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      n[U] the examination of one's own conscious thoughts and feelings
      In psychology the process of introspection relies exclusively on observation of one's mental state, while in a spiritual context it may refer to the examination of one's soul.
      Introspection is closely related to human self-reflection and is contrasted with external observation.
      Introspection generally provides a privileged access to our own mental states, not mediated by other sources of knowledge, so that individual experience of the mind is unique.
      Introspection has been a subject of philosophical discussion for thousands of years.
      n[U] practice or custom of being married to only one person at a time
      Monogamy is a form of relationship in which an individual has only one partner during their lifetime or at any one time (serial monogamy), as compared to polygyny, polyandry, or polyamory.
      Monogamy is also applied to the social behavior of some animals, referring to the state of having only one mate at any one time.
      It is important to have a clear understanding of the nomenclature of monogamy because scientists use the term monogamy for different relationships.
      Biologists, biological anthropologists, and behavioral ecologists often use the term monogamy in the sense of sexual, if not genetic, monogamy.
      Modern biological researchers using the theory of evolution approach human monogamy as the same in human and non-human animal species.
      They postulate the following four aspects of monogamy:
      Marital monogamy refers to marriages of only two people.
      Social monogamy refers to two partners living together, having sex with each other, and cooperating in acquiring basic resources such as shelter, food, and money.
      Sexual monogamy refers to two partners remaining sexually exclusive with each other and having no outside sex partners.
      Genetic monogamy refers to sexually monogamous relationships with genetic evidence of paternity.
      adj not strict, and allowing behavior that many other people would disapprove of
      Today we are living in an extremely sexually permissive society.
      This rule explains the meaning of certain information on or with a permissive parking sign applying to a length of road or an area.
      I'm guessing by 2025 this sort of permissive parenting will be widespread.
      However, in the face of a much more permissive attitude towards marijuana, there are still many Canadians who are of the traditional Canadian mindset that marijuana use should continue to be illegal.
      Ms. Tetsuko Kuroyanagi went to a very permissive school where the children are allowed to do whatever they like.
      Tetsuko Kuroyanagi (黒柳 徹子) is an internationally famous Japanese actress, a talk show host, an author of a best-selling children's book, a World Wide Fund for Nature advisor, and a Goodwill Ambassador for UNICEF.
      adj unreasonably or unusually large in size or degree, excessive
      I studied electronics and RF transmission and reception, was a ham radio operator, and put an inordinate amount of time into studying how antennas worked and electromagnetic waves propagated.
      Public are raising eye brows as to inordinate delay in settling the cases against Khaleda and Tareque.
      In the time I've been playing roller derby, I've gone through an inordinate number of knee pads.
      Roller derby is a contact sport played by two teams of five members roller skating in the same direction around a track.
      Game play consists of a series of short matchups ("jams") in which both teams designate a scoring player (the "jammer") who scores points by lapping members of the opposing team.
      The teams attempt to hinder the opposing jammer while assisting their own jammer—in effect, playing both offense and defense simultaneously.
      I don't have an inordinate desire to be President; what I want is to better the living standards of Ghanaians and for us to continue to live in peace and harmony.
      These people have inordinate influence on how our country is governed.
      v[T] free sb from guilt, blame or responsibility for sth
      After Christianity sought the approval of the Roman Empire, writings were forged to absolve the Romans of the murder and to accuse the Jews of deicide.
      Deicide is the killing (or the killer) of a god.
      Here are the common ways Apple tries to absolve themselves of responsibility.
      If you charge people a fine for doing something, they think the fine absolves them, so that what they did isn't morally wrong.
      The university said it should be absolved of any liability in Champion's death.
      Ms Lu cannot be absolved of all responsibility for the accident.
      v[T] stir up
      If someone or something foments trouble or violent opposition, they cause it to develop.
      Compare ferment, foment, and incite.
      And we encouraged the demonstrations, not as a way of fomenting trouble, but as a to say that people should be free to speak out.
      Taylor has been fomenting violence and supporting rebels in other countries, not only Sierra Leone, but Guinea and the Ivory Coast as well.
