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      adj simplistic
      A facile remark, argument etc is too simple and shows a lack of careful thought or understanding.
      A facile achievement or success has been obtained too easily and has no value.
      Ken Henry's report seems facile and naive.
      You will find that contrary to your facile, juvenile analysis and completely wrong assumptions, people choose to listen to Ray Hadley.
      This is a rather facile argument.
      Freddie Keron Sittuk continued his domination of the local road race scene with a highly impressive Buncrana 5K victory on Wednesday evening, storming to a facile victory in spanking new course record figures of 14m 18s.
      adj that cannot be taken away
      As a conservative Christian, I believe unborn children have certain inalienable rights, including the right to life.
      All men are created equal endowed by their creator with certain inalienable rights among them life, liberty and pursuit of happiness.
      Today's ruling is a victory for all who cherish our inalienable right to freedom of speech and religious expression.
      Every man, woman and child has the inalienable right to be free from hunger and malnutrition in order to develop fully and maintain their physical and mental faculties.
      n[U] the genetic process by which a parent's qualities or diseases pass to their child
      Heredity is the passing of phenotypic traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction
      This is the process by which an offspring cell or organism acquires or becomes predisposed to the characteristics of its parent cell or organism.
      Through heredity, variations exhibited by individuals can accumulate and cause some species to evolve through the natural selection of specific phenotype traits.
      The study of heredity in biology is called genetics, which includes the field of epigenetics.
      Diet and exercise can influence a person's weight, but heredity is also a factor.
      Heredity may sometimes be a deciding factor in why some people become clinically obese.
      n[C] a message written at the end of a letter after you have signed your name ¶ facts or information added to sth after it is completed
      A postscript (P.S.) is an afterthought, thought of occurring after the letter has been written and signed.
      The term comes from the Latin post scriptum, an expression meaning "written after" (which may be interpreted in the sense of "that which comes after the writing").
      A postscript may be a sentence, a paragraph, or occasionally many paragraphs added to, often hastily and incidentally, after the signature of a letter or (sometimes) the main body of an essay or book.
      In a book or essay, a more carefully composed addition (e.g., for a second edition) is called an afterword.
      The word "postscript" has, poetically, been used to refer to any sort of addendum to some main work, even if it is not attached to a main work.
      Sometimes, when additional points are made after the first postscript, abbreviations such as PSS (post-super-scriptum), PPS (postquam-post-scriptum) and PPPS (post-post-post-scriptum, and so on, ad infinitum) are used, though only PPS has somewhat common usage.
      n[U] a genus of plants in the grass family
      Red Sorghum: A Novel of China or Red Sorghum Clan is a Chinese language novel by Mo Yan.
      The novel consists of the volumes "Red Sorghum", "Sorghum Wine", "Dog Ways", "Sorghum Funeral", and "Strange Death", which were first serialized in various magazines in 1986.
      Red Sorghum's plot revolves around three generations of the Shandong family between 1923 and 1976.
      The narrator tells the story of his family's struggles, first as distillery owners making sorghum wine and then as resistance fighters during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
      As the principal crop of Shandong province's Northeast Gaomi Township (the author's hometown), red sorghum (sorghum bicolor) frames the narrative as a symbol of indifference and vitality.
      Compare millet and sorghum.
      v[T] make a book, play, etc shorter by leaving parts out
      This abridged version will work well as an introduction to classic literature in elementary grade classes, but omits too much of the original text for older students.
      The web version has been edited and abridged by Simon Birnbaum and Karl Widerquist.
      In the early 1950's an abridged, yet partly illustrated version was published in Collier's magazine.
      "If you write me a letter" becomes in its abridged form "If you write me".
      v[T] criticize or punish sb severely
      I replied to your comment in which you castigated me for condemning the Roman Catholic Church.
      Roosevelt should be castigated for his flagrant abuse of the Constitution.
      Dear Dr. Hanson, You lament the castigation of innocent people but then castigate Terry Jones by calling him a nut.
      Mrs. Gandhi also took the opportunity to castigate the B.J.P. for not allowing the Parliament to run for many days.
      n[C] the act of stopping or the condition of being stopped, a halt
      The prime minister said: "We ordered the stoppage of Nato supplies and had US air force vacate Shamsi Airbase after the Salala attack, in which many Pakistani troops lost their lives."
      In football and some other sports, when there is a stoppage or time out, the game stops for a short time, for example because a player is injured. The referee may add some extra time at the end of the game because of this.
      Seattle had the last chance of the game in stoppage time (overtime, extra time) when an unmarked Zach Scott headed a Montero free kick over.
      Didier Drogba's goal in first half stoppage time gave Chelsea a surprise victory.
      Strike action, also called labor strike, labour strike, on strike, greve (of French: grève), or simply strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal of employees to work.
      n[UC] the fact that sth is strange, unusual, or unsuitable in a particular situation, strangeness
      Leaving Cuba, I was struck by the incongruity of so much pristine beauty so close to the Caribbean's many overdeveloped islands.
