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      shirk
      ʃə:k
      v[IT] avoid work, duties or responsibilities, esp if they are difficult or unpleasant
      also a noun
      -
      "Shirk break" is a synonym for coffee break.
      I share the responsibility, and I don't shirk from it.
      They help prevent what economists call "free riders" - employees who shirk their responsibilities and need to be monitored.
      "The board of directors, central bank and the finance ministry can not shirk their responsibility in this regard," said Tofail.
      In Islam, shirk (Arabic: شرك‎ širk) is the sin of practising idolatry or polytheism, i.e. the deification or worship of anyone or anything other than the singular God i.e. Allah.
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      re`fract
      ri'frækt
      v[T] change the direction of light when it hits a surface
      -
      If glass or water refracts light, the light changes direction when it passes through the glass or water.
      When light passes between media having different refractive indices, it is refracted through an angle in accordance with Snell's law.
      Sometimes, if the sunlight is refracted through a drop more than once, you will be lucky enough to see a second rainbow behind the primary bow!
      Light of different wavelengths is refracted by different amounts.
      Fig. 4 shows the path of light when a mirage happens.
      Suppose there is an oasis and the light it emits at point A is refracted by the air, the light will travel through a curved path.
      Total internal reflection occurs at point B and will cause the light to travel upwards.
      Then the light is refracted by the air again.
      At last, it will enter the eyes of the observer at point C, producing an illusion that the oasis is close to him.
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      head`first
      hed'fə:st
      adj,adv with the head going first ¶ without thinking or preparation
      -
      Like black bears, porcupines climb down a tree backward because their hind paws cannot support them if they go down headfirst.
      They should never dive headfirst into water that they have never been in before.
      They jump headfirst into buying real estate - without ever making a plan.
      I plunged headfirst into relationships which I should never have been in.
      Head First is a series of introductory instructional books to many topics, published by O'Reilly Media.
      It stresses an unorthodox, visually intensive, reader-involving combination of puzzles, jokes, nonstandard design and layout, and an engaging, conversational style to immerse the reader in a given topic.
      Originally, the series covered programming and software engineering, but is now expanding to other topics in science, mathematics and business, due to success.
      The series was created by Bert Bates and Kathy Sierra, and began with Head First Java in 2003.
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      car`niv`o`rous
      ka:'nivərəs
      adj a ~ animal eats meat
      -
      Triffids are plants, but plants unlike any other. Approximately eight to ten feet tall, they are carnivorous.
      The triffid is a fictitious, tall, mobile, prolific and highly venomous plant species, the titular antagonist in John Wyndham's 1951 novel The Day of the Triffids and Simon Clark's 2001 sequel The Night of the Triffids.
      Recent studies show that secretions of carnivorous plants can be used in the development of better anti-fungal medication.
      Islam prohibits the eating of carnivorous animals like lion, tiger, leopard, etc. who are violent and ferocious.
      Young green sea turtles eat a carnivorous diet constituted largely of jellyfish.
      The Carnivorous Carnival is the ninth novel in the children's novel series A Series of Unfortunate Events by Lemony Snicket.
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      fizz
      fiz
      v[I] make a hissing or bubbling sound
      also a noun
      -
      If a liquid fizzes, it produces a lot of bubbles and makes a continuous sound.
      The carbon dioxide that fizzes your drinks up today could have come from burning fuel, yeast that were busy making beer or some chemical process that releases it as a by-product.
      Torp rejected Green Peace's suggestion that CO2 injection was illegal, noting that it was legally sold and exported - it is the ingredient that puts fizz in beer or soft drinks.
      Edward Wright's work fizzes with energy and ideas.
      With the edge to edge display, it really pops and fizzes in the palm, with the Super AMOLED display impressing.
      The longer the day went, the more rancid the drink became; losing its fizz, increasing in temperature.
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      cir`cum`spect
      'sə:kəmspekt
      adj cautious
      -
      In earlier days, the press was far more circumspect in the way that it covered political affairs than it is today.
      As a researcher one learns to be circumspect in what one says until the results are firm and have been subjected to some serious stress testing.
      Most thoughtful and circumspect people would like to lance the European boil and bring matters speedily to a close.
      The statement urged media houses which published the story to be very circumspect and cautious of what they published, especially during an election period.
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      ob`vi`ate
      'ɔbvieit
      v[T] eliminate
      -
      To obviate the evils of an unmixed convictism, a guarantee was given that an equal number of free settlers should be introduced.
      Of course, you must also be a polished presenter. These tips do not obviate the need for expertise in presenting.
      According to this analysis, the ejection of Greece would obviate the need for big institutional reforms of the currency union such as debt mutualisation or pan-eurozone bank protection.