      When Qaddafi's son, Saif al-Islam, accused foreigners and opposition groups of fomenting unrest within Libya, it appears no truer words have been spoken.
      adj very attractive or noticeable, striking
      It was quite eye-catching, but strange at the same time.
      Colourful and eye-catching, the 820 sports a 4.3in OLED screen.
      If you don't fancy an eye-catching design, there are also lots of great ultrabooks that have touch screens.
      After three months of ear-pleasing and eye-catching performances, as well as some lyrical chauvinism from its mentors, Digicel Stars crowned its first winner, Sharona Jonas.
      Use eye-catching headlines. Make headlines relevant and interesting.
      n[C] the act of giving property by will
      Strictly, "bequest" is used of personal property, and "devise" of real property.
      In legal terminology, "bequeath" is a verb form meaning "to make a bequest".
      A conditional bequest is a bequest that will be granted only if a particular event has occurred by the time of its operation.
      For example, a testator might write in the will that "Mary will receive the house held in trust if she is married" or "if she has children," etc.
      An executory bequest is a bequest that will be granted only if a particular event occurs in the future.
      For example, a testator might write in the will that "Mary will receive the house held in trust set when she marries" or "when she has children".
      v[T] disclaim knowledge of, responsibility for, or association with
      Today we're introducing a tool that enables you to disavow links to your site.
      Anyway, a lot of people consider the disavow links tool to be a thinly veiled way for Google to crowdsource data on 'manipulative links'.
      Romney completely disavowed the remarks for the first time, telling Fox News what he said was "just completely wrong."
      The Obama campaign and Democratic leaders disavowed the criticism of Mrs. Romney.
      The Israeli prime minister has decided to disavow talks with the Palestinians.
      The conclusions were disavowed by other authors and laboratory members on the grounds that they did not accurately describe the results.
      n[UC] scraping or wearing away, rubbing off ¶ a scraped or worn area
      Abrasion is the process of scuffing, scratching, wearing down, marring, or rubbing away.
      Abrasion is the mechanical scraping of a rock surface by friction between rocks and moving particles during their transport by wind, glacier, waves, gravity, running water or erosion.
      A cliffed coast, also called an abrasion coast, is a form of coast where the action of marine waves has formed steep cliffs that may or may not be precipitous
      Abrasion is the loss of tooth structure by mechanical forces from a foreign element.
      In dermatology, an abrasion is a wound caused by superficial damage to the skin, no deeper than the epidermis.
      An abrasion is less severe than a laceration, and bleeding, if present, is minimal.
      Mild abrasions, also known as grazes or scrapes, do not scar or bleed, but deep abrasions may lead to the formation of scar tissue.
      A more traumatic abrasion that removes all layers of skin is called an avulsion.
      Compare abrasion and chafe.
      n[U] behavior, attitudes, etc which show a fall in standards
      The word decadence, which at first meant simply "decline" in an abstract sense, is now most often used to refer to a perceived decay in standards, morals, dignity, religious faith, or skill at governing among the members of the elite of a very large social structure, such as an empire or nation state.
      By extension, it may refer to a decline in art, literature, science, technology, and work ethics, or (very loosely) to self-indulgent behaviour.
      The word decadence bore the neutral meaning of decay, decrease, or decline until the late 19th century, when the influence of new theories of social degeneration contributed to its modern meaning.
      An orgy in Imperial Rome, by Henryk Siemiradzki
      The Decadent movement was a late 19th-century artistic and literary movement of Western Europe.
      Decadence was the name given, originally by hostile critics, to several late nineteenth-century writers who valued artifice more than the earlier Romantics' naïve descriptions.
      Some of them adopted the name, referring to themselves as "Decadents".
      For the most part, they were influenced by the tradition of Gothic novels and by the poetry and fiction of Edgar Allan Poe, and were associated with Symbolism and/or Aestheticism.
      adj brief and to the point, effectively concise
      No apology. No explanation. Just a terse and frosty (borderline rude, actually) statement: 'We're paying you back. Do you want money off the rent or a refund?'
      But the Obama campaign said today, in a terse statement, that the President would now visit the flood-stricken state early next week.
      Lynd commits suicide. Bond's terse response is "The bitch is dead now."
