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      adj shy and not wanting to make people notice you or talk about you
      Those who are shy or diffident, or who find it hard to stand up for themselves, may also be vulnerable.
      Her second witness was Hannya Rizk, a diffident CHRC staffer.
      Feeling unconfident or diffident in different areas of your life can be debilitating and chip away at your self-esteem.
      Craig, a teenager with big eyes, a hesitant smile and a diffident, sensitive demeanor, checks into Argeron because he is spooked by thoughts of suicide.
      v[T] make wrongdoing less serious, esp by providing excuses
      In law, extenuating circumstances in criminal cases are unusual or extreme facts leading up to or attending the perpetration of the offense which, although an offense has been perpetrated without legal justification or excuse, mitigate or reduce its gravity from the point of view of punishment or moral opprobrium.
      An excuse (legal) is a defense that recognizes a crime was committed, but that for the defendant, although committing a socially undesirable crime, conviction and punishment would be morally inappropriate because of an extenuating personal inadequacy, such as mental defect, lack of mental capacity, sufficient age, intense fear of death, lacking the ability to control their own conduct, etc.
      Another instance is a delay of legal obligations or payment. A legal official can order a delay of payment due to extenuating circumstances, which render one party incapable of paying another.
      She now endeavoured to extenuate the conduct of Madame La Motte, by attributing it to a fear of her husband.
      Walker attempted to extenuate the bestial crimes of these oriental monsters by telling the media that "All sides in a war commit crimes."
      n[U] cultivation of plants in nutrient solution rather than in soil
      Hydroponics is a subset of hydroculture and is a method of growing plants using mineral nutrient solutions, in water, without soil.
      Terrestrial plants may be grown with their roots in the mineral nutrient solution only or in an inert medium, such as perlite or gravel.
      The Aztec were forced into hydroponics because their population kept rising, and because jungles don't have a lot of topsoil.
      Developments remained and the commercial use of hydroponics opened worldwide gradually.
      A NASA researcher is checking hydroponic onions with Bibb lettuce to his left and radishes to the right.
      v[T] cause sb to lose strength or energy
      The hot sun enervated me to the point of collapse.
      I found the heat very enervating.
      The temperature was also considered more invigorating than the heat and humidity that enervated settlers in the other Australian colonies.
      The sailor started up, and took an enervated pace or two down the room.
      After 12 months, she felt well enough to return to the bustling Florence, but upon her return received news that her sister Henrietta had died.
      The news was enough to immediately undo all the good of her stay in Siena, and Elizabeth's health declined as she became depressed, weak and enervated.
      adj not showing sufficient respect or seriousness
      You shouldn't be flippant about such things.
      It's easy to be flippant, but we have a serious problem to deal with here.
      You can't afford to be flippant about such matters.
      It is certainly too important to be dismissed in a flippant way.
      n[C] a small bus
      A minibus, microbus, or minicoach is a passenger carrying motor vehicle that is designed to carry more people than a multi-purpose vehicle or minivan, but fewer people than a full-size bus.
      In the United Kingdom, the word "minibus" is used to describe any full-sized passenger carrying van.
      Minibuses have a seating capacity of between 8 and 30 seats.
      Larger minibuses may be called midibuses.
      Minibuses are typically front-engined step-entrance vehicles, although low floor minibuses do exist.
      A minibus packed with explosives blew up at the entrance to a joint NATO-Afghan base.
      n[pl] marks that appear on the hands and feet of some holy people
      Stigmata (singular stigma) is a term used by members of the Christian faith to describe body marks, sores, or sensations of pain in locations corresponding to the crucifixion wounds of Jesus Christ, such as the hands, wrists, and feet.
      Stigmata is the plural of the Greek word στίγμα stigma, meaning a mark, tattoo, or brand such as might have been used for identification of an animal or slave.
      An individual bearing stigmata is referred to as a stigmatic or a stigmatist.
      Stigmata are primarily associated with the Roman Catholic faith.
