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      n[CU] agreement ¶ a situation in which two or more things happen at the same time
      Compare coincidence, concurrence, and occurrence.
      The Bank at its discretion and with your concurrence may send statement of accounts through e-mail.
      An indictment shall not be found without the concurrence of 12 grand jurors.
      Each house has the power to punish its members, and with the concurrence of two-thirds of the Chambers, a member may be expelled.
      The board shall act only with the concurrence of a majority of its members.
      v[I] bring up food from the stomach and chew it again ¶ think carefully and deeply about sth
      Cows, sheep, and deer are ruminants. They never knew when a predator was going to attack, so they would eat and eat, filling only the first stomach, when it was safe they would then rest and ruminate all of the food in the first stomach and put it in the remaining three.
      The verb to ruminate has been extended metaphorically to mean to ponder thoughtfully or to meditate on some topic. Similarly, ideas may be chewed on or digested.
      Some can ruminate for months without taking any action, psychologists say.
      It is about learning how not to ruminate on past events or become absorbed into an imagined future to the extent where the reality of your immediate human experience is eclipsed.
      Don't stay locked up in your room and ruminate over how you feel.
      Your stress levels increase and you began to ruminate about the bad, ignoring the good.
      adj abrupt
      If you describe a person or their behaviour as brusque,you mean that they deal with things,or say things,quickly and shortly,so that they seem to be rude.
      Hi Alan, hope I didn't sound too brusque, I didn't mean to.
      Often the response is brusque, sometimes outright rude.
      The flight attendants were brusque and behaved as if we were a nuisance.
      Unhappy patients gripe about their doctors' brusque manner and give them bad marks on surveys and consumer websites like HealthGrades and Angie's List.
      adj stubborn ¶ difficult to deal with or get rid of
      You can describe things as obstinate when they are difficult to move, change, or destroy.
      I decided I would be obstinate and stubborn and not give up just because I kept getting 'no's.
      They may be swayed by strong political prejudice, they may be obstinate and pig-headed, stupid and obtuse; but they were chosen by the electors.
      In Yemen, the President's obstinate refusal until almost the end of the year to stand down despite mass protests has left the country divided.
      For an obstinate stain on your benchtop mix some flour with liquid dish washing soap and apply it to the stain. Keep this in overnight for it to dry and then wash with warm water.
      adj short but expressed well and full of meaning
      A pithy statement or piece of writing is short and very effective.
      Hello and welcome. We intend to be pretty pithy and to the point on our show/podcast so I'm going to plunge straight into my questions if that is OK?
      He excelled at making pithy comments about events and about Hitler and Mussolini.
      I can recite a number of his pithy sayings about art and artists.
      What is the pithy summary of your idea that will appeal to the other person?
      n[C] ganster
      A hoodlum is a thug, usually in a group of misfits who are associated with crime or theft.
      You can refer to a violent person or criminal as a thug.
      In fact, the Shia books of Fiqh contain a section entitled "The Loaning of Vaginas."
      It is perplexing that the Shia scholars of Hadith would use terminology (i.e. "renting women by the hour") that perhaps only a street hoodlum would use.
      Fiqh is Islamic jurisprudence. While Sharia is believed by Muslims to represent divine law as revealed in the Quran and the Sunnah (the teachings and practices of the Islamic prophet Muhammad), fiqh is the human understanding of the Sharia—sharia expanded and developed by interpretation of the Quran and Sunnah by Islamic jurists and implemented by the rulings of jurists on questions presented to them.
      I want his records sent to me. This vicious young hoodlum will be transformed out of all recognition.
      The Kamov Ka-26 (NATO reporting name Hoodlum) is a Soviet light utility helicopter with co-axial rotors.
      n[C] sb/sth that provides a temporary solution
      In response the federal government put up nearly a billion dollars as a stopgap measure to assist with social welfare payments and retraining of dispossed fishing people in 1993 and 1994.
      At best though, Ellis would be just a stopgap until Philadelphia can develop the starting goaltender that they need.
      It was a modest success, and served as a stopgap until the appearance of his next studio album.
      On paper it seems like an excellent stopgap solution.
      The $40,000 is not a sustainable endowment, just a stopgap to fund intern staffing for one year.
      v[I] slow down
      Compare accelerate and decelerate.
      My pace decelerated to a hurried walk as the fangs of the stitch bit hard into my abdomen.
      Growth decelerated to 6.5 per cent last year and may be only around 6 per cent in the current year.
      The federal government took this initiative to decelerate the accumulation of housing debt on the Canadian economy and to stabilize the overall financial system.
