And when you enunciate, you spit!
      "Hey! What is this? Have you guys been listening this entire time?" "Will you do one thing for us? The people that care about you?" "Sure." "Enunciate!"
      "Ok, you just go on and make your little jokey-jokes, but if you do not know what you are doing out at sea you will die at sea. Am I getting through to you sailor?!" yelled Rachel, punctuating each word by slapping Joey on the forehead.
      "She said WHAT?" "That's she's like the daughter she never had." Phoebe answered, speaking louder and articulating.
      It contradicts basic science as enunciated by Richard Feynman who says in his famous speech 'Cargo Cult Science'.
      Cargo cult science comprises practices that have the semblance of being scientific, but do not in fact follow the scientific method.
      The term was first used by physicist Richard Feynman during his 1974 commencement address at the California Institute of Technology. (http://neurotheory.columbia.edu/~ken/cargo_cult.html)
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      syn`o`nym
      'sinənim
      n[C] a word with the same meaning as another word
      -
      In crystallography, an "isotype" is a synonym for isomorph.
      "Oh, yeah? well, there's a difference between being a jerk and being an ass!" "No, there isn't! They're synonyms!"
      In English-speaking Canada and the United States, the term "military time" is a synonym for the 24-hour clock. Leading zeros are always written out and are required to be spoken.
      Webster's name has become synonymous with "dictionary" in the United States, especially the modern Merriam-Webster dictionary that was first published in 1828 as An American Dictionary of the English Language.
      Compare acronym, antonym, eponym, homonym, pseudonym, and synonym.
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      pho`to`syn`the`sis
      fəutəu'sinθisis
      n[U] a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy
      -
      Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy, normally from the Sun, into chemical energy that can be later released to fuel the organisms' activities
      This chemical energy is stored in carbohydrate molecules, such as sugars, which are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water – hence the name photosynthesis, from the Greek φῶς, phōs, "light", and σύνθεσις, synthesis, "putting together".
      In most cases, oxygen is also released as a waste product.
      Photosynthesis maintains atmospheric oxygen levels and supplies all of the organic compounds and most of the energy necessary for life on Earth.
      Although photosynthesis is performed differently by different species, the process always begins when energy from light is absorbed by proteins called reaction centres that contain green chlorophyll pigments
      Photosynthesis changes sunlight into chemical energy, splits water to liberate O2, and fixes CO2 into sugar.
      Melvin Calvin works in his photosynthesis laboratory.
      The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants.
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      gus`to
      'gʌstəu
      n[U] enthusiastic vigor in doing sth
      -
      If you do something with gusto, you do it with a lot of eagerness and energy.
      Time to wave the flag and sing the national anthem with gusto.
      The defended with vigour and countered with gusto.
      In fact, I'm looking forward to the eventual sequel with gusto.
      Simon took to his trade with gusto and was awarded Apprentice of the Year for Northern NSW in 2008 and 2009.
      A good poem, whether performed with great gusto, or given a terribly wooden recital, is still a good poem.
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      de`fraud
      di'frɔ:d
      v[T] get money illegally from a person or an organization by tricking them
      -
      While there are so many rules and regulations imposed against individuals there are none for our banking elite who lie, cheat, steal, and collude to defraud the entire financial system.
      Viola is black, and the segregated theatre doesn't allow Blacks to sit in the downstairs seats, only in the balcony.
      She will be given a balcony ticket but will sit downstairs in spite of the "no-Blacks" rule.
      She will be arrested for allegedly defrauding the government of the 1 percent amusement tax on the higher-priced downstairs seats.
      She will be thrown in jail for 12 hours and eventually fined $20 and sentenced to 30 days in prison.
      In 1995 Richardson knew Bruce Wilson had defrauded the AWU of millions.
      It's not just financial institutions that you can defraud, but internet services, social networks, online games, and virtual worlds.
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      bot`a`ny
      'bɔtəni
      n[U] a natural science concerned with the study of plants
      -
      Botany, also called plant science(s) or plant biology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology.
      A botanist or plant scientist is a scientist who specializes in this field of study.
      Traditionally, botany has also included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists respectively, with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress.
      Botany originated in prehistory as herbalism with the efforts of early humans to identify – and later cultivate – edible, medicinal and poisonous plants, making it one of the oldest branches of science.
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      fowl
      faul
      n[UC] a bird of a type that is used to produce meat or eggs ¶ any bird
      -
      Fowl are birds belonging to one of two biological orders, namely the gamefowl or landfowl (Galliformes) and the waterfowl (Anseriformes).
      As opposed to "fowl", "poultry" is a term for any kind of domesticated bird or bird captive-raised for meat, eggs, or feathers; ostriches, for example, are sometimes kept as poultry, but are neither gamefowl nor waterfowl.