      "That's for selectors to decide," was Gambhir's terse reply.
      n[C] a feeling or quality that is not directly expressed but can still be recognized
      If you speak in an undertone, you speak in a very quiet voice.
      In your glass, the wine is garnet red in color. The nose is dominated by cherry fruit but has some undertones of cedar as well as some bell pepper. In your mouth, you get cherry, sour cherry, and red currant with very mild tannins.
      Whether the comment was meant to have racial undertones or not, it's an unfortunate statement.
      The ad was chock-full of stereotypes and thinly-veiled racist undertones.
      Let's please stop the racist undertones - it has no place here.
      If something has overtones of a particular thing or quality, it suggests that thing or quality but does not openly express it.
      adj unable to think or speak clearly because of fever, excitement or mental confusion
      Delirium is a common and severe neuropsychiatric syndrome.
      For three days she was delirious, unable to recognise her own children, looking a sorry shell of her former self.
      The box arrived and I was delirious with excitement!
      Initially the affected person complains of a severe headache and staggers when walking. They become confused. Eventually they are unable to stand, become delirious and may have convulsions. The treatment is to cool them down immediately.
      I'm still delirious from sleep deprivation.
      n[CU] the quality or condition of being impure ¶ a substance that is present in small amounts in another substance, making it dirty or of poor quality
      A drop of impurity always infects that which is pure.
      There is an impurity, deformity, and infirmity, which has come upon the creature by the fall of man.
      Any sin keeps the Holy Spirit away from us, but carnal impurity and pride are especially offensive to Him.
      Sulfur is present in coal as an impurity, and it reacts with air when the coal is burned.
      His duty was to clean the coal of stone, slate, and other impurities.
      The air filter is the element in the air cleaner that removes impurities from the air.
      v[T] officially say that a decision in a court of law is no longer valid or correct ¶ take action to stop sth from continuing
      If a court or someone in authority quashes a decision or judgment, they officially reject it.
      They're calling on the government to quash the construction of an oil pipeline from Alberta to Texas.
      However, this was not sufficient to quash the decision provided that Judge Randall had acted within his jurisdiction, which the Supreme Court found he had.
      If someone quashes rumours, they say or do something to demonstrate that the rumours are not true.
      On Friday, authorities in Monaco were forced to quash rumours the target of an international manhunt for an alleged killing and dismemberment had been arrested in the tiny European principality.
      To quash a rebellion or protest means to stop it, often in a violent way.
      In December 1838 the Rebellion was quashed.
      Compare annul, overturn, and quash.
      adj beyond dispute or doubt, undeniable
      On the contrary, it is an indisputable fact that U.S. bombs have blown up far more Iraqi children than al-Qaeda's bombs.
      It is indisputable that reducing government expenditure in a meaningful way will necessitate a smaller public-sector payroll.
      Soon after Spike TV offered $10 million for any individual or group that can provide "indisputable evidence" of the great northern Sasquatch or Bigfoot, as footage has emerged online that is being touted as a possible sighting in Provo Canyon, Utah.
      During the expedition to the Azasskaya cave, conference participants gathered indisputable proof that the Shoria mountains are inhabited by the Snow Man.
      v[T] think that sb is perfect
      Modern Mongolia does, as you would expect, venerate and idolize the Khans of that era and all they achieved.
      Governments hunted him, women adored him, and criminals idolized him.
      A man who was idolized by countless numbers of golf fans; who lived lavishly and without morals or scruples, found himself viewed with derision by many of his former worshipers.
      For a time, the folk singers are idolized and original folk songs and dances got popular on TV.
      n[U] a form of cell injury
      Necrosis is a form of cell injury that results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis.
      Necrosis is caused by factors external to the cell or tissue, such as infection, toxins, or trauma that result in the unregulated digestion of cell components.
      In contrast, apoptosis is a naturally occurring programmed and targeted cause of cellular death.
      While apoptosis often provides beneficial effects to the organism, necrosis is almost always detrimental and can be fatal.
      Cells that die due to necrosis do not follow the apoptotic signal transduction pathway but rather various receptors are activated that result in the loss of cell membrane integrity and an uncontrolled release of products of cell death into the extracellular space.
      n[C] sb who makes formal speeches in public or is good at public speaking
      An orator, or oratist, is a public speaker. An orator may also be called an oratorian — literally, "one who orates".