      The plural of 'stigma' is 'stigmas' or 'stigmata'.
      n[U] complete honesty
      He also said he expected high standards of probity from his party and any government he led.
      In doing so, he may have saved the euro but lost part of his reputation for probity.
      Singapore is now a model of probity, but in the 1950's it was awash in corruption.
      His probity and integrity are beyond question.
      adj inclined or eager to acquire things, esp material possessions
      Maxwell has the acute, acquisitive eye of a novelist and the demanding, intuitive ear of a poet.
      We live in an acquisitive society which views success primarily in terms of material possessions.
      It is an acquisitive company looking for ways to expand.
      In fact, acquisitive companies tend to suffer declining share prices in the near term and rising prices over the longer term.
      adj clear or transparent
      The eyes are of that soft, limpid, turquoise blue.
      Her face was smooth and unscarred, but the fine lines of care were beginning to etch the limpid ivory of her complexion.
      The bees are droning among the forget-me-nots that grow along shore, and the swans arch their necks in the limpid stream.
      If you describe speech, writing, or music as limpid, you like it because it is clear, simple and flowing.
      adj very sad
      I, Alexandre Manette, unfortunate physician, native of Beauvais, and afterwards resident in Paris, write this melancholy paper in my doleful cell in the Bastille, during the last month of the year, 1767.
      None of his colleagues liked to hang out with him because he always carried a doleful attitude to work.
      Amy played most doleful nocturnes on her harp.
      The divorce had a very doleful impact on her life. She stopped answering her calls and cut herself off socially.
      n[UC] a chemical used for destroying fungus
      Fungicides are biocidal chemical compounds or biological organisms used to kill or inhibit fungi or fungal spores.
      Fungi can cause serious damage in agriculture, resulting in critical losses of yield, quality, and profit.
      Fungicides are used both in agriculture and to fight fungal infections in animals.
      Fungicides can either be contact, translaminar or systemic.
      Contact fungicides are not taken up into the plant tissue, and protect only the plant where the spray is deposited; translaminar fungicides redistribute the fungicide from the upper, sprayed leaf surface to the lower, unsprayed surface; systemic fungicides are taken up and redistributed through the xylem vessels.
      Few fungicides move to all parts of a plant.
      Most fungicides that can be bought retail are sold in a liquid form.
      Fungicide residues have been found on food for human consumption, mostly from post-harvest treatments
      Some fungicides are dangerous to human health, such as vinclozolin, which has now been removed from use.
      Ziram is also a fungicide that is thought to be toxic to humans if exposed to chronically.
      A number of fungicides are also used in human health care.
      adj lacking or not good enough
      Sheldon's behavior was wanting in courtesy.
      I think Amy's perhaps a little wanting in charm.
      This explanation is wanting in many respects.
      The boy is wanting in patience.
      adj gullible
      If you describe someone as credulous, you have a low opinion of them because they are too ready to believe what people tell them and are easily deceived.
      Quack doctors are charming money out of the pockets of credulous beauty-hungry women.
      Credulous people believe what the advertisements say.
      Like all priesthoods, the economics one depends for its hold over the credulous on a form of arcane knowledge.
      Houdini could have made more money had he wished to fleece the credulous in this way.
      adj impossible to satisfy
      Even if they are successful, this will have a trivial impact on our unquenchable thirst for fossil fuel.
      Science is nothing more than satisfying an unquenchable need to know.
      They all shared an unquenchable thirst for knowledge and enthusiasm for their professions.
      Nobody can stop him when he smells blood, and nobody has his unquenchable desire to win.
      n[U] Celsius
      Celsius, historically known as centigrade, is a scale and unit of measurement for temperature.
      It is named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701–1744), who developed a similar temperature scale.
      Before being renamed to honor Anders Celsius in 1948, the unit was called centigrade, from the Latin centum, which means 100, and gradus, which means steps.
      Temperatures on the centigrade scale were often reported simply as degrees or, when greater specificity was desired, as degrees centigrade. The symbol for temperature values on this scale is °C.