      In colloquial speech, however, the term "fowl" is often used near-synonymously with "poultry," and many languages do not distinguish between "poultry" and "fowl".
      The word 'fowl' is of Germanic origin, whilst 'poultry' is of Latin via Norman French origin.
      Many birds that are eaten by humans are fowl, including poultry such as chickens or turkeys, game birds such as pheasants or partridges, other wildfowl like guineafowl or peafowl, and waterfowl such as ducks or geese.
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      res`pi`ra`tion
      respi'reiʃən
      n[U] the process of breathing
      -
      In physiology, respiration is defined as the transport of oxygen from the outside air to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction.
      Aquatic respiration is the process whereby an aquatic animal obtains oxygen from water.
      Artificial respiration is the act of assisting or stimulating respiration, a metabolic process referring to the overall exchange of gases in the body by pulmonary ventilation, external respiration, and internal respiration.
      Artificial respiration is a part of most protocols for performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) making it an essential skill for first aid.
      In 1773, English physician William Hawes (1736–1808) began publicising the power of artificial respiration to resuscitate people who superficially appeared to have drowned.
      Compare perspiration and respiration.
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      gre`gar`i`ous
      gri'geəriəs
      adj living in groups or communities ¶ friendly and preferring to be with other people
      -
      With his lover Clara Dickens he was gregarious, generous, charming.
      Of creatures that live in water many kinds of fishes are gregarious.
      That's how you need to act. You need to be vivacious and gregarious.
      I find that both gregarious and shy people are often uncomfortable with selling themselves.
      It made quite the impression on me that he was gregarious and outgoing and he was very, very strong-willed and got a lot of things done.
      So far I have put many different words into play in this article, including "quiet," "shy," "introverted," "gregarious," "bold," and "extroverted." It was deliberate - these terms are related, but they are not interchangeable, and they are not opposites.
      Compare gregarious, sociable, and solitary.
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      suf`fuse
      sə'fju:z
      v[T] spread through or over, as with liquid, color, or light
      -
      Richard Russo won the Pulitzer Prize in 2002 for his novel Empire Falls, which was suffused with the claustrophobia and sweet sorrows of life in a small, fading New England mill town.
      Each of Rosen's characters is suffused with pain: the pain of Holocaust memories, the pain of thwarted dreams, the pain of an unfulfilled life.
      The opening chapter grabs you immediately, and the beginning exposition is suffused with atmospheric tension.
      There is a lotus-covered lagoon by my room's window and the air is suffused by the aroma of yellow ylang-ylang flowers.
      The whole room was suffused in the glow of a desk lamp which stood on a polished desk.
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      a`blaze
      ə'bleiz
      adj burning with a lot of flames ¶ radiant with bright color ¶ feeling or showing strong emotion, esp anger
      -
      The demonstrations have also been quite lucrative for some. Instead of messing around with mere politics, an American school was looted of all its laptops and then set ablaze.
      As I write this, a part of my garden is ablaze with poppies.
      After the meal, we walked down to the shore of the Seine. On our right, Notre Dame was ablaze with spotlights; to the east, the full moon rose over the river.
      So I drop into a forest ablaze with a million shades of orange and yellow leaves that litter the trail.
      The room was ablaze in an instant! "Fire!" screamed a voice.
       By the end of the battle the chateau had been set ablaze by howitzer fire and the buildings were heaped with British casualties.
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      man`i`fold
      'mænifəuld
      adj many and of different kinds
      n[C] pipe or chamber with several openings
      -
      The dangers of overwork are manifold. If you work too hard for too long your physical and mental health are at significant risk.
      In 1765, Johann Jakob Dorner the Elder promoted the arts in Munich in manifold ways.
      From 47.65% in 2003, to 79.44% in 2007, to a recent 82.55% reported in 2012, it has always shown manifold increase in numbers so far.
      "So now, what exactly is the point of the box?" "Chandler?" "The meaning of the box is threefold. One, it gives me the time to think about what I did. Two, it proves how much I care about my friendship with Joey. And three, it hurts!"
      You can use twofold to introduce a topic that has two equally important parts.
      In automotive engineering, an inlet manifold or intake manifold (in American English) is the part of an engine that supplies the fuel/air mixture to the cylinders.
      Then, continuing on the air path we have the throttle body and intake manifold.
      In automotive engineering, an exhaust manifold collects the exhaust gases from multiple cylinders into one pipe.
      I open the bonnet to determine the source. There is oil on the exhaust manifold and oil leaking from the rocker cover.
      Rocker covers are covers that are bolted on over rocker arms in an internal combustion engine.
      On modern engines without rocker arms they are internationally known as "valve cover" but are sometimes refereed to as a "cam cover" or "timing cover" if they also cover the timing gear(s) and belt or chain.