      To obviate this risk, the medical officer of the ship passes them under inspection; and if there be a pauper cripple among the number who can not give security that he has friends in America to take charge of him of arrival, and provide for him afterwards, the captain may refuse to take him.
      The Windows Emulation Project (WINE for short) aims for nothing less than the ability to run Win32 binaries on Linux. This will obviate the need for porting Windows applications to Linux, since they will run "out of the box".
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      glee`ful
      'gli:fəl
      adj happy and excited
      -
      Christmas 1977 probably holds the record for the highest number of household breakages, as millions of kids swung their plastic lightsabers around with gleeful abandon.
      "Impunity in Kenya is over!" was the gleeful, childish conclusion of an excited Kenyan on social media.
      He found her in the living room, closing the curtains, the mirrors bouncing a gleeful smile around the room before she told him to sit down and she shut out the last of the light.
      Although Republicans are gleeful at the moment, Romney will find a way to drop the ball at least one more time between now and the election.
      If someone drops the ball, they make a mistake.
      Penny, I was gleefully following you to a life of crime, looking forward to the day we might be cell mates. I don't know about Bernadette.
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      so`cia`ble
      'səuʃəbəl
      adj fond of the company of others, friendly
      -
      Towards the end of the first year of life, the baby becomes even more sociable, getting interested in the things his caregivers point to and sometimes even saying his first words.
      Guinea pigs are larger and smell more than the other small mammals mentioned. They require vitamin C supplements. They are very sociable and do not tend to bite or scratch as much as other small mammals.
      Searching roomate Easy-going, N-smoker, Clean, Sociable person with whom I can share an OPEN SPACE in an AMAZING LOFT 3rd floor on Vernon St. downtown Nelson.
      I find that less sociable people don't use Facebook as much as more sociable fellows.
      I wanted to be a little more sociable than I was last year.
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      Ne`o`lith`ic
      ni:ə'liθik
      adj of the later part of the Stone Age
      -
      The Neolithic Era, or Period, from νέος (néos, "new") and λίθος (líthos, "stone"), or New Stone Age, was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4,500 and 2,000 BC.
      Traditionally considered the last part of the Stone Age, the Neolithic followed the terminal Holocene Epipaleolithic period and commenced with the beginning of farming, which produced the "Neolithic Revolution".
      It ended when metal tools became widespread (in the Copper Age or Bronze Age; or, in some geographical regions, in the Iron Age).
      The Neolithic is a progression of behavioral and cultural characteristics and changes, including the use of wild and domestic crops and of domesticated animals.
      The beginning of the Neolithic culture is considered to be in the Levant (Jericho, modern-day West Bank) about 10,200–8,800 BC.
      An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools.
      Neolithic stone implements are by definition polished and, except for specialty items, not chipped.
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      hub`bub
      'hʌbʌb
      n[U] the loud sound made by a lot of people talking at the same time ¶ a situation in which there is a lot of noise, excitement and activity
      -
      Compare bustle, clamor, commotion, fuss, tumult, turmoil, and uproar.
      "Ryder! It's us! Did you bring a present?" He heard them above the hubbub of the crowd, and had soon spotted Saffron perched on her father's shoulders.
      Amidst all the hubbub about Steve Jobs banning Flash from the iPhone and iPad, Adobe's been quietly working away at its HTML5 authoring tools, and CTO Kevin Lynch has promised that those tools will be the "best in the world".
      In spite of all the hubbub over the Mayan Calendar, the Maya and other indigenous people don't spend a lot of time obsessing over dates and predictions, or over the possibility of future catastrophic events.
      Then a hubbub ensued, Archie picking her up, India running to the kitchen for water, Pitty and Scarlett fanning her and slapping her wrists, while Hugh Elsing shouted over and over: "Now you've done it!"
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      im`pute
      im'pju:t
      v[I] attribute or ascribe
      -
      The children imputed magical powers to the old woman.
      If you impute something such as blame or a crime to someone, you say that they are responsible for it or are the cause of it.
      Did the alleged offence really produce the effects imputed to it, namely the death of a number of persons?
      The police were not guilty of the violence imputed to them.
      In Christian theology, to impute means to attribute righteousness, guilt, etc. to a person or persons vicariously.
      Imputed righteousness is a concept in Christian theology that proposes that the "righteousness of Christ ... is imputed to [believers] — that is, treated as if it were theirs through faith."
      The teaching of imputed righteousness is a signature doctrine of the Lutheran and Reformed traditions of Christianity.
      Abraham believed God, and it was imputed unto him for righteousness: and he was called the Friend of God.
