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      v[T] embezzle
      If someone misappropriates money which does not belong to them, they take it without permission and use it for their own purposes.
      Moreover, government officials may take bribes and kickbacks or even misappropriate funds to their own accounts.
      Poor accounting controls provide the opportunity for someone to misappropriate cash receipts without the risk of detection.
      The employer believed that the claimant was attempting to misappropriate its property, and discharged the claimant.
      The treasurer was accused of misappropriating $3m to pay off gambling debts.
      n[C]  the smallest grammatical unit in a language
      In linguistics, a morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language. In other words, it is the smallest meaningful unit of a language.
      The field of study dedicated to morphemes is called morphology.
      A morpheme is not identical to a word, and the principal difference between the two is that a morpheme may or may not stand alone, whereas a word, by definition, is freestanding.
      When it stands by itself, it is considered a root because it has a meaning of its own (e.g. the morpheme cat) and when it depends on another morpheme to express an idea, it is an affix because it has a grammatical function (e.g. the –s in cats to specify that it is plural).
      Every word comprises one or more morphemes.
      The more combinations a morpheme is found in, the more productive it is said to be.
      'Worker' contains two morphemes - 'work' and '-er'.
      n[U] the practice of marrying within a specific ethnic group, class, or social group
      Endogamy is the practice of marrying within a specific ethnic group, class, or social group, rejecting others on such a basis as being unsuitable for marriage or for other close personal relationships.
      Endogamy is common in many cultures and ethnic groups.
      Several ethnic religious groups are traditionally more endogamous, although sometimes with the added dimension of requiring marital religious conversion.
      This permits an exogamous marriage, as the convert, by accepting the partner's religion, becomes accepted within the endogamous rules.
      Certain groups, such as Orthodox Jews, have practised endogamy as an inherent part of their religious beliefs and traditions.
      n[U] the science and study of speech sounds
      Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that comprises the study of the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.
      It is concerned with the physical properties of speech sounds or signs (phones): their physiological production, acoustic properties, auditory perception, and neurophysiological status.
      Phonology, on the other hand, is concerned with the abstract, grammatical characterization of systems of sounds or signs.
      The field of phonetics is a multilayered subject of linguistics that focuses on speech.
      In the case of oral languages there are three basic areas of study:
      Articulatory phonetics: the study of the production of speech sounds by the articulatory and vocal tract by the speaker.
      Acoustic phonetics: the study of the physical transmission of speech sounds from the speaker to the listener.
      Auditory phonetics: the study of the reception and perception of speech sounds by the listener.
      In My Fair Lady, Higgins is a professor of phonetics, who believes that it is the accent and the tone of one's voice that determines a person's prospects in society.
      adj dull and slow, inactive, sluggish
      There was a torpid sun outside.
      His torpid movements suggested years of living in a remote backwater where nothing much ever happened.
      They are diurnal but may become torpid in their burrows during the winter.
      They require frequent feeding during the day and become torpid at night.
      The ears are often curled when the bats are at rest or torpid, resembling ram's horns.
      If you have a sudden loss of cabin pressure at 20 000 feet, passengers will become torpid and then lose consciousness.
      v[IT] say sth so quickly that people cannot hear you clearly or understand you properly
      also a noun
      One of the soldiers gabbled something and pointed at the front door.
      She started gabbling away at me in Spanish and I didn't understand a word.
      Just calm down, stop gabbling, and tell me what has happened.
      The gabble of voices around us seemed to go up a notch.
      v[T] contradict
      Almost nobody dares to gainsay him, even when he goes over the top.
      If there is no gainsaying something, it is true or obvious and everyone would agree with it.
      There's no gainsaying his honesty.
      Certainly there's no gainsaying the technical brilliance of his performance.
      There's no gainsaying the story here it's a juicy, freaky detective tale with a big payoff.
      n[s] the lowest and most dense layer of the atmosphere
      The troposphere is the lowest portion of Earth's atmosphere.
      The troposphere contains approximately 80% of the atmosphere's mass and 99% of its water vapor and aerosols.
      The average depth of the troposphere is approximately 17 km in the middle latitudes.
      It is deeper in the tropics, up to 20 km (12 mi), and shallower near the polar regions, approximately 7 km (4.3 mi) in winter.