      Are the temperatures given in Celsius or Fahrenheit?
      When you freeze water, it measures 0° in Celsius, but 32° in Fahrenheit.
      Your body temperature measures 37° in Celsius, but 98.6° in Fahrenheit.
      To convert from Fahrenheit to Celsius, first subtract 32,then multiply by 100/180.
      To convert from Celsius to Fahrenheit, first multiply by 1.8, then add 32.
      n[U] sb/sth that is a perfect example of sth ¶ a feature of sth that contains all of its main qualities
      Roasted garlic with sheep's milk cheese is the quintessential Corsican meal.
      She is the quintessence of good manners.
      His book captures the quintessence of Renaissance humanism.
      According to ancient and medieval science, aether, also spelled æther or ether, also called quintessence, is the material that fills the region of the universe above the terrestrial sphere.
      Aristotle, who had been Plato's student at the Akademia, disagreed with his former mentor and added aether to the system of the classical elements of Ionian philosophy as the "fifth element".
      In physics, quintessence is a hypothetical form of dark energy postulated as an explanation of the observation of an accelerating rate of expansion of the Universe announced in 1998.
      n[UC] the fact of being very unfair or wrong ¶ sth that is very unfair or wrong
      They fought long and hard against the iniquities of apartheid.
      The Church courts were a byword for iniquity.
      The house of Eli will be judged for its iniquity.
      This house was something that the matrons of Atlanta whispered about furtively and ministers preached against in guarded terms as a cesspool of iniquity, a hissing and a reproach.
      Compare inequality and iniquity.
      adj striped
      Striated muscle is the type of muscle you have in your arms or legs, made of long fibers.
      A striated surface has long straight lines in it or on it.
      The larvae produce the sounds by rubbing the third leg against a striated area on the coxa of the second leg.
      Some petal varieties are a solid color; others are spotted, striated, variegated, mottled, or veined.
      n[C] a conceited, boastful, selfish, or self-centered person
      Don Quixote is the great chivalric egotist, never more egotistical than when he appears to be most chivalrous.
      The egotist is never very good at laughing at himself, laughable though he often is.
      Only the egotist wants to be surrounded by mirror images of himself.
      The artist must be an egotist because, like the spider, he draws all his building material from his own breast. But just the same the artist alone among men knows what true humility means.
      adj incapable of being morally corrupted ¶ not subject to corruption or decay
      If you describe someone as incorruptible, you approve of the fact that they cannot be persuaded or paid to do things that they should not do.
      Only the unborn can be blameless and incorruptible.
      Markets are not efficient, competition is not perfect, and the parties are not incorruptible.
      A thing that is incorruptible will not decay or cannot be destroyed.
      adj showing constant and careful attention
      Someone who is assiduous works hard or does things very thoroughly.
      Mrs. Cooper was assiduous in her attendance at church.
      It was a tribute to her assiduous political work.
      I certainly wasn't an assiduous student.
      Only the most assiduous, or the most argumentative, would take the trouble to reply.
      adj not attempting to deceive or conceal, open, innocent
      If you describe someone as ingenuous, you mean that they are innocent, trusting, and honest.
      Someone who is ingenuous believes everything that people tell them, especially because they have not had much experience of life.
      I was ingenuous and young, and I thought so.
      In a cool, hospitable, ingenuous tone, she tells us about herself.
      adj at an equal distance from two places
      London is roughly equidistant from Oxford and Cambridge.
      All points on a circle are equidistant from the centre.
      Canonically, a circle is the set of points equidistant from a given point (the center of the circle).
      In the copper crystal the spheres are packed closely together in such a fashion that each atom has twelve equidistant neighbors.
      I live roughly equidistant to most of the best breweries in San Diego, let me know if you're headed to town.
      adj gloomy
      Cheerless places or weather are dull and depressing.
      It was a bare, cheerless apartment.
      It was a cold and cheerless winter afternoon.
      The day was grey and cheerless.