      V engines (V6, V8, etc.) usually have two rocker covers, one for each bank of cylinders, while straight engines (I4, I6, etc.) and single-cylinder engines usually have one rocker cover.
      In scuba diving a manifold is used to connect two diving cylinders (tanks) with breathing gas, providing a greater amount of gas for longer dive times and greater safety due to redundancy.
      In mathematics, a manifold is a topological space that resembles Euclidean space near each point.
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      id`i`ot`ic
      idi'atik
      adj extremely stupid
      -
      I'm not talking to you like you're an idiot! I'm saying the whole idea is idiotic!
      I admit my choice of small car is idiotic.
      Your understanding of Quantum Mechanics and electromagnetism is idiotic, like your theology.
      Girls are girls, boys are boys. To pretend they are homologous is idiotic and laughable.
      That's just an idiotic statement, the S3 was cheaply made? I'm sure they spent millions, no iPhone has ever been cheaply made? What about antennagate?
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      con`se`crate
      'kɔnsikreit
      v[T] declare or set apart as sacred
      -
      When a building, place, or object is consecrated, it is officially declared to be holy.
      When a person is consecrated, they are officially declared to be a bishop.
      The Rev. W. C. Sawyer was selected in his place by the Archbishop of Canterbury, and was consecrated in Canterbury Cathedral on the Feast of the Purification, 1867, together with the good Bishop Milman for Calcutta.
      After a rather tedious delay, the Rev. James Francis Turner was nominated for the vacant see (an area governed by a bishop), and was consecrated in Westminster Abbey, on St. Matthias' Day, 1869.
      Consecrated life, in the canonical sense defined by the Catholic Church, is a stable form of Christian living by those faithful who feel called to follow Jesus Christ in a more exacting way recognized by the Church.
      The church, called St. Mary's, was consecrated by Bishop Budka on 23 August l914.
      During the Middle Ages, people had a stronger sense of the consecrated bread and wine as the Body of Christ than they did of themselves as the Body of Christ.
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      sa`tir`i`cal
      sə'tirikəl
      adj of, relating to, or characterized by satire
      -
      My time as a teacher in London was when the satirical magazine " Private Eye " was at its very best.
      His first book - a satirical look at popular culture called HipsterMattic - is due out in November.
      In the discipline of computer architecture, the terms big-endian and little-endian are used to describe two possible ways of laying out bytes in memory.
      The terms derive from one of the satirical conflicts in the book, in which two religious sects of Lilliputians are divided between those who crack open their soft-boiled eggs from the little end, and those who use the big end.
      Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World. In Four Parts. By Lemuel Gulliver, First a Surgeon, and then a Captain of Several Ships, commonly known as Gulliver's Travels (1726, amended 1735), is a satire by Anglo-Irish writer and clergyman Jonathan Swift.
      Evelyn Waugh has given us a dark, witty, satirical novel that takes aim at the post World War I upper class society.
      This satirical comedy follows Megan, a naive, 17 year old cheerleader whose parents and friends stage an intervention when they believe that she is a lesbian.
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      lu`mi`na`ry
      'lu:minəri
      n[C] an object, such as a celestial body, that gives light ¶ sb who inspires or influences others
      -
      The luminaries were what traditional astrologers called the two astrological "planets" which were the brightest and most important objects in the heavens, that is, the Sun and the Moon.
      Though selected for being a young business luminary, the prospect of meeting the Duchess of Cambridge leaves Hudson tongue-tied.
      In the late 1700s, historian Edward Gibbons - a luminary of the British Enlightenment and a consummate skeptic - observed that the 'bigotry' of the anti-God squad mimics the fanaticism of churchmen.
      In the private sector, Apple luminary Steve Jobs was known to be a copious weeper.
      One writer who ought to be considered a luminary of the genre, and worthy of such discussion, is Edward D. Hoch.
      With a career that spans decades, Charles Strouse is a luminary of Broadway, Hollywood, television, and pop and concert music.
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      de`co`rum
      di'kɔ:rəm
      n[U] dignified and socially acceptable behavior
      -
      The Speaker is the Member elected by the House to serve as its spokesperson and to preside over its proceedings. In particular, he or she is responsible for maintaining order and decorum.
      When one compares their behaviour with that of a younger generation of Royals, they shine out as a model of dignity and decorum.
      You surely don't have to belittlle each other to make a point. Make your point with dignity and decorum.
      He also advised party supporters to exhibit high level of decorum and decency in their daily campaign activities.
      Kenyans have every right to question the motives of foreign critics, challenge their assertions and analyses, and voice their displeasure. However, that must be done with sobriety and a sense of decorum and civility.
      Compare decorum and scrotum.
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