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      adj connected with or controlled by a dictator ¶ tending to dictate, domineering
      A dictatorial government or ruler has complete power over a country.
      A dictatorial person tells other people what to do in an unreasonable way.
      I can tell you any company big enough behaves like a dictatorial regime.
      America and its allies invaded Iraq, to topple the dictatorial regime of Saddam Hussein.
      The republican army reentered Caracas on August 7, where Bolivar, now 30, was given dictatorial powers, although half of Venezuela remained under control of the crown, which had 10 times the number of troops, who were, of course, much better equipped and trained.
      Nazism, known officially in German as National Socialism, is the totalitarian ideology and practices of the Nazi Party or National Socialist German Workers' Party under Adolf Hitler, and the policies adopted by the dictatorial government of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945.
      v[IT] foretell
      also a noun
      Many of Jesus disciples had heard him prophesy that Jerusalem would be destroyed.
      Jesus and his followers had prophesied that an apostasy would occur in the Christian congregation.
      It was prophesied that he would restore the Islamic Caliphate (or Islamic model of a state) in the Arabian peninsula.
      There's the Mayan prophesies, the Incan and Egyptian prophesies, the prophesies of Nostradamus, as well as a host of prophesies from the people on the Internet.
      The Hopi and Mayan elders do not prophesy that everything will come to an end.
      n[U] fame or distinction, acclaim
      When it comes to reasons to study abroad in Australia, the renown of the nation's top universities is only the tip of the iceberg.
      Although Archimedes acquired by his mechanical inventions "the renown of more than human sagacity," according to Plutarch, he "would not deign to leave behind him any commentary or writing on such subjects," since he considered them "sordid and ignoble."
      An economist of international renown, Vito Tanzi served for 20 years as director of the Fiscal Affairs Department of the International Monetary Fund in Washington, D.C., with which he was affiliated for nearly three decades.
      His mastery of Brazilian percussion and the many instruments he creates himself, have catapulted him into world renown.
      She educated them superbly. Of the three sons, two earned great renown. The youngest son, Muhammad Ali, acquired exceptional qualities of head and heart.
      v[T] allow fresh air to enter a room or building ¶ express your feelings or opinions publicly
      Natural ventilation is the ventilation of a building with outside air without the use of a fan or other mechanical system.
      It can be achieved with openable windows or trickle vents when the spaces to ventilate are small and the architecture permits.
      Almost all historic buildings were ventilated naturally.
      A basic system of bellows was put in place to ventilate Newgate Prison and outlying buildings, by the engineer Stephen Hales in the mid-18th century.
      In certain applications, such as submarines, pressurized aircraft, and spacecraft, ventilation air is also needed to provide oxygen, and to dilute carbon dioxide for survival.
      Batteries in submarines also discharge hydrogen gas, which must also be ventilated for health and safety.
      The cockpit escape hatch can be opened to a vent position to ventilate the cockpit while the aircraft is parked.
      He rapidly lost his old health amidst the smoke and dust and dirt of those early and badly ventilated workshops.
      Ventilate properly. Where possible, open windows during and after the installation of new carpet.
      The annulment of the Partition (12 December 1911) made the Muslims of Bengal sorely disappointed and Salimullah convened a meeting of the leading Muslims of Bengal on 30 December 1911 to consider the situation and ventilate their feelings.
      If someone hyperventilates, they begin to breathe very fast in an uncontrollable way, usually because they are very frightened, tired, or excited.
      adj scornfully or cynically mocking
      Compare sadistic, sarcastic, and sardonic.
      Normby gave a small bow, then displayed a sardonic smile on his male face. "Sorry, trade secret, ma'am."
      I do realize that my sardonic tone is not to everyone's taste, but that's just the style I often employ.
      This translation revives the sardonic wit and black humour of the original.
      adj worthy of being recommended or suggested, prudent
      If you are planning to visit from out of town, it is advisable to call to check on gallery hours due to holiday closings.
      If you decide to file a complaint with an outside agency, it is advisable to consult an attorney, although you are not required to retain counsel in order to file.
      As a rule of thumb it is advisable that it is a property that is free of debts, that has a positive balance, that the property is in good condition in general, with a valid insurance of the building, that renovations to be done are budgeted properly, etc.
      It is advisable for them to visit this dentist on a regular basis because he/she can help them to avoid the risk of infection.
      n[pl] (river/stream) source
      The source or headwaters of a river or stream is the furthest place in that river or stream from its estuary or confluence with another river, as measured along the course of the river.
      The United States Geological Survey (USGS) states that a river's "length may be considered to be the distance from the mouth to the most distant headwater source (irrespective of stream name), or from the mouth to the headwaters of the stream commonly identified as the source stream".
      Lake Itasca, located in upstate Minnesota, contains the headwaters to the Mississippi River.
      The furthest stream is also often called the headstream.
      Headwaters are often small streams with cool waters because of shade and recently melted ice or snow.
      They may also be glacial headwaters, waters formed by the melting of glacial ice.
      n[C] shrimp
      Prawn is a common name, used particularly in the United Kingdom, Ireland and Commonwealth nations, for large swimming crustaceans or shrimp, especially those with commercial significance in the seafood industry.