      Since I came on board, we have been trying to decelerate the rate of accumulation of domestic debt because since you rammed up expenditure in the past three or four years, you can not just bring it down overnight, otherwise the country will shut down.
      Their growth decelerated from 6.8% a year earlier.
      adj showing intelligence and a clear understanding of sth
      Compare incise, incisive, and insightful.
      You use incisive to describe a person, their thoughts, or their speech when you approve of their ability to think and express their ideas clearly, briefly, and forcefully.
      After all, you're a blogger - you know how to write witty, insightful, incisive and enlightened commentary that will endear you to the world!
      Neil then gave a stunning, incisive and efficient summary of all the presentations so far, including those from today.
      Thank you Catherine. I agree with your incisive analysis and summation.
      Halting attacks, incisive passing, tireless running, he just seems to do everything right.
      n[C] a great destructive event or sudden violent change
      Compare Armageddon, cataclysm, catalyst, and catastrophe.
      The term cataclysm (from the Greek, to 'wash down') may refer to: Deluge (mythology), a hypothetical Doomsday event, any catastrophic geological phenomenon (volcanic eruption or earthquake), or more generally, any large-scale disaster.
      A flood myth or deluge myth is a narrative in which a great flood, usually sent by a deity or deities, destroys civilization, often in an act of divine retribution.
      If nature's story were to have a brief synopsis it would be this: life, cataclysm, survival, adaptation, and regeneration.
      World of Warcraft: Cataclysm, often referred to as Cataclysm or Cata, is the third expansion pack for the massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) World of Warcraft, following Wrath of the Lich King.
      adj suitable for ploughing and for growing crops
      Arable land (from Latin arabilis, "able to be plowed") is land capable of being ploughed and used to grow crops.
      In Britain, "arable land" was traditionally contrasted with pasturable lands such as heaths which could be used for sheep-rearing but not farmland.
      In modern agriculture, however, "arable land" is a term of art meaning land that is actually being farmed (at minimum every five years) with crops that are sown and harvested within the same agricultural year.
      A term of art is a term whose use or meaning is specific to a particular field of endeavor.
      Arable land actually under crops in the present year is known as sown land or cropped land.
      The amended definition is preferred by the agencies because it distinguishes cultivable land that could be used to raise such annual crops but is instead devoted to "permanent cropland": for example, vinyards, orchards, and farms and plantations growing coffee, rubber, or nuts.
      adj being or occurring between galaxies
      Clearly, an American moon colony would be populated by hard-working, can-do macho intergalactic pipe fitters, crane operators and such.
      In Vladimir Vasilyev's War for Mobility duology, a newly-discovered portal to another galaxy is a major plot point, with its discovery sparking an interstellar war. Without it, FTL (Faster Than Light) travel is way too slow to cross intergalactic distances.
      Intergalactic space is measured in light years.
      Darth Vader, Luke Skywalker, R2-D2, and all of the intergalactic Star Wars action figures join the centuries-old game of dominoes as honored toys in the Hall of Fame!
      Gary Kildall developed the first commercially successful operating system for microcomputers, CP/M, in 1974. He and his wife established "Intergalactic Digital Research" (modestly dropping "Intergalactic" later) to market it.
      n[C] a long platform beside the sea or a river where boats can be tied up and loaded or unloaded.
      A wharf, quay, staith or staithe is a structure on the shore of a harbour or on the bank of a river or canal where ships may dock to load and unload cargo or passengers.
      Such a structure includes one or more berths (mooring locations), and may also include piers, warehouses, or other facilities necessary for handling the ships.
      A pier is a raised structure, including bridge and building supports and walkways, typically supported by widely spread piles or pillars.
      The lighter structure of a pier allows tides and currents to flow almost unhindered, whereas the more solid foundations of a quay or the closely spaced piles of a wharf can act as a breakwater, and are consequently more liable to silting.
      In everyday parlance the term quay is common in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and many other Commonwealth countries, and the Republic of Ireland, whereas the term wharf is more common in the United States.
      In some contexts wharf and quay may be used to mean pier, berth, or jetty.
      A jetty is a structure that projects from the land out into water. Often jetty refers to a pier, wharf, dock, breakwater.
      v[T] damage and spoil the appearance of sth by writing or drawing on it
      A defaced, mutilated, altered, lost or stolen card will not be replaced, refunded or redeemed.
      NBC's website has been defaced, with the hacker claiming that user information has been exposed and passwords have been dumped.
      While the MSN Portugal website is a website which has been hacked second time in two days, 22 hours ago the same website was hacked and defaced by a hacker from Group x3, who goes by the handle of LOv3rDns.