      Charles de Gaulle didn't see the the incongruity between his ambitions and the needs of France.
      Of the earlier theories of humor, we think incongruity theories have been the most promising.
      The incongruity theory states that humor is perceived at the moment of realization of incongruity between a concept involved in a certain situation and the real objects thought to be in some relation to the concept.
      Since the main point of the theory is not the incongruity per se, but its realization and resolution (i.e., putting the objects in question into the real relation), it is often called the incongruity-resolution theory.
      She smiled at the incongruity of the question.
      adj shaped or moving with many bends and curves like a snake
      Compare serpentine and sinuous.
      She was sinuous and elegant in a classic black dress.
      I enjoyed watching the sinuous bodies of the dancers.
      The Pocket LOOX is a marvel to behold. Its sleek silver and blue exterior boasts sinuous curves and an ergonomically designed casing.
      Pocket LOOX was a series of Pocket PC-based personal digital assistants (PDAs) and navigation systems developed by Fujitsu Siemens.
      We followed the sinuous trail deep into the mountains.
      "Can we please go back home!" I cried. We walked up a dilapidated, sinuous road exuding heat. Uncle Julius's sandals clattered in a tranquilizing rhythm and I felt sleepy.
      v[T] cut a pattern, word etc into something, using a sharp instrument
      Compare carve, engrave, incise, and inscribe.
      There is an outline of a Latin cross incised on its north west face.
      A limestone stela incised with the last recorded date (in AD 909) from the Maya long count calendar is now on display at the Royal Ontario Museum.
      The image is incised into a highly polished metal plate, usually copper, with a cutting instrument, or burin.
      In medicine an incised wound is one made with a cutting instrument, often a deep wound.
      adj healthy and strong, powerful
      Compare lust, lustful, lustily, and lusty.
      The fire had grown lusty and thawed a damp circle in the snow about it.
      Seizing a shovel from one of the men, he began to dig with great vigour. One of his lusty blows hit the rock, when the polished hard face that forms on weathered limestone cracked and fell away exposing the soft porous rock beneath, and out of the porous rock came a great gush of clear water.
      Midwives used to encourage newborns to breathe deep and let out a lusty cry.
      "We're starting a new relationship. I need to get to know you again." "No, you don't. It's me. The lusty charmer with the fancy patter and the hoochie pants."
      n[C] a comment or statement that has been made very often before and is therefore not interesting
      Compare cliché and platitude.
      They've left themselves only with platitudes and slogans and unfounded criticisms of the Democrats.
      He never answers questions directly. Plenty of platitudes, plenty of dancing around questions but very little direct hits.
      All newbie candidates spout this platitude as a rejoinder to charges that they don't have enough government experience.
      What did Penny mean by that?! Was that just a generic platitude, or was that a subtle bid for attention?
      v[T] feel unhappy about having to do, pay or give sth ¶ envy sb the possession of sth
      Studies have shown that people do not begrudge paying taxes if they believe the tax system is equitable.
      Do you really think that a lady in her 80's is going to begrudge a young woman wearing red?
      I don't begrudge her in the slightest her professional career.
      She does not begrudge her family that she had to take on this heavy responsibility even if she's the youngest of four female siblings because they had sacrificed a lot in her behalf for the longest time.
      "And Joey, get me a bottle of wine and glasses?" He begrudgingly does so.
      v[T] disturb or confuse, make uneasy or anxious
      The orbit of a Kuiper belt object is sometimes perturbed by gravitational interactions with the Jovian planets causing it to cross Neptune's orbit, where eventually it may have a close encounter with Neptune.
      He was very perturbed at the level of opium addiction in these camps and gave public lectures to raise support for the anti-opium crusade.
      "I don't quite understand," her teacher replies, visibly perturbed.
      Ellen remains perturbed by the gestures and body language that her mother and Mr. DeCuervo engage in.
      "To the extent that the moderation in manufacturing activity is reflecting weakening domestic and global demand, it may be a harbinger of continued sup-par (less than what is expected) GDP growth," said Millan Mulraine, a senior economist at TD Securities in New York. But households appear little perturbed by the gathering dark clouds.
      "par" is a golfing term. It is the approximate "rating" of difficulty for each hole. Only better golfers actually "make par" regularly.
      Somehow, the meaning or the words "sub-par" or "below par" as used outside of the game of golf.
      Par doesn't really mean "normal" or "average". It is more of a target to try for. If your effort doesn't measure up to that "target", your effort is sub-par.
      adj affecting your mind in a way that you are not conscious of
      Subliminal stimuli, contrary to supraliminal stimuli or "above threshold", are any sensory stimuli below an individual's threshold for conscious perception.