      Shrimp that fall in this category often belong to the suborder Dendrobranchiata.
      In North America, the term is used less frequently, typically for freshwater shrimp.
      In the United Kingdom prawn is more common on menus than shrimp, while the opposite is the case in the United States.
      The term prawn also loosely describes any large shrimp, especially those that come 15 (or fewer) to the pound (such as king prawns or jumbo shrimp).
      Clawed lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans.
      Crayfish, also known as crawfish, crawdads, freshwater lobsters, or mudbugs, are freshwater crustaceans resembling small lobsters, to which they are related; taxonomically, they are members of the superfamilies Astacoidea and Parastacoidea.
      Compare pawn and prawn.
      adj unwilling to spend, give, or use a lot of money
      Compare generous, mean, and stingy.
      "How do Monica and Phoebe know?" "Oh, I called them. And when they ask me what I saw, I can be very generous or very stingy."
      His last book was a bit stingy with the photos, leaving me wanting another page of pictures.
      Obama also has been stingy with commutations, applications for early release by those still serving federal prison sentences. Under Reagan and Clinton, applicants for commutations had a 1 in 100 chance of success.
      Someone who is chintzy does not like to spend money or give things to people.
      A stingy amount of something, especially food, is too small.
      v[T] pierce sb/sth with a sharp-pointed object
      Each step had to be placed carefully. One slip and you could fall and become impaled on a crystal.
      This skull was impaled by the fisherman on a stick on a beach.
      As was the custom and practice of the day, Maude Bowen was taken to the nearest cross-roads to where she had died, impaled with a stake of living wood and buried, lest she return as a vampire.
      Besides there were spring traps laid on the roads and deep pits cunningly camouflaged over with leaves. At the bottom were laid spikes and thorns to impale the victim.
      adj able to destroy or dissolve other substances ¶ critical in a bitter or sarcastic way
      Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye and caustic soda, is an inorganic compound.
      He is caustic and full of vitriol towards the USA.
      One of the reasons for its on-going popularity is its caustic wit and perceptive social satire.
      Erdogan made some caustic remarks about Gulen lately.
      v[T] respect or worship sb/sth, revere
      They sent up loud shouts of welcome until the venerated man landed.
      Very few of the thousands of the relics venerated by medieval and later clerics have ever been scientifically dated or analysed.
      The Virgin Mary has been honored and venerated as Mother of God since the first centuries of Christianity.
      Remember Slippery the Sea Lion? He is venerated in local legend for his 1958 escape from Storybook Gardens.
      As Goddess of the sea, Tin Hau is venerated for the protection she offers to fishermen and sailors.
      adj consisting of many different small parts
      Although very fragmentary, this text seems to describe events in the lives of the offspring of the Watchers, identified by name, before their destruction in the flood.
      Information is therefore fragmentary and many ambiguities exist.
      The on-line information seems a bit sparse and rather fragmentary.
      Certainly some parts of the "driftless area" were covered by early ice, but fragmentary evidence of this has been found.
      v[T] strip off the skin or outer covering of ¶ whip or lash ¶ criticize very severely
      He pillaged Miraj, pulled down the monuments and flayed the Hindu inhabitants alive.
      Some were flayed alive and their skins were tossed to the dogs as meat.
      The emperor Valerian was captured by the Persian emperor Shapur, and turned first into a living footstool, and then flayed and used as a rather striking wall hanging.
      Almost all the factory owners flayed the media saying it had 'provoked' everyone and had damaged the international apparel market.
      Recently, a most revered politician from Umno was flayed for not "embracing his party's stand and claims".
      Compare flay and slay.
      adj revengeful
      Someone who is vindictive is cruel to anyone who hurts them and will not forgive them.
      There are issues of being remorseless with yourself and also of being vindictive. You have just, in other words, been too hard on yourself, because you haven't had the balanced inner development within you of love and positive thinking.
      They portray the IRS as arrogant, uncaring, vindictive, and rife with bureaucratic incompetence.
      I truly believe that Newt is mean and vindictive enough that he will keep going simply to diminish Romney's stature.
      I felt like my world was crumbling down. Then, a week later my sister-in-law, who is a vindictive, evil person calls CPS to get my kids removed.
      v[T] make a detailed list of a number of things
      An itemized deduction is an eligible expense that individual taxpayers in the United States can report on their federal income tax returns in order to decrease their taxable income.
      Most taxpayers are allowed a choice between the itemized deductions and the standard deduction.
      After computing their adjusted gross income (AGI), taxpayers can itemize their deductions (from a list of allowable items) and subtract those itemized deductions (and any applicable personal exemption deductions) from their AGI amount to arrive at their taxable income amount.
      Alternatively, they can elect to subtract the standard deduction for their filing status (and any applicable personal exemption deduction) to arrive at their taxable income.
      In other words, the taxpayer may generally deduct the total itemized deduction amount, or the standard deduction amount, whichever is greater.
      adj hard-working, diligent
      He was very industrious, and he was very fond of books, reading everything that came in his way.
      We have a bias towards professionals, and what we need are actually unskilled labour, guys who will come here and be industrious and start businesses.