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      ap`pend
      ə'pend
      v[T] attach or add
      -
      From the outset, Zuckerberg acknowledged having done programming work for Ceglia while he was a student in 2003.
      But he maintained that the contract appended to Ceglia's complaint was a forgery, and that the real contract made no mention of Facebook, which Zuckerberg had not even conceived of creating until about December 2003.
      The actual contract pertained solely to a startup Ceglia was trying to launch at the time, called StreetFax, according to Zuckerberg.
      The NetBIOS scope ID is a character string that is appended to the NetBIOS name.
      Further, I am not suggesting that their business card could not be appended, or make no mention of the title Intern.
      Note: Entries appended with "Kindle Team" are official answers from Amazon.
      Appended below are those details of interest.
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      non`cha`lant
      na:nʃə'la:nt
      adj relaxed and not worried about anything, calm and casual
      -
      I can not live with the nonchalant attitude and total inertia of the Mills administration to the events happening in Hohoe as we speak. I am so angry and upset.
      If it looks like we're adopting a nonchalant attitude in the worst of situations, it's just the Ugandan way: Everything will be okay.
      I find it interesting that politicians and journalists can be so nonchalant about some things, but go ballistic regarding idiotic issues.
      "Sure," I said, trying to be as nonchalant as possible.
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      mol`li`fy
      'mɔlifai
      v[T] make sb feel less angry or upset, placate
      -
      However, long before the Iraq invasion and in an effort to mollify the mullahs, the U.S. added the MEK to the State Department list of Foreign Terrorist Organizations, all in the false hope of negotiating with "moderates" in Tehran.
      The biggest problem facing the Tsar in 1906 was to quash the lingering resentment that led to the 1905 Revolution.
      By implementing the October Manifesto, Nicholas was able to mollify the middle classes, much of the intelligentsia and the skilled working class.
      I was relieved that he seemed somewhat mollified by my apology.
      When Moses was up on the mountain for 40 days and nights, Aaron mollified the people by focusing them on creating the golden calf.
      The rabbis credit him with finding a way to coalesce their wandering attention deficits, keeping them from revolting outright.
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      star`fish
      'sta:fiʃ
      n[C] a small flat ocean animal with five or more arms in the shape of a star ^star fruit
      -
      Starfish or sea stars are star-shaped echinoderms belonging to the class Asteroidea.
      About 1,500 species of starfish occur on the seabed in all the world's oceans, from the tropics to frigid polar waters.
      Starfish are marine invertebrates.
      Starfish have tube feet operated by a hydraulic system and a mouth at the centre of the oral or lower surface.
      The fossil record for starfish is ancient, dating back to the Ordovician around 450 million years ago, but it is rather poor, as starfish tend to disintegrate after death.
      Compare starfish, star fruit, and carambola.
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      mim`ic`ry
      'mimikri
      n[U] the action or skill of being able to copy the voice, movements, etc of others
      -
      In evolutionary biology, mimicry is a similarity of one species to another which protects one or both.
      This similarity can be in appearance, behaviour, sound, scent or location.
      Mimicry occurs when a group of organisms, the mimics, evolve to share common perceived characteristics with another group, the models.
      Mimicry is related to camouflage, in which a species resembles its surroundings or is otherwise difficult to detect.
      In particular, mimesis, in which the mimic takes on the properties of a specific object or organism, but one to which the dupe is indifferent, is an area of overlap between camouflage and mimicry.
      Oh my God! You do a great Chandler!
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      both`er`some
      'bɔðəsəm
      adj annoying, troublesome
      -
      Although mild symptoms will be noticeable, they are unlikely to be bothersome.
      If the loose part is bothersome, tape it in place to help protect the nail bed.
      The transferring processes are so tedious and bothersome.
      The last time I was in Florence was in August and we had a terrible time. The queues to the Uffizi were long, hot and bothersome.
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      is`let
      'ailit
      n[C] a small island
      -
      As suggested by its origin as islette, an Old French diminutive of "isle", use of the term, islet, implies small size, but little attention is given to drawing an upper limit on its applicability.
      In the Caribbean and West Atlantic, islets are often called cays or keys. Rum Cay in the Bahamas and the Florida Keys off Florida are examples of islets.
      In and around the River Thames in England, small islands are known as aits or eyots.
      Whether an islet is considered a rock or not can have significant economic consequences under Article 121 of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, which stipulates that "Rocks which cannot sustain human habitation or economic life of their own shall have no exclusive economic zone or continental shelf."
      One long-term dispute over the status of such an islet was that of Snake Island (Black Sea).
