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      vi`va`cious
      vi'veiʃəs
      adj lively and attractive
      -
      Someone, especially a woman, who is vivacious has a lot of energy and a happy attractive manner.
      Season 3 gives us Billie Kent - Nucky Thompson's young, charming and vivacious actress girlfriend, abruptly killed with a bomb meant for him.
      In 1950 San Francisco, vivacious petty criminal Barbara Ward is caught by the vice squad in a hotel room with a married man who brought her over the state line. To prevent the man's arrest, Barbara willingly accepts a misdemeanor solicitation charge.
      Anu vaguely remembered Vikram but had a strong recollection of Helen, a beautiful, vivacious, social and charming woman.
      "Jill is known as a gracious host, a vivacious individual," said Aaron Fodiman, editor and publisher of Tampa Bay Magazine.
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      slag
      slæg
      n[U] waste material that remains after metal has been removed from rock
      n[C] a sexually immoral woman
      v[I] say offensive and critical things
      -
      Slag is the glass-like by-product left over after a desired metal has been separated (i.e., smelted) from its raw ore.
      Slag is usually a mixture of metal oxides and silicon dioxide. However, slags can contain metal sulfides and elemental metals.
      In nature, iron, copper, lead, nickel and other metals are found in impure states called ores, often oxidized and mixed in with silicates of other metals.
      During smelting, when the ore is exposed to high temperatures, these impurities are separated from the molten metal and can be removed. Slag is the collection of compounds that are removed.
      Compare scum and slag.
      "Are you calling me a slag then?" I asked.
      To slag someone off means to criticize them in an unpleasant way.
      In my day, you'd have got massively slagged off for wanting a flick of mascara before you went on Top of the Pops.
      Top of the Pops, also known as TOTP, is a British music chart television programme, made by the BBC and originally broadcast weekly between 1 January 1964 and 30 July 2006.
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      e`mo`tive
      i'məutiv
      adj causing strong feelings
      -
      Compare emotive and emotional.
      It is one of the most tragic, emotive and widely talked about cases of recent years.
      Sexual offending against children is a highly emotive issue.
      The second paragraph ratchets up the emotive language by calling the hunt an "ecocide".
      Healthcare is such an emotive subject that it's difficult to have a debate on it.
      The Innocence of Muslims movie has polarised the global Muslim community. It has caused an emotive response not seen since the infamous cartoons published in the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten in 2005.
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      de`jec`ted
      di'dʒektid
      adj unhappy, disappointed, or sad
      -
      Compare dejected, depressed, dispirited, downcast, and downhearted.
      Repeated failure had left her feeling very dejected.
      She grew more and more melancholy and pale and dejected.
      After three hours of walking around we were sun burned and dejected.
      It took the twelve-man jury only ninety minutes to reach a verdict. The girls left the dock for their prison cells solemn and dejected.
      Juliet, tall and blue-eyed, had sat with her fingers in her ears as the prosecutor made his closing statement at the end of a six-day trial.
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      Im`pres`sion`is`m
      im'preʃənizəm
      n[U] a style in painting developed in France in the late 19th century
      -
      Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement. Impressionist painting characteristics include relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles.
      It originated with a group of Paris-based artists. Their independent exhibitions brought them to prominence during the 1870s and 1880s, in spite of harsh opposition from the conventional art community in France.
      The name of the style derives from the title of a Claude Monet work, Impression, soleil levant (Impression, Sunrise), which provoked the critic Louis Leroy to coin the term in a satirical review published in the Parisian newspaper Le Charivari.
      Impressionism in music was a movement among various composers in Western classical music, mainly during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, whose music focuses on suggestion and atmosphere, "conveying the moods and emotions aroused by the subject rather than a detailed tone‐picture".
      Influenced by the European Impressionist art movement, many writers adopted a style that relied on associations. The Dutch Tachtigers explicitly tried to incorporate impressionism into their prose, poems, and other literary works
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      fit`ful
      'fitfəl
      adj not regular, and starting and stopping often
      -
      At 3.30 am, I woke from a fitful sleep in such pain that I could hardly breathe.
      I'm behind the wheel after a fitful night's sleep in the Bells Beach car park.