      These are industrious people, and they have multiple businesses.
      As a student, he carried all before him, being as industrious as he was gifted.
      It is said that, being an industrious man, Sam settled at Morman Island on the American River and began to collect "the Lord's tithes" (10% of their gold) from the miners who passed by.
      v[T] obtain from another by coercion or intimidation
      The gang extorted money from over 30 local businesses.
      A conservative estimate is that over five million dollars a year is being extorted from victims.
      Spanish police arrest an Italian man and a Portuguese woman suspected of trying to extort money from Madeleine's parents by offering them information about the missing girl.
      The police used torture to extort a confession from him.
      n[U] very small animals and plants that live in water and are eaten by fish
      Plankton (singular plankter) are a diverse group of organisms that live in the water column and cannot swim against a current.
      Plankton provide a crucial source of food to many large aquatic organisms, such as fish and whales.
      Though many planktonic species are microscopic in size, plankton includes organisms covering a wide range of sizes, including large organisms such as jellyfish.
      Plankton inhabit oceans, seas, lakes, ponds.
      Antarctic krill serves as a model organism for a polar plankton species that has adapted to the extreme conditions.
      adj extremely thin from lack of food or illness
      My dog was found this morning, emaciated and dehydrated, but still alive.
      He was so emaciated that he probably would not have eaten for a couple of weeks.
      He was emaciated and malnourished in inception and was given proper treatment.
      He was emaciated and was looking like a moving corpse.
      She was so emaciated that her dress hung on her like a tent.
      n[C] the symbol ,
      The comma ( , ) is a punctuation mark that appears in several variants in various languages.
      It has the same shape as an apostrophe or single closing quotation mark in many typefaces, but it differs from them in being placed on the baseline of the text.
      Some typefaces render it as a small line, slightly curved or straight but inclined from the vertical, or with the appearance of a small, filled-in number 9.
      The comma is used in many contexts and languages, mainly for separating parts of a sentence such as clauses, and items in lists, particularly when there are three or more items listed.
      According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word comma comes directly from the Greek komma (κόμμα), which means something cut off or a short clause.
      A comma can also be used as a diacritic when combined with other characters.
      Quotation marks, also called quotes, quote marks, quotemarks, speech marks and inverted commas, are punctuation marks used in pairs in various writing systems to set off direct speech, a quotation, or a phrase.
      Compare coma and comma.
      adj very hungry, starving
      He too denounced Nkrumah as a 'double-faced ravenous, lustful and wanting everything for himself'.
      Consumers are proving to have a ravenous appetite for Apple Inc.'s iPhone 5, driving pre-orders of the new smartphone to a record for the company, which has pushed back some delivery dates.
      Beware of false prophets, who come in sheep's clothing, but inwardly they are ravenous wolves.
      On the evening of the fourth, he was so pressed by ravenous hunger, that he stole into the woods, caught a bull-frog, and devoured it alive.
      Compare raven and ravenous.
      n[C] any learning technique that aids information retention
      Compare memo, memoir, and mnemonic.
      Mnemonics aim to translate information into a form that the brain can retain better than its original form.
      Knuckle mnemonic for the number of days in each month of the Gregorian Calendar. Each knuckle represents a 31-day month.
      Some common examples for first letter mnemonics:
      The order of sharps in key signature notation is F♯, C♯, G♯, D♯, A♯, E♯ and B♯, giving the mnemonic "Father Charles Goes Down And Ends Battle".
      To memorise the colours of the rainbow: the phrase "Richard Of York Gave Battle In Vain" - each of the initial letters matches the colours of the rainbow in order (Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet).
      To memorise the North American Great Lakes: the acronym HOMES - matching the letters of the five lakes (Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, and Superior)
      To memorise the names of the planets, use the planetary mnemonic: "My Very Eager Mother Just Served Us Nothing" - where each of the initial letters matches the name of the planets in our solar system (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune).
      adj with a lot of knowledge about sth
      He said he was well versed in the law and didn't need to be told.
      I remember a medical school valedictorian who was well versed in the medical literature and very articulate, but was weak in problem solving.
      We here at Cisco are versed in the web.
      Ghawi seemed to be well versed in the world of hockey, waxing extensively about the subject on her Twitter account.
      n[U] a metabolic process that converts sugar to acids, gases or alcohol
      It occurs in yeast and bacteria, but also in oxygen-starved muscle cells, as in the case of lactic acid fermentation.
      Fermentation is also used more broadly to refer to the bulk growth of microorganisms on a growth medium, often with the goal of producing a specific chemical product.
      French microbiologist Louis Pasteur is often remembered for his insights into fermentation and its microbial causes.
      The science of fermentation is known as zymology.
      Fermentation takes place in the lack of oxygen (when the electron transport chain is unusable) and becomes the cell's primary means of ATP (energy) production.
      To many people, fermentation simply means the production of alcohol: grains and fruits are fermented to produce beer and wine.
      If a food soured, one might say it was 'off' or fermented. Here are some definitions of fermentation.
      The use of fermentation, particularly for beverages, has existed since the Neolithic and has been documented dating from 7000–6600 BCE in Jiahu, China.