      A spokeswoman for Cain told me that his Facebook page is routinely defaced by supporters of Ron Paul, the leading Fed critic in Washington and author of the bestseller, "End the Fed".
      A hate crime occurred sometime at night in Toronto. A veterans memorial was defaced with: "Canada Will Burn, Praise allah."
      It will not be accepted if it has been damaged, defaced or spoiled or has been tampered with or altered in any way.
      adj behaving dishonestly to trick people
      Our administration is telling us not to print these progress reports because we don't want to confuse parents by letting them know we are giving 50% credit for missing assignments.
      I think that not telling them is deceitful and goes against the whole idea of students and parents knowing and understanding how the students are being graded.
      The human heart is deceitful and wicked. We are all prone sin in many ways.
      The heart is hopelessly dark and deceitful, a puzzle that no one can figure out.
      Jews are said to be treacherous, corrupt, deceitful and unfaithful by nature.
      v[IT] move around in circles, or make sth do this
      To gyrate means to turn round and round in a circle, usually very fast.
      The flickering lights gyrated in a wild dance, inviting her to follow them.
      If you gyrate, you dance or move your body quickly with circular movements.
      I watch Elise and Saif gyrate to the background music.
      In the video, Spears was made to pout and gyrate in a schoolgirl uniform, breasts straining beneath her open blouse as she sucked provocatively on a lollipop, a chorus line of knowing, knee-socked Lolitas by her side.
      If things such as prices or currencies gyrate, they move up and down in a rapid and uncontrolled way.
      Stock markets have gyrated in last week.
      n[U] the skill of a wizard ¶ impressive ability at sth or an impressive achievement
      Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry, shortened Hogwarts, is a fictional British school of magic for students aged eleven to eighteen, and is the primary setting for the first six books in J.K. Rowling's Harry Potter series.
      As Harry Potter begins his 6th year at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry, he discovers an old book marked mysteriously "This book is the property of the Half-Blood Prince" and begins to learn more about Lord Voldemort's dark past.
      This is not wizardry or rocket science.
      They are the masters of the mysterious mathematical wizardry that has made Google one of the most powerful companies in the world.
      It is quite astounding that through the wizardry of physics and optical engineering a device using a light source less powerful than a laser pointer along with a few optical tricks can visualize individual cells down to the level of the papillary dermis.
      n[U] a feeling of not being able to believe sth or not wanting to believe it, disbelief
      Only the other night Emilie silenced them when she divided a ridiculously long number in her head in a matter of seconds. You should have seen the incredulity on their faces when they realized Emilie was correct.
      I still look back at my life in Eastern Canada with a sense of incredulity. I can not believe I have come so far from that life.
      His tone, normally amiable with questioning witnesses, was tinged with skepticism bordering on incredulity.
      Zeng Jize expressed his incredulity that, "Western naval forces have come to China; this is something unusual and challenging, unique in the five thousand years of Chinese history."
      v[IT] decrease in value, price etc ¶ belittle or disparage
      Cars depreciate the minute they leave the dealer's lot, and their value continues to spiral downward as the mileage increases.
      The idea of a currency war is that nations depreciate their currencies with the aim of boosting their share of export markets.
      One notable divergence occurred during the Asian crisis in 1997, when the AUD/USD exchange rate depreciated by much more than the TWI because the Australian dollar appreciated against the currencies of most of Australia's Asian trading partners.
      FBML is a mark-up language created specifically for Facebook applications that allows developers to integrate Facebook directly into a website. However, as of June 6 th 2012, FBML was depreciated by Facebook, essentially rendering FBML functionality in websites obsolete.
      Don't depreciate my what I have done.
      I had no intention of depreciating your contribution.
      n[U] the religious and moral system of behavior which the perfect knight was expected to follow ¶ polite and kind behavior by which men show respect to women
      Chivalry, or the chivalric code, is a code of conduct associated with the medieval institution of knighthood which developed between 1170 and 1220.
      According to the British Medieval historian David Crouch, the historical debate on chivalry is an ancient one.
      The late medieval code of chivalry had arisen from the idealisation of the early medieval synthesis of Germanic and Roman martial traditions—involving military bravery, individual training, and service to others—especially in Francia, among horse soldiers in Charlemagne's cavalry.
      The term chivalry derives from the Old French term chevalerie, which can be translated to "horse soldiery".
      Gautier states that knighthood emerged from the Teutonic forests and was nurtured into civilization and chivalry by the Catholic Church.
      Over time, its meaning has been refined to emphasise social and moral virtues more generally.