      Amid a fitful economic recovery over the past three years, black households' median annual income fell 11.1 percent, more than twice the 5.2 percent inflation-adjusted decline suffered by white households, according to an analysis of Census Bureau data by Sentier Research.
      "In the cold, gloomy forest, with the wind tearing in fitful gusts through the naked branches and whistling round the tree-trunks", the author once again uses rich vocabulary to emphasize the cold, gloomy setting and the chilling wind, the unpleasant situation the characters have gotten into.
      We followed that creek by the fitful light of two candle-lanterns, sometimes jumping from one slippery boulder to another.
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      cut`le`ry
      'kʌtləri
      n[U] knives, forks and spoons used for eating food, silverware
      -
      Compare crockery and cutlery.
      Cutlery refers to any hand implement used in preparing, serving, and especially eating food in the Western world.
      A "cutler" is a person who makes or sells cutlery.
      Cutlery is more usually known as silverware or flatware in the United States, where cutlery usually means knives and related cutting instruments.
      Although the term silverware is used irrespective of the material composition of the utensils, the term tableware has come into use to avoid the implication that they are made of silver.
      The major items of cutlery in the Western world are the knife, fork and spoon.
      In recent times, hybrid versions of cutlery have been made combining the functionality of different eating implements, including the spork (spoon / fork), spife (spoon / knife), and knork (knife / fork) or the sporf which is all three.
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      as`trol`o`gy
      ə'strɔlədʒi
      n[U] the study of the positions of the stars and the movements of the planets in the belief that they influence human affairs
      -
      Astrology consists of several pseudoscientific systems of divination based on the premise that there is a relationship between astronomical phenomena and events in the human world.
      Many cultures have attached importance to astronomical events, and the Indians, Chinese, and Mayans developed elaborate systems for predicting terrestrial events from celestial observations.
      In the West, astrology most often consists of a system of horoscopes purporting to explain aspects of a person's personality and predict future events in their life based on the positions of the sun, moon, and other celestial objects at the time of their birth.
      The majority of professional astrologers rely on such systems.
      Throughout most of its history, astrology was considered a scholarly tradition.
      It was accepted in political and academic contexts, and was connected with other studies, such as astronomy, alchemy, meteorology, and medicine.
      At the end of the 17th century, new scientific concepts in astronomy and physics (such as heliocentrism and Newtonian mechanics) called astrology into question.
      Astrology thus lost its academic and theoretical standing, and common belief in astrology has largely declined.
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      guer`ril`la
      gə'rilə
      n[C] sb who fights as part of an unofficial army
      -
      The strategy and tactics of guerrilla warfare tend to focus around the use of a small, mobile force competing against a larger, more unwieldy one.
      The guerrilla focuses on organizing in small units, depending on the support of the local population, as well as taking advantage of terrain more accommodating of small units.
      Tactically, the guerrilla army would avoid any confrontation with large units of enemy troops, but seek and eliminate small groups of soldiers to minimize losses and exhaust the opposing force.
      It is often misunderstood that guerrilla warfare must involve disguising as civilians to cause enemy troops to fail in telling friend from foe.
      However, this is not a primary feature of a guerrilla war. This type of war can be practiced anywhere there are places for combatants to cover themselves and where such advantage cannot be made use of by a larger and more conventional force.
      Communist leaders like Mao Zedong and North Vietnamese Ho Chi Minh both implemented guerrilla warfare giving it a theoretical frame which served as a model for similar strategies elsewhere, such as the Cuban "foco" theory and the anti-Soviet Mujahadeen in Afghanistan.
      Female Soviet partisans operating under Sydir Kovpak in German occupied Ukraine
      Compare gorilla and guerrilla.
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      hand`i`craft
      'hændikra:ft
      n[UC] activities such as sewing and weaving that use skill with your hands and artistic ability to make things ¶ things made in this way
      also a verb
      -
      A handicraft, sometimes more precisely expressed as artisanal handicraft or handmade, is any of a wide variety of types of work where useful and decorative objects are made completely by hand or by using only simple tools.
      It is a traditional main sector of craft, and applies to a wide range of creative and design activities that are related to making things with one's hands and skill, including work with textiles, moldable and rigid materials, paper, plant fibers, etc.