      The lowest part of the troposphere, where friction with the Earth's surface influences air flow, is the planetary boundary layer.
      This layer is typically a few hundred meters to 2 km (1.2 mi) deep depending on the landform and time of day.
      The border between the troposphere and stratosphere, called the tropopause, is a temperature inversion.
      In meteorology, an inversion is a deviation from the normal change of an atmospheric property with altitude. It almost always refers to a "temperature inversion," i.e., an increase in temperature with height, or to the layer ("inversion layer") within which such an increase occurs.
      The word troposphere derives from the Greek: tropos for "change" reflecting the fact that turbulent mixing plays an important role in the troposphere's structure and behaviour.
      Most of the phenomena we associate with day-to-day weather occur in the troposphere.
      n[U] poverty
      Penury is the state of being extremely poor.
      So he leaves The Times to go and work for The Observer, turns vegan and settles down to a life of happy penury.
      Zafar died five years later in penury and exile.
      Vincent van Gogh died in penury in 1890.
      adj disobedient, rebellious
      If you say that someone is insubordinate, you mean that they do not obey someone of higher rank.
      Many teachers dislike insubordinate children.
      That sounds pretty rude and insubordinate to me.
      Mary's remark was so insubordinate, she was fired immediately.
      n[CU] exclamation or interruption
      In grammar, an interjection or exclamation may be a word used to express an emotion or sentiment on the part of the speaker (although most interjections have clear definitions).
      Filled pauses such as uh, er, um are also considered interjections.
      Interjections are often placed at the beginning of a sentence.
      An interjection is sometimes expressed as a single word or non-sentence phrase, followed by a punctuation mark.
      Interjection as a figure of speech refers to the use of one word. For example, lawyers in the United States of America traditionally say: Objection! or soldiers: Fire!.
      An interjection is something you say which interrupts someone else who is speaking.
      n[U] a willingness to allow or assist sth to happen even though you know it is wrong
      Stanford allegedly acted with the connivance of two associates, James M. Davis and Laura Pendergest-Holt.
      The deficit had grown with the connivance of the banks.
      We could not have escaped without the connivance of the guards.
      Their appalling treatment of their child could only have happened with the connivance of their neighbours.
      The crime was committed with the connivance of a police officer.
      adj having a very strong desire to have sth that sb else has
      A covetous person has a strong desire to possess something, especially something that belongs to another person.
      A covetous man is good to none but worse to himself.
      He raised his head, with a look of unrestrained greed in his covetous eyes.
      Rather contend for valor with the brave, than for wealth with the rich, or in rapaciousness with the covetous.
      He had never thought of himself as the covetous or acquisitive type, but suddenly he wanted the ship more than he had ever.
      n[U] extreme nationalism
      Jingoism is patriotism in the form of aggressive foreign policy.
      Jingoism also refers to a country's advocacy for the use of threats or actual force, as opposed to peaceful relations, in efforts to safeguard what it perceives as its national interests.
      Colloquially, jingoism refers to excessive bias in judging one's own country as superior to others—an extreme type of nationalism.
      Patriotism can turn into jingoism and intolerance very quickly.
      Compare chauvinism and jingoism.
      The chorus of a song by G. H. MacDermott (singer) and G. W. Hunt (songwriter) commonly sung in British pubs and music halls around the time of the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878) gave birth to the term. The lyrics had the chorus:
      We don't want to fight but by Jingo if we do
      We've got the ships, we've got the men, we've got the money too
      We've fought the Bear before, and while we're Britons true
      The Russians shall not have Constantinople.
      adj making you feel ready to sleep
      Hypnotic (from Greek Hypnos, sleep) or soporific drugs are a class of psychoactive drugs whose primary function is to induce sleep and to be used in the treatment of insomnia (sleeplessness), or surgical anesthesia.
      His voice had an almost soporific effect.
      To escape the soporific effects of the heat the seminarians work in subterranean libraries.
      In the Baghdad night, awakened by the rumble of car bombs and the thump-thump of attack helicopters, Peter Smallwood lies in a sandbagged trailer counting his trees. His bedtime ritual may not be as soporific as counting sheep.
      n[UC] a situation in which two or more things are not equal in amount,level etc
      There is a disproportion between my salary and my responsibilities.