      In ancient Rome, the art of speaking in public (Ars Oratoria) was a professional competence especially cultivated by politicians and lawyers.
      In the 19th century, orators and lecturers, such as Mark Twain, Charles Dickens, and Col. Robert G. Ingersoll were major providers of popular entertainment.
      In some universities, the title 'Orator' is given to the official whose task it is to give speeches on ceremonial occasions, such as the presentation of honorary degrees.
      Obama, supposedly the great orator, has a speech impediment. It drives me nuts: When he pronounces an "s" or a "c" he produces a whistle between his tongue and the roof of his mouth.
      v[IT] cut sth large with a tool, chop
      And the spirit of God came upon Saul... and he took a yoke of oxen, and hewed them in pieces, and sent them throughout all the coast of Israel.
      They made houses out of stone and even hewed out habitations from large blocks of rock.
      Rough-hewn wood or stone has been cut into a shape but has not yet been smoothed or finished off.
      If someone hew to something, they continue to use or do it.
      Obama's agenda has generally hewed to the consensus of mainstream economists and policy experts.
      n[U] loss of respect from other people
      v[T] do sth that makes people lose respect for you ¶ treat sb without respect ¶ fail to keep a promise or an agreement
      I will not do dishonour to my kinsmen, or to the fair land of France.
      Only this I know - that death is to be chosen rather than dishonour.
      It troubled him to the heart, and he held it for a great dishonour.
      You did train me for the order of knighthood, and I have dishonoured it by no unworthy deeds, though you did drive me from your kingdom, thinking I meant to disgrace you through your daughter.
      If a bank dishonours a cheque, it refuses to pay out money for it.
      An Non-sufficient funds (NSF) check is often referred to as a bad check or dishonored check, or more colloquially, a bounced check, cold check, rubber check, returned item, or hot check.
      He dishonored the uniform and did not deserve to be a marine.
      Some of the leaders of the coup took their lives rather than face dishonour.
      We suspect he means to dishonour the agreement made three years ago.
      n[U] silicon dioxide
      Silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is a chemical compound that is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula SiO2.
      Silica is most commonly found in nature as quartz, as well as in various living organisms.
      In many parts of the world, silica is the major constituent of sand.
      Silica is one of the most complex and most abundant families of materials, existing both as several minerals and being produced synthetically.
      Silica is converted to silicon by reduction with carbon.
      Bundle of optical fibers composed of high purity silica.
      Quartz sand (silica) as main raw material for commercial glass production
      n[C] a symbol that represents a number
      A digit is a type of symbol (a numeral symbol, such as "2" or "5") used in combinations (such as "25") to represent numbers (such as the number 25) in positional numeral systems.
      The name "digit" comes from the fact that the 10 digits (ancient Latin digiti meaning fingers) of the hands correspond to the 10 symbols of the common base 10 numeral system, i.e. the decimal (ancient Latin adjective dec. meaning ten) digits.
      The Hindu–Arabic numeral system or Hindu numeral system is a positional decimal numeral system, nowadays the most common symbolic representation of numbers in the world.
      Roman numerals, the numeric system used in ancient Rome, employs combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet to signify values. The numbers 1 to 10 can be expressed in Roman numerals as follows: I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X.
      In linguistics, a numeral is a member of a word class (or a subclass of determiners) designating numbers, such as the English word 'two' and the compound 'seventy-seven'.
      n[U] hot melted rock below the surface of the Earth
      Magma (from Greek μάγμα, "thick unguent") is a mixture of molten or semi-molten rock, volatiles and solids that is found beneath the surface of the Earth, and is expected to exist on other terrestrial planets.
      Besides molten rock, magma may also contain suspended crystals, dissolved gas and sometimes gas bubbles.
      Magma often collects in magma chambers that may feed a volcano or turn into a pluton.
      Magma is capable of intrusion into adjacent rocks (forming igneous dikes and sills), extrusion onto the surface as lava, and explosive ejection as tephra to form pyroclastic rock.
      Magma is a complex high-temperature fluid substance.
      Temperatures of most magmas are in the range 700 °C to 1300 °C (or 1300 °F to 2400 °F).