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      n[C] a building where pigs are kept ¶ very dirty or messy place
      A pigpen is literally a pen that holds pigs, also known as a sty.
      A sty or pigsty is a small-scale outdoor enclosure for raising domestic pigs. It is sometimes referred to as a hog pen, hog parlor, pigpen, pig parlor, or pig-cote.
      The next morning I woke up and it was just at the edge of a pigpen, there was a pig snuffing over me.
      He told the tenants the property was a' pigpen' and demanded they clean in and do the repairs.
      "Pig-Pen" is a character in the comic strip Peanuts by Charles M. Schulz. He is a young boy who is, except on very rare occasions, very dirty.
      adj worrying too much about small unimportant details
      One of the things I'm really persnickety about with my children is them looking after their teeth.
      The bankers, persnickety folks that they were, required that buyers demonstrate sufficient income to qualify for a mortgage.
      At dinner parties, he demands persnickety vegetarian meals and then refuses to eat them.
      If you're not that persnickety, you can skip that step.
      adj not having changed your attitude or belief
      He says the Pakistani military's determination to defeat the Taliban is unshaken.
      Men may die, but the fabric of our free institutions remains unshaken.
      Few people have any longer an unshaken confidence in this paradigm, even those who most stridently assert it.
      Mona remains unshaken by Ross's living together with Rachel.
      n[U] the outer part of the earth
      A lithosphere (Ancient Greek: λίθος [lithos] for "rocky", and σφαῖρα [sphaira] for "sphere") is the rigid, outermost shell of a rocky planet, and can be identified on the basis of its mechanical properties.
      On Earth, it comprises the crust and the portion of the upper mantle that behaves elastically on time scales of thousands of years or greater.
      The outermost shell of a rocky planet, the crust, is defined on the basis of its chemistry and mineralogy.
      Compare lithosphere, neolithic, and paleolithic.
      n[C] pigpen
      His bedroom is a pigsty, as usual.
      There was a peaty sort of smell and the smell of some rubbish and also a pigsty smell, all mixed together.
      I have been to Pune, Chennai and Hyderabad. Cities are like pigsties.
      Other projects include the building of greenhouses in order to grow vegetables in the off-season, medical clinics in remote villages, and yak loan projects for nomadic people who have lost their herds through snow disasters. Some villages have been able to build pigsties and new latrines.
      In Malaysia, a virus called Nipah spilled over from fruit bats in 1998. Its route into humans was indirect but efficient: The bats fed in fruit trees overshadowing factory-scale pigsties; the bat droppings carried virus, which infected many pigs; the virus replicated abundantly in the pigs, and from them infected piggery workers and employees at abattoirs.
      adj covered with a veil
      A veiled threat, warning, attack, reference etc is expressed so that its exact meaning is hidden or unclear.
      Was this then a veiled warning from the men in Khaki?
      That is nothing other than a veiled attempt at global monetary control.
      The words he has written are a thinly veiled cry for help.
      At the time, the American Civil Liberties Union and the National Organization for Women opposed a guardian for the fetus, calling such a proposed move a veiled attempt by the governor to eliminate the possibility of an abortion.
      adj sad and serious, grave ¶ dark-colored, dull and dismal
      Remembrance Day was a sombre day but never a public holiday.
      There was a sombre mood in the air, with some still clearly distressed by the tragedy which claimed so many lives.
      Even after the barbecue started it remained sombre and quiet, with kids and wives and not enough food.
      "We got to get back to school," he said in a sombre and unconvinced voice.
      I was struck by the sombre atmosphere.
      v[I] decay
      If a dead animal or plant putrefies, it decays and smells very bad.
      Bacteria in putrefying meat and fish can cause toxic food poisoning.
      The ground is concealed by a mass of slowly putrefying vegetable matter.
      These bad bacteria putrefy undigested food, releasing volatile fatty acids and gasses which lead to bloating and often foul smelling gas after meals.
      Compare petrify and putrefy.
      n[C] the entire world, the universe ¶ a system reflecting on a large scale one of its component systems or parts
      Every star system or grouping of stars has a central sun, around which all the suns in that system revolve. This is the macrocosm. The microcosm is the atom, which has a center around which the electrons move.
      Microcosm, macrocosm, there are worlds within worlds.
      The police department represents a microcosm to the macrocosm of state corruption.
      The macrocosm and the microcosm are connected. Every little butterfly here fluttering its wings has an impact on the clouds.
      n[C] an animal or plant that is a mixture of breeds and is therefore a new variety
      also a verb
      A crossbreed or crossbred usually refers to an organism with purebred parents of two different breeds, varieties, or populations.
      Crossbreeding, sometimes called "designer crossbreeding", refers to the process of breeding such an organism, often with the intention to create offspring that share the traits of both parent lineages, or producing an organism with hybrid vigor.
      While crossbreeding is used to maintain health and viability of organisms, irresponsible crossbreeding can also produce organisms of inferior quality or dilute a purebred gene pool to the point of extinction of a given breed of organism.