      The disproportion between labor cost and product cost is staggering.
      Cephalo-pelvic disproportion exists when the capacity of the pelvis is inadequate to allow the fetus to negotiate the birth canal.
      This gender-based disproportion in injuries appears to reflect the fact that males begin with larger and denser bones.
      There are a disproportionate number of girls in the class.
      adj spoken or done without preparation, impromptu
      Nor is he an extemporaneous rhetorician; in public appearances, he rarely strays from his script.
      He has many admirable qualities, but extemporaneous exposition is not one of them.
      From this extemporaneous Facebook message you can tell Chris is a thoughtful, caring person with great expressive skills.
      Nixon carried away with it all, delivered his extemporaneous toast.
      Then the President introduced an extemporaneous paragraph into his prepared text.
      v[T] admit or declare
      An aide avowed that the President had known nothing of the deals.
      He avowed that he regretted what he had done.
      The avowed aim of this Government is to reduce taxation.
      Both countries publicly avow that they do not want the bad feelings to spiral out of control.
      adj describing metals that can be bent easily
      Ductile metals are metals such as copper and aluminum that can be pressed or pulled into different shapes.
      The steel frame was made to be very stiff and yet flexible, that is ductile so it could move in the earthquake.
      Glass would be more durable based on it being harder, brittle and higher tensile than softer, ductile plastic.
      The metal is strong and has low density; it is ductile when pure and malleable when heated.
      adj lazy or not active
      Digital comics are clearly the format of choice for the slothful.
      Creating huge regulation and adding more bureaucracy to an already slothful government will not help anyone.
      He was not slothful: he had been busy all night.
      Sometimes we all get a little slothful.
      n[C] a word that means the opposite of another word
      "Like" and "dislike" are antonyms.
      The word wet is an antonym of the word dry.
      "Old" has two possible antonyms: "young" and "new".
      Two antonyms of "light" are "dark" and "heavy".
      The verb "cleave" has definitions which are antonyms of each other: to adhere and to separate.
      The verb "sanction" also has definitions which are antonyms: to sponsor and to ban.
      v[T] orient
      "Orientate" is a British word for "orient".
      The course was orientated towards foreign students.
      Harry Potter found it difficult to orientate himself in the fog.
      It took him some time to orientate himself in Hogwarts Conservatory of Witchcraft and Wizardry.
      n[C] sb/sth that is very closely connected with a particular quality
      The name Chanel became a byword for elegance.
      The Mississippi Delta has long been a byword for hard times.
      For years Mogadishu has been a byword for war and chaos.
      Mogadishu is the capital, largest city, and main port of Somalia.
      But Burma, a byword for media censorship and repression, is starting to open up.
      adj travelling a short distance
      Short-haul flights operate from Heathrow and Gatwick.
      Due to the popularity of trains in European cities, airlines are halting or reducing short-haul service and focusing more on the longer runs.
      Germany's high - speed rail network has put paid to short - haul flights between several cities.
      If X put paid to Y, X finish or destroy Y.
      A knee injury has put paid to her chances of getting into the final.
      n[C] an area of land surrounded by a fence in which sheep are kept
      In British English, a sheep pen is also called a folding, sheepfold or sheepcote.
      Most structures today referred to as sheepfolds are ancient dry stone semicircles.
      Sheep near a dry stone sheepfold, one of the oldest types of livestock enclosures
      In a Palestinian setting the sheepfold was a courtyard or a walled enclosure in a field.
      Jesus talks about abundant life in the context of the sheepfold of which he is shepherd.
      Like the wolf, the devil always sees mankind as prey and circles the sheepfold of the faithful, that is the Church.
      n[C] a building where cows are kept
      There was also a large barn with corncribs, hayloft, tool room and an attached cowshed on the northwest end.
      The final hundred yards to the cowshed was over a hip-wide footpath.
      The Battle of the Cowshed has been said to represent the allied invasion of Soviet Russia in 1918,[53] and the defeat of the White Russians in the Russian Civil War.
      Animal Farm is an allegorical and dystopian novella by George Orwell, first published in England on 17 August 1945.