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      adj quiet and easily controlled
      "Uh does he fight with other animals?" "No-no, Marcel's very docile."
      They are docile and can be shy and very reluctant to bite.
      Although they appear to be slow and docile , wombats are very alert and can move quickly with great agility when needed.
      Some outwardly docile people are actually repressing aggressive tendencies.
      adj preventing people from doing sth
      If the cost of something is prohibitive, it is too expensive for most people.
      The costs to create an aerospace manufacturing industry were prohibitive.
      I think that is a reasonable price but I know it is prohibitive for some.
      The first CD player was the oh-so trendy Sony CDP-101 for the insane price of US$ 1,000. It was seen as far too cost prohibitive for the average consumer to buy but it was the first portable, durable CD player the world had ever seen.
      We didn't go here due to the prohibitive cost of the taxi - 40 each and the taxi driver wouldn't go unless the taxi was full!
      The prohibitive favorite is the person/team/racehorse that is so likely to win that others are discouraged from competing.
      adj talking a lot
      Yeah well, being he was the victim, they're usually pretty talkative.
      We met some older girls who were a bit more talkative than the little ones.
      She was a wonderful parrot, intelligent, talkative and mischievous.
      Popular theory would have you believe that women are much more talkative than men, speaking 20,000 words a day, compared to that of the average man's 7,000.
      Someone who is chatty enjoys talking a lot in a friendly way.
      If someone is expansive, they talk a lot, or are friendly or generous, because they are feeling happy and relaxed.
      n[UC] a lot of noise made by a crowd of people ¶ a state of great confusion or excitement
      There was a tumult of yells, screams and cries.
      A shout went up from the entire room and a tumult of cheering which the court in vain attempted to quell.
      Engrossed as he was in science, Laplace had little time for the tumult of politics in the late 1780s and early 1790s.
      The tumult of my system gradually subsided, and I fell asleep.
      The tumult of emotions which had passed in the bosom of Adeline, began now to subside; terror was softened into anxiety, and despair into grief.
      "Turmoil" and "tumult" are synonyms.
      adv in an expected or customary manner, for the most part
      The Convention shall apply to any child who was habitually resident in a Contracting State immediately before any breach of custody or access rights.
      Why can't you have sufficient seating for people? Your airport is the worst that I habitually use.
      He became habitually calm, sedate, and self-possessed.
      "Tell me the names of some of the masters at St Austin's, Mr MacArthur," said Miss Beezley. She habitually spoke as if she were an examination paper.
      n[U] a careful way of speaking or behaving that avoids upsetting other people, diplomacy
      The situation called for considerable tact.
      Employees are trained to show tact and patience with difficult customers.
      The incident should have been handled with more tact by the police.
      He's never had much tact and people don't like his blunt manner.
      n[C] a sea animal that has a round transparent body and can sting you
      Jellyfish or jellies are the major non-polyp form of individuals of the phylum Cnidaria.
      Jellyfish are found in every ocean, from the surface to the deep sea.
      Large, often colorful, jellyfish are common in coastal zones worldwide.
      Jellyfish have roamed the seas for at least 500 million years, and possibly 700 million years or more, making them the oldest multi-organ animal.
      Jellyfish sting! Oh, it hurts! Oh damn the jellyfish. Damn all the jellyfish!
      Wait a minute, I saw that on The Discovery Channel, about jellyfish and how if you... You peed on yourself?
      adj involving meditation/deep thought ¶ thinking deeply and seriously
      A meditative mind can find clarity in clutter.
      Sometimes I was in such a meditative state that I was kind of zoned out of any kind of pain that I was experiencing.
      Music with a slower, relaxed tempo promotes a meditative state.
      She also gives detailed and lucid instructions for the meditative absorptions (jhanas) which provide access to higher states of consciousness, the way the Buddha himself practiced.
      In the weeks leading up to the trip, I had been expecting a meditative experience, an opportunity to shed all of the anxiety and unrest I was experiencing in New York City.