      Usually the term is applied to traditional techniques of creating items (whether for personal use or as products) that are both practical and aesthetic.
      Collective terms for handicrafts include artisanry, handicrafting, crafting, and handicraftsmanship.
      Many handicrafters use natural, even entirely indigenous, materials while others may prefer modern, non-traditional materials, and even upcycle industrial materials.
      The individual artisanship of a handicrafted item is the paramount criterion; those made by mass production or machines are not handicraft goods.
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      mer`cu`ri`al
      mə:'kjuəriəl
      adj containing mercury ¶ lively and quick ¶ often changing or reacting in a way that is unexpected, volatile
      -
      The Mercurial Vapor is a football boot manufactured by Nike. The boot is known for being lightweight.
      We had a mercurial talent in Jean-Louis Valois on the left wing who would torment his full-back, wearing him out and driving him back.
      In rugby or football, a full-back is a defending player whose position is towards the goal which their team is defending.
      The women's vote seems mercurial and mysterious, but it appears to responsible for all the swings in the polls.
      He also built a reputation as a hard-driving, mercurial and sometimes difficult boss who oversaw almost every detail of Apple's products and rejected prototypes that didn't meet his exacting standards.
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      scorn`ful
      'skɔ:nfəl
      adj feeling or showing scorn, contemptuous
      -
      Rodgers was scornful of Newcastle's bid to bring the powerful striker back on loan.
      On the other hand, if the father's authority and discipline are effectively absent from the home, then his children may become rebellious and scornful of authority.
      "He my cousin!?" cried Cathy, with a scornful laugh.
      The accusation drew a scornful response from Cricket Australia earlier this week and Clarke said on Friday he was "very confident" no Australian players were involved.
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      vo`cif`er`ous
      və'sifərəs
      adj expressing your opinions loudly and strongly
      -
      Compare strident, vehement, and vociferous.
      The supporters of both were vociferous in their backing.
      What makes them different from lots of other religious people is they are vociferous and some of them are militant.
      Since then, he's become one of Canada's most vociferous critics of the industry.
      She also had to deal with vociferous opposition to physician-assisted death.
      While I don't deny that Berbs is talented, I find the vociferous support for him very strange.
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      de`praved
      di'preivd
      adj completely evil or morally unacceptable
      -
      Compare degenerate, evil, immoral, perverted, and wicked.
      They believe we are all born morally depraved , born into 'sin' and that the son of God was sacrificed so that our sins could be expunged.
      Her account of the period depicts a depraved and heartless Hollywood.
      Ilse Koch's reputation as a sadic was cemented by the humilliation she inflicted upon prisoners.
      She forced them to take part in depraved acts before killing them.
      She ordered that the heads of prisoners were severed and chemically shrunk so that she could use them as decorations on her living room.
      I want the world to know just how depraved and evil they are.
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      dom`i`neer`ing
      dɔmi'niəriŋ
      adj trying to control other people and make them obey you, overbearing
      -
      The careers of Margaret Thatcher and Tony Blair both demonstrate that being seen as domineering, and its close cousin, "out of touch", does not have to be a barrier to being re-elected.
      George is, frankly, pretty boring. But, worse, he is also domineering and insists they must sell their London house and move to the country, even though Jeanie doesn't want to.
      He was also literally miles away from his domineering mother and his letters clearly state that for the first time, he openly enjoyed himself and took to drinking wine and smoking.
      As young boy in South Holland, growing up under the thumb of his domineering father and the fundamentalist evangelical Protestant church his family belonged to, he would dream of travelling to the other side of the world, where we would be free to live his own life and make his own way.
      The first introduction of Jezebel in the Bible portrays her as the rebellious and domineering wife of a king, called Ahab. She dominated and manipulated her husband.
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      sub`trac`tion
      səb'trækʃən
      n[U] the process of removing one number from another
      -
      Compare deduction and subtraction.
      Basic math operations include four basic operations: addition, substraction, multiplication, and division.
      Subtraction is a mathematical operation that represents the operation of removing objects from a collection. It is signified by the minus sign (−).