      In 1957, a controversy developed in the United States over subliminal stimuli in which a movie theater over a period of six weeks flashed messages for 1/3,000 of a second: "Hungry? Eat popcorn!" A sixty percent increase in the sale of popcorn was reported.
      Television programs are full of subliminal advertising.
      The FDA hasn't seen fit to remove those subliminal messages yet.
      v[T] change food in your body into energy and new cells
      Metabolism (from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of living organisms.
      These enzyme-catalyzed reactions allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments.
      Our bodies constantly metabolise the food we eat.
      When Starch is digested, our body hydrolyzes it to glucose. The glucose is then metabolized and used for energy.
      Diabetics cannot metabolise glucose properly.
      The athletes had taken pills to stimulate their metabolic rate.
      adj affected by improper nutrition or an insufficient diet
      The women I've met were neither malnourished nor were they (by their community standards) " impoverished ".
      Dental hygienists can tell if a patient is eating poorly or is malnourished; they can then offer helpful advice and information.
      The World Food Program made its first airlift to Baidoa on Saturday on a C-130 Hercules transport packed with 17 tons of high-protein biscuits for the more than 8,000 seriously malnourished children being fed at four centers.
      The average North Korean male is about 5 inches shorter than his South Korean counterpart. That is unquestionable evidence for an entire nation of malnourished people.
      n[U] all the impressive clothes, decorations, music etc that are traditional for an important official or public ceremony
      Compare pomp and pulp.
      In classical Greco-Roman culture, many major festivals were marked by a pomp.
      A pomp was a combination of a parade, pilgrimage, and religious procession Worshipper would don special garb, line up in rows by the thousands, and then travel through the city or from one holy site to another (such as from the Parthenon to the site of the Eleusinian mysteries).
      The most important pomp in Athens celebrated Athena's birthday.
      The four-day visit, aimed at patching up differences between the two countries over issues such as the Iraq war, will be laden with state events and royal pomp such as Tuesday evening's state banquet in Putin's honor.
      n[C] tyrant
      A despot is a ruler or other person who has a lot of power and who uses it unfairly or cruelly.
      It is also evidence of a desperate despot who wants to cling onto power and remain in office using state institutions.
      When he conquered Babylon, he liberated the Jews from the despot who ruled over them.
      Syria's Hafez Assad was a brutal despot who ruled the country with an iron fist and a 65,000-strong secret police force.
      Are we in 2012 at the same point in history Germany was when it elected Adolf Hitler to Chancellor? If we are, the despot who fools the people with his lies will surely begin to usurp power and use force to impose his will upon the nation.
      adv in an insistent manner
      Politely but insistently, they asked how residents planned to vote.
      Leonora said loudly, insistently, with a bitterly imperative tone: "You must stay here; you must belong to Edward. I will divorce him."
      Out in the hall his phone rang insistently, unheard and unanswered.
      "Rach, here's your mail." "Thanks, you can just put it on the table." "No, here's your mail," said Monica, insistently.
      adj impossible to retract or revoke
      An irrevocable decision, action etc cannot be changed or stopped.
      However, by submitting the User Content to SGStudios, you hereby grant SGStudios a worldwide, non-exclusive, fully paid-up, royalty-free, irrevocable, perpetual, sublicenseable and transferable license to use, reproduce, distribute, prepare derivative works of, display, perform and otherwise exploit the User Content in connection with the Services and SGStudios's, it's sucessors' and it's affiliates' businesses, including without limitation for promoting and redistributing part or all of the User Content (and derivative works thereof) in any media formats and through any media channels.
      Renouncing your U.S. citizenship should not be taken lightly. It is irrevocable.
      An irrevocable trust is one that you give up ownership and no longer have any control over assets transferred to the trust.
      adj shrewd and careful, esp in business matters
      She will be very canny and keep her options open until she decides which of the men she is going to choose.
      He's canny and astute and not an opponent to underestimate.
      Henry is canny enough to know that the most obvious solution is not necessarily the best.
      French citizens canny enough to work for the UN avoid all tax anywhere in the world.
      adj cloudy, misty, or hazy ¶ vague
      Compare nebula and nebulous.
      Mexico's network of drug cartels is nebulous and complex.
      Morals are a nebulous concept.
      SEO is as nebulous as String Theory.
      Our staff can take even the most nebulous idea and turn it into a fresh, exciting brand at the head of a brilliant new multi-platform advertising campaign.
      adj showing that you respect sb and want to treat them politely
      Deference is a polite and respectful attitude towards someone, especially because they have an important position.
      Why are people deferential to those in positions of power, and in a position to commit injustices, yet at the same time they become angry in the face of a powerless person making a counter argument they may disagree with?
      I don't like it when people are deferential to me because I'm an established film-maker.
      He was not very deferential towards others.
      Leo was young for his group, a factor that may in part explain his deferential attitude to others.
      Maybe Christians and Jews don't get the same deferential treatment because they don't firebomb buildings, overturn cars and murder ambassadors when someone provokes them.