      The International Court of Justice jurisprudence however sometimes ignores islets, regardless of inhabitation status, in deciding territorial disputes; it did so in 2009 in adjudicating the Romania-Ukraine dispute, and previously in the dispute between Libya and Malta involving the islet of Filfla.
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      tor`ren`tial
      tə'renʃəl
      adj ~ rain falls hard and fast
      -
      Torrential rain pours down very rapidly and in great quantities.
      Extreme weather in the form of drought or torrential rain has killed at least 575 people in the last three weeks.
      The month began with 18 reported dead in Uganda when torrential rains triggered land-slides and flash floods.
      Part of the way up, the skies open up into a torrential downpour.
      Tonight Edmonton is seeing the storm of the year with torrential downpours, severe thunderstorms, hail and the possibility for tornadoes.
      Homes and cars were abandoned as torrential rainfall destroyed properties, with bills running into thousands of pounds for those worse affected.
      More than 1 million people have been affected by the floods that followed torrential monsoon rains in late June.
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      os`ten`ta`tious
      ɔstən'teiʃəs
      adj intended to impress people or attract their admiration ¶ trying to show everyone how rich you are
      -
      Something that is ostentatious looks very expensive and is designed to make people think that its owner must be very rich.
      If you describe someone as ostentatious, you disapprove of them because they want to impress people with their wealth or importance.
      Compare ostentatious and pretentious.
      The Tag branding on the side of the case is a little ostentatious , but lets face it, when you're wearing a TH, modesty is out the window.
      Why do they bother me so? Because they are such an ostentatious display of superfluous wealth. It's like going to a drive-in movie to find yourself surrounded by Ferraris, Lamborghinis, and Rolls Royces.
      UMNO top leaders have become ostentatious living in luxurious residences at the taxpayers' expense.
      The theocrats of history also managed to carve out ostentatious wealth for themselves, which reinforced their magic to the gullible.
      The priests and ministers of the various churches do not live ostentatious lifestyles and in some cases they have to receive income from their church as their local congregation can not support them.
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      le`thar`gic
      lə'θardʒik
      adj lacking energy and not wanting to do anything
      -
      When the officer approached Gill, she appeared disoriented, lethargic and was non-compliant to questions.
      Children with high blood sugar sometimes act lethargic and sleepy, and are often very thirsty and need to go to the bathroom a lot.
      High blood sugar is treated by giving additional insulin and sugar-free drinks, such as water or diet (NOT regular) soda.
      Children with diabetes must be given free access to water and the bathroom whenever they feel the need.
      Unless we stamp this lethargic attitude out then a good start to the season will turn sour.
      In the past, I used to be feeling very lethargic all the time, but now, I'm literally bursting with energy.
      Romney won the first debate after a lethargic performance from Obama, but the president's feisty showing on Long Island, New York last week made the third debate as a tie-breaker.
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      splotch
      splɔtʃ
      n[C] a large spot of dirt or color
      also a verb
      -
      The left side is shades of green with patches of yellow and a splotch of red.
      On the toilet at my gym I am greeted by a splotch of blood in my underwear. God damm it! I begin texting my sister from the bowl.
      They were splotched and dyed so deeply that no amount of rubbing could ever wipe away the ugly stains.
      Prior to joining the Smithsonian, Langley had spent many years documenting the cyclic appearance of dark splotches on the sun now referred to as sunspots and had traveled across the world to observe total solar eclipses.
      Compare blotch, splodge, and splotch.
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      ve`he`ment
      'vi:əmənt
      adj showing very strong feelings or opinions
      -
      It has its ardent supporters and its vehement opponents, and both argue passionately in favor of their position given any opportunity.
      Hamlet quickly dispels this idea and, though in less vehement language, eloquently calls upon her to manifest contrition by a change of life, and exacts a solemn promise that she will not reveal to the king what had passed between them.
      I heard virtually the whole community express vehement opposition to such a pipeline.
      The president was vehement in his defense of Ambassador Rice.
      The BBC reports that the Prime Minister in an interview was vehement about the need for this measure.
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      big`ot`ed
      'bigətid
      adj showing strong, unreasonable beliefs or opinions and a refusal to change them
      -
      Compare bigot, bigoted, and bigotry.
      Why do these groups vote overwhelmingly Democratic? Because Republican policies are racist, bigoted, and misogynistic!
      I didn't think people could be as bigoted and stupid as what the GOP has become.
      The fact is that too many Australians retain bigoted views derived from xenophobia and/or racism, of immigrants and refugees.
      Liberals are hypocrites because they do not tolerate my intolerance and are bigoted against my bigotry.
      Lad culture is embodied by these sites, where offensive, bigoted comments are dismissed as banter.
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