      Besides counting fruits, subtraction can also represent combining other physical and abstract quantities using different kinds of objects: negative numbers, fractions, irrational numbers, vectors, decimals, functions, matrices and more.
      Performing subtraction is one of the simplest numerical tasks.
      Subtraction of very small numbers is accessible to young children.
      In primary education, students are taught to subtract numbers in the decimal system, starting with single digits and progressively tackling more difficult problems.
      Mechanical aids range from the ancient abacus to the modern computer.
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      an`nul
      ə'nʌl
      v[T] officially state that a marriage or legal agreement no longer exists
      -
      He also annulled a constitutional article that gives the president the right to order a military trial for civilians accused of terrorism.
      The "One Hundred Head" Church Council, called in 1551 during the reign of Ivan IV, adopted a resolution which until today has not been annulled by the Russian Orthodox Church.
      The Supreme Court, in an unanimous 7-0 ruling, annulled Pfizer's Viagra patent, saying it tried to "game" the Canadian system.
      If someone games the system, they use rules or laws to get what they want in an unfair but legal way.
      "Wow! Big day huh? People moving in, people getting annulled..." said Phoebe, winking at Ross.
      Ross didn't get the annulment.
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      ther`mo`nu`cle`ar
      θə:məu'nju:kliə
      adj of nuclear reactions that occur only at very high temperatures
      -
      Thermonuclear fusion is a way to achieve nuclear fusion by using extremely high temperatures.
      There are two forms of thermonuclear fusion: uncontrolled, in which the resulting energy is released in an uncontrolled manner, as it is in thermonuclear weapons such as the "hydrogen bomb", and controlled, where the fusion reactions take place in an environment allowing some of the resulting energy to be harnessed for constructive purposes.
      The key problem in achieving thermonuclear fusion is how to confine the hot plasma.
      A thermonuclear weapon is a nuclear weapon that uses the energy from a primary nuclear fission reaction to compress and ignite a secondary nuclear fusion reaction.
      The concept of the thermonuclear weapon was first developed and used in 1952 and has since been employed by most of the world's nuclear weapons.
      The modern design of all thermonuclear weapons in the United States is known as the Teller-Ulam configuration for its two chief contributors, Edward Teller and Stanislaw Ulam, who developed it in 1951 for the United States, with certain concepts developed with the contribution of John von Neumann.
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      con`trite
      'kɔntrait
      adj feeling guilty and sorry for sth bad that you have done
      -
      True repentance has four conditions: Contrite heart and remorse for previous sins. Steadfast intention to improve. Strong faith in Christ and hope in His love to forgive. Verbal confession of sins before the priest.
      The man himself was contrite and apologetic once he had sobered up yesterday but he remains only another binge away from the next pathetic incident.
      When stressed, he would also hector junior staff or speak to them dismissively. After he'd calmed down, though, he'd be contrite.
      The French man now says he is contrite about his uncontrolled libido and that he disappointed numerous people.
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      fruc`tose
      'frʌktəus
      n[U] a type of natural sugar in fruit juices and honey
      -
      Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide sucrose.
      Fructose is one of the three dietary monosaccharides, along with glucose and galactose, that are absorbed directly into the bloodstream during digestion.
      Fructose was discovered by French chemist Augustin-Pierre Dubrunfaut in 1847.
      The name "fructose" was coined in 1857 by the English chemist William Miller.
      Yes, and I have a theory why. Because of your lactose intolerance, you switched over to soy milk. Soy contains estrogen-mimicking compounds. I think your morning Cocoa Puffs are turning you into a hysterical woman.
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      en`trap
      in'træp
      v[T] catch in a trap or snare, ensnare ¶ lure into performing an act or making a statement that is compromising or illegal
      -
      Upon locating its food, the anteater entraps it with its sticky saliva, hence making sure that the nest is wiped clean.
      As each season's snow is compacted beneath the one following, it is gradually turned to solid ice; air entrapped in the snow forms bubbles, which at a certain depth become permanently embedded, and can be analysed for their gaseous composition.
      The mother was entrapped in the vehicle and local fire and rescue personnel had to use hydraulic rescue equipment to cut the vehicle in order to free her.