      The term is also used at times to refer to a domestic animal of unknown ancestry where the breed status of only one parent or grandparent is known, though the term "mixed breed" is technically more accurate.
      In animal breeding, crossbreed describes crosses within a single species, while hybrid refers to crosses between different species.
      In plant breeding terminology, the term crossbreed is uncommon.
      A Labradoodle is a crossbreed between a poodle and a retriever.
      adj lacking of order or organization in a system
      In thermodynamics, entropy (usual symbol S) is a measure of the number of specific ways in which a thermodynamic system may be arranged, commonly understood as a measure of disorder.
      The thermodynamic free energy is the amount of work that a thermodynamic system can perform.
      A thermodynamic free entropy is an entropic thermodynamic potential analogous to the free energy.
      In physics, an entropic force acting in a system is a phenomenological force resulting from the entire system's statistical tendency to increase its entropy, rather than from a particular underlying microscopic force.
      Although the concept of entropy was originally a thermodynamic construct, it has been adapted in other fields of study, including information theory, psychodynamics, thermoeconomics/ecological economics, and evolution.
      For instance, an entropic argument has been recently proposed for explaining the preference of cave spiders in choosing a suitable area for laying their eggs.
      In information theory, entropy is the average amount of information contained in each message received.
      In quantum mechanics, information theory, and Fourier analysis, the entropic uncertainty or Hirschman uncertainty is defined as the sum of the temporal and spectral Shannon entropies.
      An entropic explosion is an explosion in which the reactants undergo a large change in volume without releasing a large amount of heat.
      n[C] the office, rank, or jurisdiction of a pastor
      A pastor is usually an ordained leader of a Christian congregation.
      During his short 3 year pastorate a hall was added to the church.
      Mr. Keyworth's pastorate of 7 years saw a resurgence of new interest, which continued into the ministry of his successor, Rev. John Teed, who served from 1990 to 1995, until his retirement.
      In 1702, when he was 27 years old, he was called to a pastorate in London.
      Rejecting offers for academic positions, King decided while completing his Ph.D. requirements to return to the South and accepted the pastorate of Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama.
      n[U] the process of speeding up a chemical reaction with a catalyst
      Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalyst.
      The detailed mechanics of catalysis is complex.
      A two-stage catalysis is a notoriously complex process.
      The production of most industrially important chemicals involves catalysis.
      For more information on the efficiency of enzymatic catalysis, see the article on Enzymes.
      adj very generous
      She was awed by the munificent beauty of the gift.
      The munificent gifts of Miss Burdett Coutts in connection with the " Colonial Bishoprics Fund, " were such as to make possible the establishment of the see at a much earlier date than would otherwise have been practicable.
      What's wrong with Mexico that, with all its beauty, munificent natural wealth, excellent climate and an industrious people makes them want to leave?
      A former student has donated a munificent sum of money to the university.
      The munificent salary on offer at the court and the prospect of working entirely with a large, well-funded contingent of professional musicians may have prompted the move. The family moved into an apartment just five minutes' walk from the ducal palace.
      n[C] a very slow oscillation
      In astronomy, libration is a perceived oscillating motion of orbiting bodies relative to each other, notably including the motion of the Moon relative to Earth, or of Trojan asteroids relative to planets.
      Lunar libration is distinct from the slight changes in the Moon's visual size as seen from Earth.
      Although this appearance can also be described as an oscillating motion, libration is caused by actual changes in the physical distance of the moon, because of its elliptical orbit around Earth.
      There are three types of lunar libration:
      Libration in longitude results from the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit around Earth; the Moon's rotation sometimes leads and sometimes lags its orbital position.
      Libration in latitude results from a slight inclination between the Moon's axis of rotation and the normal to the plane of its orbit around Earth.
      Diurnal libration is a small daily oscillation due to the Earth's rotation, which carries an observer first to one side and then to the other side of the straight line joining Earth's and the Moon's centers.
      n[U] the equilibrium mechanics of stationary bodies
      Statics is the branch of mechanics that is concerned with the analysis of loads (force and torque, or "moment") on physical systems in static equilibrium, that is, in a state where the relative positions of subsystems do not vary over time, or where components and structures are at a constant velocity.
      When in static equilibrium, the system is either at rest, or its center of mass moves at constant velocity.
      By Newton's first law, this situation implies that the net force and net torque (also known as moment of force) on every part of the system is zero.
      The static equilibrium of a particle is an important concept in statics.
      Statics is used in the analysis of structures, for instance in architectural and structural engineering.
      Hydrostatics, also known as fluid statics, is the study of fluids at rest (i.e. in static equilibrium).
      v[IT] dissemble
      When people dissimulate, they hide their true feelings, intentions, or nature.
      Most people conceal a good deal of what they feel; Edith did not dissimulate.
      The skittish Diana could not dissimulate her exasperation with married life; but neither could the duteous Charles.