      This physical yoga places an emphasis on a meditative practice, supported by steady awareness to the body and mind, deep relaxation, and conscious and deep breathing.
      adj cannot be stopped, relentless
      We're watching the demise of the West and the inexorable rise of Asia.
      But for the next few years at least, the trend is inexorable.
      The advent of clouds, platforms like Hadoop, and the inexorable march of Moore's Law means that now, analyzing data is trivially inexpensive.
      For many believers, the defence of the point-virgule is, of course, a logical extension of France's ongoing battle against the inexorable decline of its language.
      Le point-virgule est un signe de ponctuation représenté par une virgule surmontée d’un point, principalement utilisé pour séparer des propositions indépendantes dans une phrase. (The semicolon is a punctuation sign represented comma surmounted of a point, mainly used to separate independent proposals in a sentence.)
      n[C] sb/sth that came before and influenced sb/sth else that is similar ¶ a sign or warning that sth is going to happen
      For you young folks out here, the forerunner of this AC-130 was developed and used in Vietnam and called "Puff".
      Before entering the world of politics, he served his country as part of a U.S. Navy UDT team (the forerunner of the SEALs), won fame as a professional wrestler, worked as a bodyguard for big-name rock and roll acts like the Rolling Stones, and had roles in major motion pictures, including "The Running Man" and "Predator."
      In part this is due to the CDC's Epidemic Intelligence Service EIS. The EIS was a forerunner of similar programs in Canada and elsewhere.
      These precious rice seeds were the forerunners of a now famous rice type - 'Carolina Golde'.
      In 1961 I became Assistant Asian Representative based in Singapore, the forerunner to a number of posts abroad, leading to London News Editor 1971-74.
      Compare forerunner and precursor.
      n[C] sb, esp a young woman, who follows pop musicians around and tries to meet them
      The term groupie is derived from group, in reference to a musical group, but the word is also used in a more general sense, especially in casual conversation, to mean a particular kind of female fan assumed to be more interested in relationships with rockstars than in their music.
      A groupie is generally considered a devoted female fan of a band or musical performer.
      The term originates from the female attaching herself to a band.
      A groupie is considered more intense about her adored celebrities than a fan and tends to follow them from place to place.
      A groupie will attempt to have a connection with the band and may seek sexual or intimate contact.
      Obsessive groupies will almost certainly involve themselves sexually with any members of the band including the roadies.
      Further, there are now groupies of sports teams and other types of celebrities.
      A roadie is a person who transports and sets up equipment for a pop band.
      The word groupie began to be used around 1967 to describe teenaged girls or young women who sought brief sexual liaisons with musicians, usually involving fellatio.
      Fellatio (also known as fellation, and colloquially as blowjob, BJ, giving head, or sucking off) is an oral sex act involving the use of the mouth or throat, which is performed by a person on the penis of another person or oneself (autofellatio).
      "No, it's ok! Made me feel like, like a rock star!" "Oh my God! I'm your groupie!"
      adj making you feel annoyed or bored
      After eight years, it was getting tiresome.
      The job is very tiresome. We have to work from morning to night, tenting the camels, training them, cleaning their waste, and racing in the games.
      There is a downside to enabling USB booting, which can become tiresome. While non-operating CDs won't affect the boot when the optical drive is chief of the boot list, USB sticks that are plugged in will often confuse your PC, making it fail to boot, citing an unrecognised partition.
      They identify their target market, and thenceforth every single article in the publication must appeal to that target market. The trouble is that this makes them samey and tiresome. You might as well not bother to pick up the Mail, the Sun, the Guardian etc. because you KNOW what their opinions will be, and how the article will be written.
      If someone or something bores you to tears, bores you to death, or bores you stiff, they bore you very much indeed.