      Walt may also have had gambling debts and an abnormal sexual appetite which also helped entrap him.
      Man also tries to entrap a woman by his dress, ties and bows, by his smile, outward show of affection, glances, gestures, flowery words, various ways of dressing his hair and other tricks.
      Religious education as presently practiced entraps rather than liberates Muslim minds.
      No matter what the size of the carrot, you can not entrap people into committing these crimes.
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      stu`pe`fy
      'stju:pifai
      v[T] render insensitive or lethargic ¶ confuse or astound
      -
      Myrrh was added to the wine in order to give it a stupefying effect. This was not an evidence of mercy on the part of the executioners; it was quite the opposite, for it was intended to make their labor of crucifying easier. A man who had been heavily doped with this drink could be easily handled.
      After one taste of this Jesus refused to drink more of this stupefying drink.
      Cyber criminals clearly favour the Hermione Grainger actress as bait for stupefying internet users. Searching for Emma Watson could lead you to websites set up to steal personal information such as passwords and sites that contain downloads that will also deposit malware.
      "But what about your song?" he asked. "The one about getting high?" The Beatles were stupefied. "Which song?" John managed to ask. Dylan said, "You know..." and then he sang, "and when I touch you I get high, I get high..." John flushed with embarrassment. "Those aren't the words," he admitted. "The words are, I can't hide, I can't hide, I can't hide..."
      "What song was that, Pheebs?" "Hold me close, young Tony Dan-za."
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      sub`ter`fuge
      'sʌbtəfju:dʒ
      n[CU] sth intended to misrepresent the true nature of an activity
      -
      Deception, beguilement, deceit, bluff, mystification and subterfuge are acts to propagate beliefs of things that are not true, or not the whole truth (as in half-truths or omission).
      Deception can involve dissimulation, propaganda, and sleight of hand, as well as distraction, camouflage, or concealment.
      Prior to the voyage to Cuba, troops awaiting the journey were restricted to barracks prior to departure and were denied contact with the outside world.
      Soviet soldiers constructed false superstructures with plywood to hide the ships' defenses and even on-deck field kitchens.
      Metal sheets were placed over missiles and missile launchers to prevent detection by infrared surveillance.
      Agricultural equipment and other non-military machinery was placed on deck to add to the subterfuge.
      Subterfuge is a free and open source network security framework to demonstrate man-in-the-middle attacks and make it as simple as point and shoot.
      People have become so fed up with subterfuge, dishonesty, and lack of candor.
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      stu`pen`dous
      stju:'pendəs
      adj very impressive, large, or surprising, magnificent
      -
      We have astonished the world and confounded our enemies with our stupendous war production, with the overwhelming courage and skill of our fighting men, with the bridge of ships carrying our munitions and men through the seven seas, with our gigantic Fleet which has pounded the enemy all over the Pacific and has just driven through for a touchdown.
      The public debt increase is stupendous and may worry observers.
      Oil has brought Nigeria stupendous wealth valued at nearly $500 billion since 1958.
      This fascinating document ranks nations in order according to their levels of conflict. Its boldest claim is that the economic cost of violence globally is $9 trillion - a stupendous amount of money.
      There was also another reason for Gandhi's stupendous success in politics - Gandhi firmly had his hand on the pulse of the common people.
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      dis`burse
      dis'bə:s
      v[T] pay money from a fund
      -
      Compare disburse and reimburse.
      Chicago Public Schools receive 89 percent of the money allotted to public schools in Illinois, or $19 million of the $21 million disbursed.
      If your PRP benefits are provided in conjunction with a loan modification, program benefits will be disbursed to your first mortgage servicer following your successful completion of the loan modification trial payments, and you have signed a Keep Your Home California Note, Deed of Trust and Benefit Award letter.
      Beginning in 2008 after the onset of a severe recession, the U.S. Treasury Department bought billions of dollars of stock in scores of private banks in a move designed to stem panic and stabilize financial institutions.
      In 2012, the program is being wound down. Banks are buying back their stock. And, the government is selling some stock at auction to private investors at a small loss.
      Of $417 billion disbursed, $371 billion has been recovered, the treasury department said in its latest monthly report.
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