      If your mirror is somewhat ordinary, you can dissimulate its frame under a pleated frill, which you can fasten on with small tacks.
      adj not based on truth or facts
      Suspicion and jealousy,however ill-founded, can poison a marriage.
      It is important to remember that it was after this battle that the Union soldiers realized that hopes for an easy victory over the south were ill-founded.
      We had a slowdown last summer, and we all got a little jittery, but at the end of the day, that was ill-founded, and we came back to a reasonable rate of growth.
      Unless the detention turns out to have been ill-founded, it is therefore obvious that prison inmates should lose the benefit of their basic income for the duration of their imprisonment. But they can get it back as soon as they are released.
      adj determined
      He was resolved to becoming a pilot.
      I was resolved to move my blog to its own domain name.
      My husband was resolved to set out for Ireland, against which I remonstrated very earnestly.
      The King was resolved to call a Parliament in November.
      On this a council of war was called; and it was resolved to send to the several colonies (Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, etc.) for reinforcements.
      adj debatable
      Something that is disputable is not definitely true or right, and therefore is something that you can argue about.
      When we renewed our term insurance, my premium sky rocketed due to some medical issues (disputable according to my doctor).
      The Prime Minister had earlier asserted that the observations of CAG are disputable and will be challenged before the Public accounts committee.
      It is very disputable whether bombing by itself will be a decisive factor in the present war.
      She finds it highly disputable that a cyber attack would constitute " armed conflict " and concludes neither the Geneva Conventions nor the Rome Statute should ever be applied to cyber attacks.
      n[U] the scientific study of earthquakes
      Seismology (from Greek σεισμός "earthquake" and -λογία "study of") is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies.
      The field also includes studies of earthquake environmental effects, such as tsunamis as well as diverse seismic sources such as volcanic, tectonic, oceanic, atmospheric, and artificial processes (such as explosions).
      A related field that uses geology to infer information regarding past earthquakes is paleoseismology.
      A recording of earth motion as a function of time is called a seismogram.
      A seismologist is a scientist who does research in seismology.
      From 1857, Robert Mallet laid the foundation of instrumental seismology and carried out seismological experiments using explosives.
      n[U] the process or work of writing, editing, or compiling a dictionary
      Lexicography is divided into two separate but equally important groups:
      Practical lexicography is the art or craft of compiling, writing and editing dictionaries.
      Theoretical lexicography is the scholarly discipline of analyzing and describing the semantic, syntagmatic and paradigmatic relationships within the lexicon (vocabulary) of a language, developing theories of dictionary components and structures linking the data in dictionaries, the needs for information by users in specific types of situations, and how users may best access the data incorporated in printed and electronic dictionaries.
      A person devoted to lexicography is called a lexicographer.
      General lexicography focuses on the design, compilation, use and evaluation of general dictionaries, i.e. dictionaries that provide a description of the language in general use.
      Such a dictionary is usually called a general dictionary or LGP dictionary (Language for General Purpose).
      Specialized lexicography focuses on the design, compilation, use and evaluation of specialized dictionaries, i.e. dictionaries that are devoted to a (relatively restricted) set of linguistic and factual elements of one or more specialist subject fields, e.g. legal lexicography.
      adj not successful or effective
      Olson's attempt to point to uniquely Eusebian language is unavailing.
      A physician was called, but medical and surgical skill was unavailing.
      Diplomatic efforts at peace-making have so far proved unavailing.
      He died after a brave but unavailing fight against a terminal illness.
      n[U] not providing for the future, thriftless
      The loggers of Nepal, like the cattle-raisers of the Sahel, have improvident traditions.
      The population on Ballarat was far from being an unruly, reckless and improvident mob. There were about 15 000 diggers whose level of education was higher than that prevailing in the British Isles.
      The banks that were bailed out were bailed out for improvident loans to impecunious consumers now complaining of wrack and ruin.
      It's true that the improvident lending was not initiated by Fannie and Freddie: their role in this was to buy these loans and sell them on - but then the music stopped.
      adj low in spirit, depressed
      I am often unhappy, downhearted or tearful.
      Well, if so, then you're quite possibly a left-wing Canadian voter. Because feeling discouraged, depressed, dejected and downhearted is all part and parcel of being a progressive voter here in this country these days.
      Don't be too downhearted and look forward to the future.
      Do not be downhearted; I will help you.
      n[U] (plants) having many stamens ¶ custom of having more than one husband at the same time
      Polyandry is a form of polygamy whereby a woman takes two or more husbands at the same time.
      Polyandry is contrasted with polygyny, involving one male and two or more females.
      Polyandry is also distinct from group marriages that involve a plural number of participants of each gender.
      In its broadest use, polyandry refers to sexual relations with multiple males within or without marriage.
      Of the 1,231 societies listed in the 1980 Ethnographic Atlas, 186 were found to be monogamous; 453 had occasional polygyny; 588 had more frequent polygyny; and 4 had polyandry.