      Compare infernal, mind-numbing, soul-destroying, tiresome, and wearisome.
      n[C] a joint for fixing two pieces of wood together
      v[IT] fit together or work together well
      A dovetail joint or simply dovetail is a joint technique most commonly used in woodworking joinery (carpentry) including furniture, cabinets, log buildings and traditional timber framing.
      Noted for its resistance to being pulled apart (tensile strength), the dovetail joint is commonly used to join the sides of a drawer to the front.
      The dovetail joint probably pre-dates written history.
      Some of the earliest known examples of the dovetail joint are in furniture entombed with mummies dating from First Dynasty of ancient Egypt, as well the tombs of Chinese emperors.
      This also dovetailed with British interests to use Hong Kong primarily as a trading post.
      The pacifist message dovetailed into its core lends the film a far greater degree of relevance than Bollywood spy thrillers generally strive for.
      It is both ironic and unavoidably true that the era of globalized profits has dovetailed with the era of localized job creation in low value-added industries, and that the upshot of this has been massive gains at the top and slow overall income growth for the rest of us.
      n[U] a feeling of great happiness and excitement, euphoria
      There's a sense of elation at having completed a race of such length.
      He showed his elation at having finally achieved his ambition.
      I am a weak consumer drawn to the 'bargain purchase' and the elation of a good deal.
      In some people, depression can alternate with periods of elation and overactivity (mania or hypomania).
      v[T] remember
      The more I recollect the gardens of my childhood, the more I admire both their clever arrangements and beautiful, yet useful designs.
      I don't recollect that he drew a link between sugar consumption and depression.
      If no written agreement exists it will be a question of trying to recollect what was discussed.
      "Murder has been committed." The idea shrilled her with horror. She recollected the dagger which had impeded her steps in the secret chamber, and this circumstance served to confirm her most terrible conjectures.
      If something rings a bell, it reminds you of something, but you cannot remember exactly what it is.
      Compare recall and recollect.
      v[T] make sth holy ¶ make sth socially or officially acceptable
      God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it.
      The ray of light can be seen that came down from heaven to sanctify the water and to give it the virtue of curing.
      Fourth, this argument would sanctify dictatorship and tyranny.
      Psychology had sanctified the opinion that youthful rebellion was a natural stage of adolescence.
      The extremely popular ability-to-pay idea was sanctified by Adam Smith in his most important canon of taxation and has been accepted blindly ever since.
      Critics of ability-to-pay taxation state that the progressive tax reduces the incentive to earn more money, and penalizes those whose hard work and ingenuity have helped them earn higher incomes.
      Compare sanctify and sanction.
      n[C] an animal that moves slowly and lives in trees
      Extant sloths are arboreal (tree-dwelling) residents of the jungles of Central and South America, and are known for being slow-moving, and hence named "sloths".
      Extinct sloth species include a few species of aquatic sloths and many ground sloths, some of which attained the size of elephants.
      Sloths make a good habitat for other organisms, and a single sloth may be home to moths, beetles, cockroaches, ciliates, fungi, and algae.
      Sloths go to the ground to urinate and defecate about once a week, digging a hole and covering it afterwards.
      Sid the Sloth is one of the many characters in the Ice Age franchise.
      adj formed before you have enough information or experience of sth
      If you have preconceived ideas about something, you have already formed an opinion about it before you have enough information or experience.
      The writer obviously went to Xinjiang with preconceived notions of what he wanted to see and write about, and his article reads like he's marking off items on a checklist.
      The Panel entered this process with no preconceived ideas regarding the outcomes.
      He has preconceived opinions that are not based on reason or actual experience and his behaviour is formed on such a basis.
      The report concluded: "Mrs Pilkington had allowed her personal preconceived views about gay lifestyle and sexual orientation to affect her professional relationship in a way that was prejudicial."
      n[U] the ability to think quickly and make good judgments
      Romney claims he has the business acumen to bring our economy back from the brink.
      Diplomacy is complex art that involves fine mixing of political acumen, cultural finesse, language abilities and conversation skills to wield the power of persuasion.