      And the Code of Chivalry, as it stood by the Late Middle Ages, was a moral system which combined a warrior ethos, knightly piety, and courtly manners, all conspiring to establish a notion of honour and nobility.
      Compare cavalry and chivalry.
      v[IT] drink ¶ take in or absorb
      Dogs are not equipped with the protective enzymes that allow humans to imbibe reasonable amounts of alcohol without harm.
      In Hawaii, you get to imbibe the local culture of giving, of caring and of sharing.
      I would thoroughly recommend a visit here to imbibe the language and culture.
      They learn their maxims, imbibe their spirit, and are moulded upon their example.
      It was their lives. It was all they were and everything they were. It was imbibed with their mother's (or wet nurses) milk.
      Compare imbibe and immerse.
      n[C] a letter or group of letters added to the beginning of a word to make a new word ¶ a dialling code
      also a verb
      A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word. Adding it to the beginning of one word changes it into another word.
      For example, when the prefix un- is added to the word happy, it creates the word unhappy.
      Particularly in the study of languages, a prefix is also called a preformative, because it alters the form of the words to which it is affixed.
      Prefixes, like other affixes, can be either inflectional, changing the syntactic category, or derivational, changing either the lexical category or the semantic meaning.  In English, there are no inflectional prefixes.
      The word prefix is itself made up of the stem fix (meaning "attach", in this case), and the prefix pre- (meaning "before"), both of which are derived from Latin roots.
      In linguistics, a suffix (also sometimes called a postfix or ending or (especially in older literature) affix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.
      A telephone prefix is the first set of digits after the country- and area codes of a telephone number; in the North American Numbering Plan countries (country code 1), it is the first three digits of a seven-digit phone number. It shows which exchange the remaining numbers refer to.
      A full telephone number is usually made up of country code (required for international calls only), area code (required for calls between telephone areas), prefix, and subscriber number.
      Some places restrict certain prefixes to fax numbers or cell phones only; in other places such dedicated prefixes are not used.
      In computer science, a prefix is a substring starting at the initial position of a reference string.
      If a given CSS property or CSS value, even currently prefixed like -moz-transform, has a direct equivalent for one of the other browsers, BlueGriffon will output it.
      All HTTP headers sent to the script are made available through the $SERVER array, with names prefixed by' HTTP'.
      adj needing great strength or determination
      Hercules is the Roman name for the Greek divine hero Heracles, who was the son of Zeus (Roman equivalent Jupiter) and the mortal Alcmene. In classical mythology, Hercules is famous for his strength and for his numerous far-ranging adventures.
      Nettled by this, Elder Waggoner undertook the Herculean task.
      I managed to finally get my butt in a seat to see The Dark Knight Rises in IMAX and free of any spoilers. That last part required a herculean effort on my part to pretty much avoid almost all media for several days including teasers and trailers.
      It was a cold and windy day and a herculean struggle to run all the way to Dun Laoghaire Pier.
      To win office, the Government will have to perform a Herculean feat, and now the Thomson affair has given the Opposition an extra set of cudgels.
      Staying awake in Dr. Cooper's one-way-directed lecture classes required Herculean strength (or lots of coffee).
      With fewer employees, less money and less market share, the future for RIM abruptly looks bleak. RIM is going to have herculean challenge surviving in the modern mobile market.
      Instead of commending Sri Lanka's praiseworthy efforts and herculean achievement and exploit the country's expertise in the global battle against terror, the self-same countries and 'godfathers' of human rights are trotting out concocted stories to frame war crimes allegations against Sri Lanka.
      n[s] sth invented, made up, or fabricated
      The folks in the South are smart enough to recognize a lie and can see the real world when Obama talks about all those jobs that are a figment of his dreams.
      I would not be surprised if some folks believe that the figment of their imagination was actually an experience of the supernatural.
      This theory also indicates that the international terrorist network is a mere figment of the western security agencies.
      The Guardian reports that 'Banani' is not a complete figment of someone's vivid (yet unoriginal) imagination.
      I am not basing this on some figment of my imagination.
      Compare figure, figment, fragment, pigment, and segment.
      n[CU] a moral principle that prevents you from doing sth you think is bad
      v[I] hesitate because of ~
      A newly revealed top secret CIA report told the US president he faced an enemy "with no scruples about employing any weapon or tactic" - including a homemade dirty atomic bomb smuggled across the border that could be detonated in the heart of a city, killing tens of thousands.
      Louis had no scruples and believed that the ends justified the means and he was willing to do just about anything to achieve his goal.
      These people are men without honor, without scruple, and without conscience.
      Had he deemed it necessary, he would not have scrupled to place the whole North Island under martial law.