      Her history clearly demonstrates that her financial acumen is seriously in question and she is at the helm of our Economic ship of fortune.
      No matter how senior the individuals are or how strong their commercial acumen skills are, it is human nature to make mistakes.
      n[U] energy and enthusiasm
      Writing with verve and flair, Fredriksen makes a complex subject accessible to general readers.
      The story moves along at a beautiful pace, crackling with verve and energy and surprises around every corner.
      "What pleased me most is that we played with verve and energy again," said Newcastle boss Alan Pardew.
      This was a cracking production by Greg Doran, directed with verve and an eye for humour.
      n[U] bushes, small trees etc growing under and around larger trees in a forest
      Understory (or understorey, underbrush) in forestry and ecology refers to plant life growing beneath the forest canopy without penetrating it to any extent.
      Plants in the understory comprise an assortment of seedlings and saplings of canopy trees together with specialist understory shrubs and herbs.
      Young canopy trees often persist in the understory for decades as suppressed juveniles until an opening in the forest overstory permits their growth into the canopy.
      In contrast understory shrubs complete their life cycles in the shade of the forest canopy.
      Some smaller tree species, such as dogwood and holly, rarely grow tall and generally are understory trees.
      North and eastward the wind blew, across underbrush that crunched and cracked as it shook.
      We also saw a white butt flashing off through the underbrush a bit later, so there is at least one deer left alive in the woods.
      n[C] a tall tower on a building
      A steeple, in architecture, is a tall tower on a building, topped by a spire and often incorporating a belfry and other components.
      Steeples are very common on Christian churches and cathedrals and the use of the term generally connotes a religious structure.
      Steeples may be stand-alone structures, or incorporated into the entrance or center of the building.
      Steeples can be vulnerable to earthquakes.
      A number of Romanian churches feature unusually slender steeples and over half of these have been lost to earthquakes.
      Because of their height, steeples can also be vulnerable to lightning, which can start fires within steeples.
      Clock towers were not a part of Christian churches until about AD 600, when they were adapted from military watchtowers
      n[UC] the practice of using or copying sb else's idea or work and pretending that you thought of it or created it
      Plagiarism is the "wrongful appropriation" and "stealing and publication" of another author's "language, thoughts, ideas, or expressions" and the representation of them as one's own original work.[
      Plagiarism is considered academic dishonesty and a breach of journalistic ethics.
      Plagiarism is subject to sanctions like penalties, suspension, and even expulsion.
      Recently, cases of 'extreme plagiarism' have been identified in academia.
      Plagiarism is not a crime per se but in academia and industry, it is a serious ethical offense, and cases of plagiarism can constitute copyright infringement.
      adj (land) ploughed but left unplanted to restore its fertility
      Under an orthodox, three-field system, each field would experience a three-year rotation consisting of winter-sown crops (wheat and rye), spring-sown crops (oats or barley) and fallow.
      Additionally in the early monsoon much of the land here is fallow, and the rest achieves low yields and returns from local varieties of aus rice.
      Though cultivation of these lands was based on ownership or other acquired rights, fishing in the flood plains was free for all, and during the fallow period between the winter harvest and the next monsoon, all these lands bore the character of a public domain.
      The fallow deer is a ruminant mammal belonging to the family Cervidae.
      British Columbia produces turkeys, chickens, eggs, sheep and lambs, wool, honey, furs, game products such as bison, fallow deer and reindeer.
      adj tasting or smelling like fish ¶ seeming dishonest or false, suspicious
      There was a really strong odour, not a fishy smell, almost a manure smell, and we waded to our chest and I said to the kids we gotta get out of here, there is something wrong with the water.
      There was something fishy about her.
      There was definetely something fishy going on.
      My suspicions have been raised. Something fishy is going on in the Afghan grocery around the corner.
      Neighbours find something fishy in Tanvir's behaviour.